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CONTENTS

CRITTENDEN

On the Crittenden Compromise.............. --------------------------------...---- ?

BUCHANAN

Inaugural Address............................ ----------------------------------------- 15

STEVENS

Against Webster and Northern Compromisers.................................. 26

The Issue against Andrew Johnson --- 36

EVERETT

History of Liberty.............................................--...................... 39

CHOATE

Books and Civilization in America.......................... ----------------------- 67

Necessity of Compromises in American Politics...... ----------------- --------- 77

WADE

On Secession................................ ---------------------- ----------------------- 89

DAVIS

Withdrawal from the Union..... .......------------.... ......... 108

Inaugural Address.........................----........---------...--........... 115

LINCOLN -

On his Nomination to the United States Senate............ ...........--------. 121

First Inaugural Address.. -------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 131

At Gettysburg................. .... 142

Second Inaugural Address.... .... 143

TOOMBS

On Secession........................................... ----------------------------.... 146

PHILLIPS

John Brown and the Spirit of Fifty-nine......................................... 159

SUMNER

On the Crime against Kansas....................--................................... 177

BENJAMIN

Right of Property in Slaves................................... -------------- ......... 200

DOUGLAS

On the Kansas-Nebraska Bill........................................................ 218
BEECHER

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AMERICAN ORATORS

C R ITT END EN

OHN JORDON CRITTENDEN was born in Woodford County, Kentucky, in 1787. Afer graduating at William and Mary College he served in the War of 1812. In 1816 he became a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, and in the following year, having just attained the requisite age, he was sent to the United States Senate, and remained a member of that body until March, 1819. During the next sixteen years he practiced law in his native State, but again represented Kentucky in the United States Senate from 1835 to 1841. He was Attorney-General of the United States under President William Henry Harrison, but, resigning upon Tyler’s accession to the Presidency, he re-entered the Senate, and kept a seat there from 1842 until 1848. He was Governor of Kentucky in the years 1848–50; Attorney-General of the United States under President Fillmore from 1850 to 1853; was once more United States Senator from 1855 to 1861, after which he was sent from Kentucky to the Federal House of Representatives. He died in July, 1863. The following speech was delivered by him in advocacy of the compromise by which he hoped to avert Secession.

ON THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE

UNited States SENATE, DECEMBER 18, 1860

AM gratified, Mr. President, to see in the various propositions which have been made, such a universal anxiety to save the country from the dangerous dissensions which now prevail; and I have, under a very serious view and without the least ambitious feeling whatever connected with it, prepared a series of constitutional amendments, which I desire to offer to the Senate, hoping that they may form, in part at least, some basis for measures that may settle the controverted questions which now so much agitate our country. Certainly, sir, I do not propose now any elaborate discussion of the subject. Before presenting these resolutions, however, to the Senate, I desire to make a few remarks explanatory of them, that the Senate may understand their general scope. The questions of an alarming character are those which have grown out of the controversy between the northern and southern sections of our country in relation to the rights of the slave-holding States in the Territories of the United States, and in relation to the rights of the citizens of the latter in their slaves. I have endeavored by these resolutions to meet all these questions and causes of discontent, and by amendments to the Constitution of the United States, so that the settlement, if we happily agree on any, may be permanent, and leave no cause for future controversy. These resolutions propose, then, in the first place, in substance, the restoration of the Missouri Compromise, extending the line throughout the Territories of the United States to the eastern border of California, recognizing slavery in all the territory south of that line, and prohibiting slavery in all the territory north of it; with a provision, however, that when any of those Territories, north or south, are formed into States, they shall then be at liberty to exclude or admit slavery as they please; and that, in the one case or the other, it shall be no objection to their admission into the Union. In this way, sir, I propose to settle the question, both as to territory and slavery, so far as it regards the Territories of the United States. I propose, sir, also, that the Constitution be so amended as to declare that Congress shall have lio power to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia so long as slavery exists in the States of Maryland and Wirginia; and that they shall

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