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the work. Our extracts and outline will convey no idea of the strong hold which the story takes on the reader, except that he is first interested for the recovery of the vagrant fair one, by her affianced, and by and by, it is the very last thing he would desire.

The character of the capricious, talented poet whose pas. sion for the disguised lady is as much a matter of fancy as of feeling, and his fury when he hears of the approaching union of Irene and Raymond are well displayed. Our space has not permitted us to enter much into the serious or descriptive portion of the narrative, but we

are not afraid of referring our readers to the original, which, excepting a few slightly irreverent expressions, and the entire absence of the religious element, is unobjectionable in language and matter.

ART. VI.- POLONIA REDUX-A STEADFAST ALLY. Lettre à l'Empereur Napoleon III, September 20th, 1854,

Paris, 1854. The author of a brochure published in France, entitled A Letter to the Emperor, Napoleon III, 20th September, 1854, expresses with good reason his surprise that, in the embarrassed state of the affairs of Europe, the sole means capable of assuring a solid peace has not been proposed, and that there has been no question, in the projects of diplomacy, of the re-establishment of Poland,* with its ancient territorial limits, and political independence. It does not admit of doubt that the re-construction of Poland lurks in the ininds of all European nations, and is, even more, their earnest, though secret hope; but the difficulties which beset the execution of such a project cause it to be set aside for a season, and reserved for a favorable opportunity. It is but natural that the spoliators who have outraged the law of nations, and who still find their account in a continuance of guilt, should be averse to mend their evil ways, or to dispossess themselves of the advantages, precarious though these are, which perseverance. in their iniquity may yield them. Europe, indifferent, in former times, to the fall of a nation which had existed for ages, its buckler for long centuries against the invasions of the barbarian, and insensible, through ignorance, of its salvation from Mogul, and Tartar, and Turk, by the strong arm of Polish chivalry, pays at this hour the penalty of its culpable apatlıy in the past towards the destinies of Poland. Henry the Pious, of the valiant race of the Piasts, falling at Liegnitz in 1241; Wladislas the Third, of the illustrious blood of the Jagellons, expiring at Warna in 1414 ; John-Albert struggling in the Bukovine in 1497; Zolkiewski dying in Moldavia in 1620; Chodkiewicz at Chocim in 1621; Czarniecki combat. ting in the Ukraine in 1664 ; John Sobieski, the saviour of. Christendom, under the walls of Vienna in 1683; how have they toiled and bled for Europe, Europe, half ignorant of, and wholly ungrateful for, their priceless services !

Subjoined is a list of the ancient possessions of Poland, containing the dates of the various dismemberments of that country in the space of five hundred and forty-eight years. A.D. 1298 Part of Pomerania, annexed to Germany. 1335 Silesia, added to the Dukedom of the Piasts. 1479 The Duchies of Novogorod and Pskow, for the benefit of Russia. 1484 The littoral territory of the Black Sea, for the aggrandizement

of Turkey. 1515 Polish Ducal-Prussia, for that of the liouse of Brandenburg. 1660 Livonia, to the profit of Sweden, and later to that of Russia. 1686 The Duchies of Smolensk, Tschernigow, and Kiow, annexed to

Russia. 1770 The Starostie of Spiz (Zips), annexed to Austria. 1772 Dismemberments by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. 1793 Do. do. Russia, and Prussia. 1795 Do. do. Russia, Austria, and Prussia. 1807 Do. do. Russia, Prussia, and Saxony. 1809 Do. do. Russia and Saxony. 1815 Russia, Prussia, and Austria. 1846 The Republic of Cracow, for the benefit of Austria.

And, at this day, the territory of the ancient Polish Republic invaded by Russia contains 19,000,000 of inhabitants, the portion seized by Prussia 6,000,000, and by Austria 5,000,000, giving a total of 30,000,000 of men, whose patriotic spirit has never ceased aspiring to an independent national existence.

Yet the memory of these soldiers of the cross and of civili. zation yields in nothing to that of the Cid, of Charles Martel, of Ferdinand, or of Isabella. The perils of the 19th century are the punishment of the indifference of the 19th. Poland is gone; Born

. Mogul and in exchange for the old barbarians, we have the new. Where is that Polish nation, warlike and inured to fatigue, where is that sole and only nation, whose geographical position and chivalrous spirit might oppose an impassable barrier to that new form of barbarism, which the ambition of Russia now unveils to our fears?

Living nearly in the same climate as the Russians, accustomed to the same privations, a prey to the same intemperate seasons, (ever oscillating between rigorous cold and humidity) the Poles are specially fitted to combat their neighbours, the Russians, whom they cannot but hate with something more than hatred, on account of the repeated invasions of their country, followed by so long a period of oppression. Zealous Catholics, for centuries, the Poles have seen their religion trampled under foot by their schismatic oppressors, their church establishment abolished, their pastors and their most respectable citizens exiled to Siberia, their laws abrogated, their liberties ravished from them, their native language, whose written

literature dates from the 12th century, banned and forbidden. It has been only by ranging the numerical strength of three empires against one, that the Russians have succeeded, by force of intrigues and secret machinations, in .destroying the barrier which separates them from Europe, in the hope of speedily retaking from Austria and Prussia, in right of the specious title of King of Poland, assumed at the congress of Vienna in 1915, such portions of the unhappy country as had been allotted to those powers. On the other hand, certainly it will not be by augmenting the power of Austria at the expence of Poland, nor in aggrandizing that German superfoetation, Prussia, nor by the aid of Germany, undermined as it is by Russian influence, that a barrier can be established against the Muscovite empire. That barrier, which Austria and Prussia, themselves the first menaced with danger, have been so unpardonably short-sighted as to destroy, for the sole benefit of Russia, ought to be compact, complete in itself, and thus capable of resisting the colossus of the North, and Poland alone can furnish the materials for its construction. An independent existence of thirteen centuries, a cultivated language in actual usage, and distinct from that of Russia, a distinct religion too, which unites Poland by the sympathies of faith to western Europe, and an oppression before its time unheard of for iniquity, separate her far even from her mortal and eternal enemies. If there were no living Poland to demand its freedom, it would be necessary to invent one.

But we must not cherish the expectation of seeing Poland rise spontaneously to a man. Betrayed by his neighbours, always abandoned by Europe, can we suppose that the Pole, the Joseph of nations, sold by his bretliren, would have the folly to sacrifice what little respite from misery may be accorded him, his blood, his life, his children, his honour, and all this only to pay the penalty, in the deserts of Siberia, of his chivalrous devotion to the cause of humanity? No, Poland, abandoned so often by England and France, at first under George the Third, Louis the lifteenth, and Louis the Sixteenth, and after by the French Republic, which counted Polish legions in its ranks; betrayed by the fortunes of Napoleon the l'irst, forsaken by the Restoration, sacrificed by Louis Philippe, who stirred up the Poles to revolt, in order to secure for himself the throne of France, and arrest by a seasonable diversion the shock of Prussia, then on the point of attacking France, instigated, misunderstood, and abandoned by the soi-disant

Republican government of 1848–Poland will rest indifferent to the actual struggle, instructed by the past, and wishing to be spared, in the moment of defeat, a second infliction of the too-celebrated declaration of a Minister of Louis Philippe, “L'Ordre règne à Warsovie!"

Besides, even if she wished it, she is not in a position to make an effectual struggle : upon the slightest manifestation of agitation in Europe, all arms, even those used merely for field sports. are taken from the Poles, with the penalty of death attached to their possession. And at this moment, is it not absolutely forbidden, under pain of three years imprisonment in a state fortress, to enrol in the duchy of Posen for the service of England the Poles, ever ready to rush to arins in the sacred cause of liberty ? The consciousness of the injustice of their domination in Poland causes the spoliators of that country to take every possible measure of precaution to bind in irons and destroy an energetic nationality.

They commenced from the moment of their first usurpation, to abolish the churches and the Catholic religion, replacing the latter by their own, whose tenets may be summed up in adoration of the Czar. Again, the national laws, liberties, and privileges, the education of youth, and the Polish language, have experienced their persecuting hatred, despite of the solemn promise made by Catherine the Second, in her own name, and in that of her successors, to respect and protect them, a promise inscribed in the treaties of the period, and renewed by oath at the commencement of every succeeding reign. Behold how Russia, so captiously punctilious in the interpretation of the duties of others, fulfils her own obligations. She depopulates a country. She commenced by transporting to the Caucasus thousands of families of that class known in England as “small gentry,” permitting the liberty of remaining beside their hearthis only to such as consented to abandon the catholic religion for the schism of the Czar. Of ten levies of troops inade in the empire, six or eight fall upon the Polish provinces. The rate of enlistment is, in Russia five, in Poland, ten in every thousand. They send these men for the greater part to Finland, to the Ourals, or to the Caucasus, where they serve during a period of twenty-four years, remote from their country, without religious succour, commanded to follow the religion of the popes (chaplains) of the Russian regiments, and forbidden to speak their native language. These men

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