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As an illusration, I will mention_the case of two girls, aged about 17 and 18. When they entered I was shocked at their appearance, for they were ragged and filthy, their Indian blood showing in its most unpleasant form, with hair uncombed, faces unwashed, and only sufficient dirty clothing to hide their nakedness. I began the usual questions in Spanish, for they spoke no English:
" Where do you live?”
“Four now; we are the oldest. There are two more little ones. Two older brothers were killed in the earthquake.”
Was the house destroyed ?” “ Yes; it was burned and all our clothes and furniture.”
With thousands of other refugees they had been sent up to Santiago and were living in a temporary shelter.
It did not need much argument to show that they were entitled to assistance, so I decided to give them $200. Then it occurred to me that they might waste the money if they had so much at once, so I gave them $100 and told them to come back in a week and I would give them some more. At the end of the week they were ushered into the office by the clerk and I did not recognize them. They were neatly dressed, each wearing a manto, with faces clean, hair combed, and a magical transformation generally. They informed me that they had secured rooms in which to live and that one of the sisters had found occupation and was to commence work the next day. I paid them an additional $100, and when the oldest one started to go she addressed me in Spanish:
“ May God bless you and when you die take you right straight to glory!
Cases of the aged and infirm, the blind, the helpless, the lame, sufferers generally, are those relieved, always confining the payment to the sufferers by the earthquake.
Considering the number of cases relieved, the proportion of frauds or persons not entitled to receive help is very small. I investigate each case and require written testimony, and only in a few instances have I found misrepresentation. Another gratifying feature is that these people do not return for more money unless I have told them to do so. I am of the opinion that the average of honesty, integrity, and truthfulness among these people, judging from my experience in the disbursement of this money, is fully as high as it is among any people in the world.
I have paid no money to rebuild houses, no money for steamship fares, and no money for any purpose except the relief of immediate suffering.
Another matter worthy of mention is that no part of the fund has been devoted to the payment of clerk hire, carriages, postage, telegrams, or expenses of any kind. All the work has been done by the legation force, and every dollar has been expended and will be expended for the relief of the earthquake sufferers, and this I understand to be the object of the donors.
It takes considerable time. Often from two to four hours a day are devoted to the “ reception ” of the applicants, and to listen to the story, examine the applicant, get duplicate receipts, and make the payment is slow and laborious. Yet I am free to confess that the pleasure of relieving real suffering and to feel the psychological wave that starts from the applicant on getting possession of a check, and to see the happiness expressed in the applicant's eyes is more than sufficient recompense for all the extra labor it involves.
And if the spontaneous expressions of thanks and invocations to the Supreme Being which escape from these poor but grateful sufferers when they get their money could be noted by the material eye, I have no doubt that a general stream would be seen mounting from this legation to the highest heaven, like smoke from a farmer's chimney on a clear, cold winter morning in Wisconsin.
Shortly before the receipt of department's last remittance by telegram, the funds had become nearly exhausted, and we had been compelled to suspend payments. The look of disappointment in the faces of the applicants when notified was so lugubrious and pathetic that I was almost tempted to continue the relief out of my own pocket.
I will say further that as the suffering from the earthquake was very light in Santiago, the payments have been made almost entirely to sufferers from Valparaiso and other towns where great damage was done. Probably 30,000 refugees came up here from Valparaiso, and it was among this class that most of this money was distributed.
The balance of the fund will be distributed in the same manner as the foregoing.
Trusting that the work as outlined will meet the approval of the department, I am, etc.,
Јону Ніско. . 59605—F R 1906
THE OPEN-DOOR POLICY IN MANCHURIA-ESTABLISHMENT OF
[For previous correspondence, see Foreign Relations, 1905, pp. 161–166.)
Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of State.
Peking, China, January 17, 1906. Sir: With reference to this legation's dispatches numbered 1609 and 1831, of May 17, 1901, and March 9, 1905, respectively, with regard to the opening of Chi-nan-fu to foreign trade, I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a note received from the foreign office under date of the 2d instant, transmitting the regulations concerning the “ Leasing of land and the building of houses at the international settlement of Chi-nan-fu” and the “ police regulations” for the same port.
The note states that the 16th day of the twelfth moon (January 10, 1906) has been decided upon as the date for the opening of the port. I have the honor, etc.
W. W. ROCKHILL.
The Prince of Ch’ing to Minister Rockhill.
PEKING, January 2, 1906. SIR: I have the honor to remind your excellency that China voluntarily opened a place outside the walls of Chi-nan-fu as a commercial port and announced that Wei-hsien and Chouts'un would be opened as branches of this port. The regulations respecting the opening of these places were sent to you by my board on March 2, 1905, as the records show.
I now have the honor to state that I have received a further communication from the superintendent of trade for the north and the governor of Shantung in the matter. They have made further proposals regarding the said commercial ports and have drawn up renting and building regulations (15 articles) and police regulations (14 articles), both of which have been read and approved by my board as experimental rules. The viceroy and governor have further reported that they have chosen the 16th day of the twelfth moon (January 10, 1906) as the date for the opening of the ports, and that, having had printed copies made of the renting and building and police regulations, they inclose several for the board.
It becomes my duty, therefore, to send this dispatch to your excellency to inform you of the date of the opening of Chi-nan-fu and the branch ports, and
b Foreign Relations, 1903, p. 161.
a Foreign Relations, 1904, p. 167.
I also inclose printed copies of the regulations for renting and building, and the police regulations, for your excellency's information. A necessary dispatch.
(Signed) PRINCE OF CH'ING.
REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE LEASING OF LAND AND THE BUILDING OF HOUSES AT
THE INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT OF CHI-NAN-FU, SHANTUNG.
1. A memorial respecting the matter having been submitted to the Throne, an imperial rescript has sanctioned the opening by China herself of a location outside the west barrier of Chinan as a port of international trade under conditions entirely different from those according to which certain ports have been opened by treaty; and within the boundaries fixed for said settlement foreign merchants of all nationalities and Chinese merchants are permitted to lease ground and reside together without distinction. The control of all affairs therein shall pertain entirely to China ; foreigners must not interfere.
2. The boundaries fixed for the said settlement outside the west barrier (Hai-kuan) of Chinan are as follows:
Beginning on the east at Shih-wang-tien and extending to Nan-ta-huai-shu on the west ; on the south bounded by the Ch'ang-ch'ing Road, and on the north by the Kiaochow-Chinan Railway, all the territory within said boundaries being set aside for the occupation of Chinese and foreigners as a port of international trade. These boundaries are all marked by stone pillars, erected for the purpose, and all merchants who are moral men and women of means may lease ground and build residences or business houses within these boundaries, provided they comply with the regulations.
3. As to the method of leasing ground, all lands within the boundaries of the international settlement must first have a fair valuation made and price fixed by the local authorities and must be purchased by them, after which such lands may be leased. This is done to prevent such evils as holding lands for a rise and the demand for extortionate prices. Any transfer of lands privately by the people will be considered null and void.
(a) All lands within the international settlement will be plotted and divided into four classes, marked on the plot with the four characters: Fu, lu, shou, shi. Lands belonging to the class marked “fu" will pay an annual rental of $36 per mou; those marked “lu an annual rental of $24 per mou; those marked “shou" an annual rental of $16, and those marked “shi” an annual rental of $10.
(b) With the exception of the lands reserved for the customs, the erection of public offices, the use of various bureaus, markets, public gardens, and other public institutions, Chinese and foreign merchants may register an application with the bureau of works for any lands within the boundaries of the international settlement, stating in their application what piece of what class they desire, and must agree to pay the rental fixed for that class of land, and as evidence of good faith must make a deposit of approximately one-tenth of the rent of the land, after which the bureau of works will measure the land leased, and the chief administrative office will notify the superintendent (Taot'ai) yamen. If a foreign merchant should desire to lease land, he ought to make application through the nearest consular officer of his nationality, who will communicate with the superintendent, and thus secure the lease.
(c) After the land shall have been measured and the lease completed, the amount of the bargain money deposited will be deducted from the rent due.
(d) Each landholder may lease at the most 10 mou and ought not to lease less than 2 mou. If a company is being established, and its business can not be carried on without a large amount of land, the circumstances must first be reported clearly to the superintendent, who will investigate and deal with the matter.
(e) In measuring land the official kung (equals 25 Chinese square feet) shall be used, 240 kung being the equivalent of 1 mou-that is, in the foot of the board of works, 6,000 square feet.
(4) The amount of the annual land rent, reckoned at so much per mou, and the amount of the annual land tax, at $2 per mou, will be collected from
the renter at the due date by the bureau of works and be forwarded by it to the superintendent, who will issue stamped receipts. When the lease of a piece of ground has been agreed to, the land rent for the remainder of the year, reckoning from the date of the lease, and one year's land tax shall be paid in full, and thereafter the annual rental and the annual land tax shall both be paid uniformly in full in the first moon of the Chinese calendar. If the land rent and the land tax shall remain unpaid in full for more than a year, the deed of lease for the said piece of ground shall be canceled, and, if no building shall have been erected upon it, it shall become public property. If buildings shall have been erected thereon, they shall be sold at auction, and after deducting from the price received the amount of the rent and taxes due, the balance shall be paid to the original leaseholder. If the leaseholder be a foreigner, action in the matter shall be taken in conjunction with the consular authorities of his nationality.
5. When land has been leased the superintendent shall seal and issue a deed of lea se, which shall be forwarded through the bureau of works to the lea seholder. If he be a foreigner, the superintendent may also give notice through a dispatch to the nearest consular officer of his nationality, that a record of the same may be made.
(a) If a deed of lease be injured or lost, it will be necessary to make a clear report of the circumstances, and obtain reliable security, as well as to publish a notice in the press, and only after a la pse of three months may the deed be replaced.
(b) If a leaseholder should desire to transfer his lease, he will be permitted to transfer only the whole plot; the deed can not be divided.
(c) If the receiver of a transferred lease be a foreigner the only proper method of procedure will be for his cousul to send notice.
(d) If the transferee be a Chinese, the original leaseholder must accompany him to the board of works, where both shall sign a petition (for transfer) and give up the old deed of lease for a new one.
(e) The period for which a transferred lease shall be written shall be reckoned from the date of transfer and terminate in accordance with the provisions of article 6.
(f) If a leaseholder, being a foreigner, shall return to his own country, or if any other unforeseen circumstances should arise, it will be necessary for his heirs or his agent to give notice thereof, and also to have a record of the sa me made at the consulate.
(g) If a leaseholder shall mortgage his leasehold and the property erected thereon, no matter whether to a Chinese or foreigner, he must report the same to the bureau of works for registry. If he be a foreigner, action must be taken in conjunction with his consul, who shall witness (the mortgage) by his signature.
(h) Within three years after the granting of a lease for a piece of ground, buildings must be erected thereon. If within the time specified no buildings shall have been erected and the lea seholder be a person of no property, his deed of lease may be canceled and the land become public property, and the land rent and taxes already paid shall not be refunded. If buildings are being erected and have not been completed, an extension of time may be granted after consideration of the case, and the leaseholder shall be required to complete the buildings within the additional time allowed.
6. The deed of lease shall be given for a period of thirty years, at the expiration of which time the lease may be renewed for not more than thirty years additional. But at the time of renewal, if trade shall be in a prosperous condition, it will be allowable to investigate the circumstances and increase the rental. If the lease be not renewed at the expiration of the period mentioned, the deed of lease for the said property shall be canceled, and the property become public.
If at the expiration of sixty years the Imperial Government should desire to purchase back the property within the boundaries of the international settlement, it may request arbitrators to fix a fair valuation for the whole, at which price it may be bought back, and no person of whatever nationality may make objection thereto. If the Government should not desire to repurchase, arrangements may be made for continuing the lease.
7. It will not be permitted within the boundaries of the international settlement to build any thatched houses or any cheap frame houses, lest fires should break out and injure other buildings. Anyone desiring to build must first present a petition to that effect to the bureau of works and notify the police