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No. 1. Vol. V.)

LONDON, FRIDAY, Jan. 4, 1822.

[PRICE 6d.

TO THE REPUBLICANS OF THE ISLAND OF

GREAT BRITAIN.

Dorchester (aol, Jan. 1,
CITIZENS,

Year 3, of the Spanish Revolution.
Did I not know that you form a very numerous body in
this Island: did I not know that the majority of the male in-
babitants of this Island were in reality Republicans, I should
not under the present form and state of the British Govern.
ment renture to address you thus openly; but as I do know
that the majority of those who call themselves Reformers,
which are now full three-fourths of the people, are in reality
advocates for a complete Republic, and that you covstitute
the majority of the whole people, I shall in future drop the
word Reformer, which admits such a variety of construc-
tions under the words moderate, thorough, aud radical, and
address you under the noble epithet of Republicans. The
word Reformer has long been too vague a word to satisfy
me, and as soon as I began to interest myself in political
matters, and to weigh well the common words and epithets
in use, I could find none pleasing to my mind but that com-
prehensive and liberty-like word REPUBLICAN.

Republicanism is a word not necessarily implying any
particular form of Government, but it is a word of perfect
security, and applies to no form of government but where
the interest of a whole people is considered in preference to
individual or party interest. An absolute Monarchy might
be a more Republican form of Government than the present
British Government, and if that absolute monarch was a mild
and intelligent man, and had no private or particular interest
at heart but that of the country and the whole people, that
state of society would be perfectly Republican. England
was a perfect Republic under the reign of Alfred, but bas
Dever been so since that time, neither have we any proof
that it was ever so before, and as the chance is so many to

Printed and Published by R. CARLILE, 55, Fleet Street.

one, as to getting a Republican King, it is necessary that some more regular and more certain base of Republicanism should be sought and established.

That base is the Representative System of Government, and that system must possess a pure Executive to be perfectly Republican. Look at Spain. Two years ago a complete Representative System of Government was there established, with the exception, that it retained its old corrupt Executive; the consequence of which has been, that this corrupt Executive has studiously sought to corrupt the whole Government, and now the people of Spain find themselves driven to the necessity of accomplishing another revolution, to rid themselves of this Executive Power, and to establish one in its stead that shall emanate from Representation, and whose interests shall be felt to be in unison with those of the people.

The Republicans of this Island ought to take warning from Spain, and never attempt to form or countenance a Government that shall again leave the dangerous work of revolution to be a matter of necessity. The revolutions of Governments are very serious affairs, and ought to be avoided as far as possible: to the honest, the wise, and the good, they can never be viewed as amusements, however necessary: the desperate, the dishonest, and the wicked can alone wish for a frequent recurrence of them. That there must be a revolution in this Island is visible to all and admitted by all, and it therefore becomes the duty of the patriot and philanthropist to endeavour to bring it about in that manner, which shall not, as in Spain, leave a necessity of having, in a short time, again to pass the same ordeal. When it does take place it should be effectual to all the objects necessary to be reformed, and to assist in producing those effectual measures the pages of the Republican shall be devoted.

In discontinuing the publication of “ The Republican" at the close of 1820 I expressed a hope that it would be but for a time: that hope is now accomplished, all the causes for that discontinuance are now removed, and I am again at my post with renewed vigour and determination ; 1 flatter myself that I sball be now able to make it a journal worthy of the times, and that either in this sbape or some more extended one I shall never again cease to keep up its character and title, whilst I possess the means of proceeding.

One object I have in view is to concentrate the Republicans of this Island and to make them well acquainted with each other, and that in this publication they may find the focus of their sentiments and wishes. Another object I have, is to form a phalanx around myself, such as shall be strong

enough to support me whilst I put in practice the common right of free discussion. A third object I wish for is, to gather round me some real friends who possess and can communicate to me the means of quitting my prison in November Dext. I wish to come out triumphantly, and to be raised above the necessity of making any kind of compromise wbatever, either for myself or sister, upon the score of the heavy fines resting upon us. One-half of the support I received in the year 1819 continued to me throughout the year 1822 will enable me to face my enemies with triumph and with joy. I shall consider that I have then gained a complete victory over them. I wish to give them convineing proofs of the inutility of all further persecution, such as they have practised upon me, and this the approvers of my conduct are fully competent to accomplish, if each will but exert himself for me within the next ten months.

The Public Robbers have already seized as much property of mine as ought to cover my fine in point of value, but instead of selling this property by auction, as their own laws require, they have endeavoured to destroy it by rendering it valueless as to time, and damaged as to quality. I can safely say that I am at this moment five thousand pounds the loser by having my house and shop robbed and cleared by the Government in 1819. They took near seventy thousand of my publications, of all prices from balf a guinea downwards, which they have thrown into a damp cellar, and are occasionally sending me threats that in addition to my fine I shall have half a guinea a week to pay for three years for the rent-room of this property! besides other charges for removal and care. If every atom of this property was now returned to me free of expence, I should sustain, in consequence of its removal, greater injury than if I had to pay three thousand pounds, double the amount of my fine, at the expiration of my imprisonment, without having had my house robbed. I grieve at nothing so much in this affair as at the death of that Robber Rothwell; He was the tool for the Government to work with, for I have good evidence that he received his instructions from Chief Justice Abbott, and he from Castlereagh and Sidmouth. However, I will bare requital some day and somewhere. when the Revolution takes place, for the present I must call upon my friends to strengthen me sufficiently to baffle the schemes of these Robbers in power. One manæuvre I expect they are holding my property for, and that is, to draw me into some compromise with them; for although they have all this

property of mine in their possession, I expect that they will still demand cash for the wbole amount of my fine, and seud me to bring an action against the dead Sheriff for a roobery and misapplication of the property. We shall see: all I want is to be placed beyond their reach to lengthen my imprisonment, and to be able to scorn all compromise with them. This a hundred of my friends might do in the next ten months if they will but exert themselves for me one half as much as I intend to exert myself for them; I repeat it: there are two ways of supporting me and putting me in a condition to triumph over my enemies, by giving circulation to my publications, which almost every man can assist in doing to some degree, and by subscription. A sufficient means to proceed in my present career is all I crave; and this not for myself alone but for the welfare of the buman race, and more particularly for the welfare of the inhabitants of this Island. The call I bave lately made upon my friends to enable me to counteract the measures of the prosecuting societies, has been sufficiently answered to enable me to say, that it is only necessary for me to point out what should be done to have it done. I now call upon them to proceed earnestly in pushing my publications, as this is accomplishing a double object.

I think less about subscription money, until I see what will be wanted in eight months time, I shall then speak out plainly as to what is needful to be done to enable myself and sister to meet the terms of our sentences. Mrs. Carlile has nothing but time to look at, as the law imposes no fines on married women, nor exacis personal recognizances, being supposed to possess no property.

The greater portion of the future pages of the Republican will be devoted to a warfare with theological or mytholu. gical idolatry. A very few aphorisms will give expression to every necessary political sentiment, but the mazes of theology are boundless, and more difficult of correct explanation. In all the items of Reform, this is by far the most important. The Priests of all countries, in consequence of their influence over the multitude, take a decisive part in political affairs, and give a tone to political feeling; aud whilst this renains the case, ibat nultitude will pever possess correct ideas, but ever remain in a tumultuous disposition on political patters They will feel the various robberies practised upon them without being able to detect the thief.' It is evident that all the distresses of Ireland are occasioned by the Priests, who, instead of bringing peace and good will among mel, seryo to make then little better than assassins

and brute beasts of prey. It is to the account of Priesteraft alone that the miseries of Ireland can be placed. The Priests are a set of ruffians, who are hired by despots to brutalize and enslave mankind. But they are fast losing their power, and as it recedes, the reign of humanity and social order approaches.

In advocating the cause of Republicanism it will be almost sufficient to `record its progress. Example is more powerful than precept, is a well known and correct adage, and we have now every necessary example to guide us. The whole continent of America is one vast Republic. No one despot under the name of King inhabits that world. The few colonies who bave not yet shaken off their depend. ance are preparing to do so. The British colonies will be the last to do it, but it is as certain as if it was already done, for the British Government has long been too impotent to prevent any thing of the kind. A revolt in any one of the West India Islands, or in Canada, would be certainly and speedily successful Surrounding Republics are the sure prognostic, and the best guarantee of the future independence of all the British colonies. This spirit will extend to the East Indies, and Britain will be reduced to the present, condition of Spain, without a colony at her command. The destinies of Monarchies are sealed; the People of the earth will them extinct; and I daily expect to hear that even the Janisaries of Constantinople will abolish Monarchy and declare for a Republic. The Grecians have already declared for a federative Republic; Spain is in arms for the same object, and nothing can stop the course of the Representative System of Government. Every Monarch that has wisdom, if there be sucb, wonld anticipate the change, and pronounce it himself. If he opposes it be endangers, and justly endangers, his life.

Republican Citizens.-Can it be, then, any presumption on my part to address you under such epithets, or to advocate that system of Government which the common sense of all mankind seems now to demand. I am sure you will think with me it is not a presumption, and that I am only performing a duty as one of you. · I feel, that as a disciple of Thomas Paine, I am following bis instructions, and that I have the prospect of witnessing what he anticipated, by making the inbabitants of this Island acquainted w th his political doctrines at such an important season. He struck the first blow at despotism in tbis Island, aud vow he is gone I will endeavour to wield bis club. į bave the ad.

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