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Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of Stato.
PEKING, April 23, 1906. (Reports that an edict provides for the removal of the governor of Kiangsi from office and the punishment of the provincial judge and treasurer on account of the riot at Nan-ch'ang.)
Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of State.
Peking, April 26, 1906. Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you herewith a translation of an imperial edict removing the governor of the province of Kiang-si from office as a punishment for his having failed to take the necessary measures to prevent the riot at Nan-chang Fu of February 25 last, which ended in the killing of a number of foreign missionaries and the burning of their property by a mob.
The edict also orders punishment for the provincial judge and the provincial treasurer. I learn from other sources that the former has been transferred to another post, reduced two degrees in the official hierarchy, and excluded from further promotion; the provincial treasurer, whose rôle in the riot was an unimportant one, has, however, been transferred to another post as a punishment for his remissness.
I learn from the British and French ministers, who are settling in Peking the question of indemnification for the losses of their nationals at Nan-ch'ang Fu, that a satisfactory settlement of this matter will be promptly reached.
I confirm as follows the telegram which I sent you on this matter on the 23d instant: (Supra.) I have, etc.,
W. W. ROCKHILL.
Imperial edict-Massacre at Nan-ch'ang fu, Kiangsi-Gorernor and provincial
judge and provincial treasurer punished.
With reference to the case of the attack upon the missions at Nan-ch'ang, Kiangsi, some time ago the board of foreign affairs memorialized, requesting the appointment of the customs taot'ai at Tientsin, Liang Tun-yeni, to proceed to the place mentioned and make a thorough investigation. Yesterday we summoned the said Taot'ai to audience and inquired of him in detail regarding this case, and we find that according to his report of the case the circumstances are very different from those given in the telegrams of Hu T'ing-kan (the governor), and not only so, but the telegrams received from the governor and other officials at various times differ among themselves, and are certainly marked by shilly-shallying and attempts to deceive.
Hu T'ing-kan, the governor of Kiangsi, is hereby, first of all, removed from office. The provincial treasurer, Chou Hao, is now having his conduct investigated, as decreed by a recent imperial edict. The provincial judge, Yu Chaok'ang, has shown himself incapable of making a prompt investigation of a
serious criminal case, and, as the first step in his punishment, is referred to the board of civil office for the determination of a penalty.
The case of the massacre is still continued in the charge of the board of foreign affairs, which is directed to deal with it in a careful and satisfactory manner.
Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of State. No. 342.]
Peking, July 6, 1906. Sir: In further reference to the matter of the Nan-ch'ang riots, which I reported to you in my dispatches No. 251 of March, No. 260 of March 17, and No. 272 of April 2, I have now the honor to transmit what purports to be the text of the settlement signed on the 20th of last month by the French minister here and the foreign office, together with a translation of the proclamation issued by the governor of the province of Kiang-si in compliance with Article V of the agreement.
I think the text of the agreement as here given omits a provision of considerable importance, viz, that the people shall not erect tablets or show other marks of respect or honor to the memory of the subprefect, Chiang. The agreement provides for a settlement of the questions which were in dispute in the diocese of Nan’ch’ang prior to the riots there and which were the cause of the dispute between the missionaries and the subpreject.
The terms of the proclamation clearly recognize, it seems, that the cause of the ill-feeling which culminated in the riots and murders of February 25 was the attempt of the native Christians to shield themselves behind the priests from their own officials, and the injudicious interference of the priests in native disputes and questions not affecting the free exercise of their parishioners' religion.
The British legation has settled with the Chinese Government its claims on account of the Nan ch'ang murders in consideration of a money payment of some 30,000 taels, the reward of the Chinese who protected the fleeing British missionaries, and the punishment of three men who confessed that they had murdered Mr. Kingham and his daughter. I have, etc.,
W. W. RockHILL.
Agreement in the Nan-ch'ang case. Mr. Bapst, the minister of France, and Na-(t’ung), Ch'u (Hung-chi), associate presidents, Lien-(fang), and Tong (Shao-i), vice-presidents of the Chinese board of foreign affairs, on the 29th day of the intercalary fourth moonthat is, the 20th of June, western calendar-entered into and signed an agreement in Nan-ch'ang case, which is substantially the same as that discussed with the French minister, Dubail, at Peking, but slightly altered by some additions, excisions, and changes. The important changes are three, viz:
(1) France does not desire China to punish the gentry, Li Mei and others, nor to disturb them in their official positions.
(2) It is agreed that the indemnity shall be somewhat less than that formerly demanded."
a The indemnity originally demanded was 400,000 taels,
(3) The Christian, Liu, must not suffer any further punishment. This important matter having been disposed of, it will not be necessary to refer it to the superintendent of trade for the north (the Viceroy Yuan Shih-k'ai) for further consideration. The agreement is as follows:
Investigation of the facta.
Vicomte du Halgouet, third secretary of the French legation, and Liang Tunyen, Chinese customs taot'ai of Tiensin, having made a joint inquiry into the circumstances attending the death of Chiang Shao-t'ang, the district migistrate of Nan-ch'ang Hsien, found that on the 29th of the 1st moon of the present year (February 22, 1906) the Nan-ch'ang district magistrate, Chiang Shaot'ang, went to the Roman Catholic mission to discuss an old missionary case with the French missionary, “ Wang An-chih " Lacruche, and the disagreement between them was such that the magistrate, Chiang, became exasperated and committed suicide by cutting his throat. Because the magistrate aforesaid thus committed suicide by cutting his throat false and slanderous reports against the French missionaries were put into circulation, with the result that a serious outbreak of violence oceurred on the 3d day of the 20 moon (February 25, 1906). The Chinese Government having of its own accord punished the guilty parties, the board of foreign affairs has now agreed upon the following articles with the French minister at Peking, the mutual purpose being to avoid future misunderstanding:
The five articles agreed upon. ARTICLE 1. The sum of 40,000 taels shall be paid as indemnity to the families of the five murdered missionaries, and a further sum of 10,000 taels for the passage money and other expenses of new missionaries to be brought out hereafter. These sums must be paid according to the weight and fineness of the treasury tael to the French consul-general at Shanghai, who will receipt for the
ART. II. The sum of 200,000 taels shall be paid as indemnity for the churches, schools, and orphanages destroyed in the former riots at Hsin-ch'ang and else. where and for those destroyed on the recent riot at Nan-ch'ang, as well as for the houses of the native Christians and their personal property of all kinds, which sum shall be apportioned by the mission to those who have suffered loss in the various cases mentioned in full settlement of these claims.
ART. III. The sum of 200,000 taels mentioned in Article II, treasury weight and fineness, shall be paid in ten installments, one payment of 20,000 taels being made every three months, to the French Roman Catholic bishop at Kiukiang, who shall receipt for the same.
ART. IV. All “red” deeds (i. e., deeds officially stamped and registered) for mission property which have been destroyed must be replaced by the local authorities with official certificates of ownership, and houses shall be loaned to the mission for its use in the district of Nan-ch'ang, within the city walls, to be occupied by the mission until it shall have erected its own buildings, when it shall remove thereto.
ART. V. The governor of the province of Kiangsi shall at once issue a proclamation the draft of which has been prepared by the board of foreign affairs in consultation with the French minister at Peking.
The foregoing five articles have been written in Chinese and French, four copies of each having been prepared, one to be deposited with the board of foreign affairs, one with the French legation at Peking, one at the yamen of the governor of Kiangsi, and one with the Roman Catholic mission at Kiukiang.
(Translated from the Jih Jih IIsin Wen of Tientsin, of June 23, 1906.)
(Inclosure 2-Translation.] The Nan-chiang case-Proclamation of the governor of the prorince of Kiang-si.
The Wai-wu Pu and the minister of France at Peking having each designated a delegate to make an investigation of the Van-ch'ang affair, it has been established that
On the 29th day of the 1st moon of the present year (February 22, 1906) Mr. Chiang Shao-t'ang, subprefect of Nan-ch'ang, went to the mission of the
French Catholic missionary, Mr. Lacruche, to discuss some long-standing business, and that, not being able to reach an agreement, the subprefect, Chiang, bad cut his throat in a paroxysm of rage, and that as a result of this act calumnious reports had been spread against the French missionary, culminating in the events of the 3d of the 2d moon (February 25).
To-day the two Governments, considering that it is most unfortunate that these events should have occurred, and being desirous that concord should reign forever between Christians and non-Christians, and that no more false and calumnious rumors to deceive and mislead the people should be spread against the missions, have concluded an agreement stipulating that questions, old as well as recent, should be settled and terminated, and that a proclamation should be published by the authorities of this province to correct the false reports previously put in circulation.
In compliance with the request received from the Wai-wu Pu the present proclamation is consequently published to inform the people of the whole prorince, gentry and trades people, soldiers and civilians, that each one should peacefully attend to his business, being careful not to give the least heed to false rumors or to invent them and spread them about and thus incite trouble, all being deeds which would bring those responsible for them to grief.
Bear it well in mind that the missions have as their first object to exhort people to do good, and that missionaries are well-bred and polished people; that Christians, to whatever creed they belong, are all children of China, and that they are obedient to the laws of the Empire. On all questions concerning marriage, property, money matters, quarrels, litigations, and lawsuits both parties should carry their complaints to the local magistrates, who will judge them with equity.
Christians, furthermore, should not make false charges inspired by hatred and revenge nor seek for, while disguising the truth, the missionaries to interfere, in agreement with the treaties—this to the end to insure, between Christians and non-Christians, equality of treatment, which will of itself create concord and peace.
Let everyone comply with the above without omitting anything.
Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of State.
PEKING, July 30, 1906. (Mr. Rockhill reports that the British and French Governments did not ask exemplary damages on account of Nanchang riots.)
REFORMS, GOVERNMENTAL, JUDICIAL, AND EDUCATIONAL."
(For previous correspondence see Foreign Relations, 1905, pp. 176 et seq.)
Minister Rockhill to the Secretary of State. No. 262.1
Peking, China, March 20, 1906. Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith copies of correspondence which I have had with the president and chairman of the board of trustees of Soochow University, Shanghai, in regard to the attitude of the Chinese Government toward Christian educational institutions in China, together with an extract from the Chinese Recorder and
a See also changes in the customs service, p. 230.
Missionary Journal of March, 1906, containing my letter of January 24, in reply to certain questions of the Rev. A. S. Vann, of St. John's College, Shanghai, in further reference to the same subject.
I believe that the inclosed letters will show the department the attitude taken by this legation; that it is my earnest desire to promote an understanding between the Government and missionary schools of this country, and that I am strongly in sympathy with the movement which, if successful, can not fail to improve the relations of the two peoples, and at the same time to place the missionary educational institutions on an equal footing with the new Chinese institutions of a similar character.
A committee, consisting of the Reverend Doctors Sheffield, Lowry, and Hart, has been appointed to represent the educational association, which, it is hoped, will confer directly with the board of education of the Chinese Government, and will succeed in persuading those in authority in Peking to so frame their regulations that students in Christian colleges will have the same advantages resulting from their education as those in private schools or government institutions. I have, etc.,
W. W. ROCKHILL.
D. L. Anderson to Mr. Rockhill.
Soochow, September 29, 1905. DEAR SIR: The recent edicts from the throne abolishing the old-time literary examinations furnish the occasion for this letter, and as the matter I wish to present for your consideration is, I think, one of great importance it closely concerns both the new educational system of China and also the effectiveness of our mission colleges, I trust you will pardon my troubling you with this.
The recent edicts, in which the Government declares that from henceforth candidates for literary degrees are to be selected directly from the schools, change entirely the status of all schools throughout the Empire, both government schools and mission schools, while at the same time they naturally give to graduates of the government schools superior advantages both of official standing and of government employment. These men will receive the coveted literary degrees, will be appointed to official position, and from their number will be selected those who are to be sent abroad to perfect their studies in the great universities of Europe and America.
Now, the best organized schools in China to-day—and very probably this will be true for years to come-are the mission schools; and these are chiefly American schools, such as the Peking University, Nanking University, St. John's College, Shanghai, Soochow University, and others, representing both Protestant and Catholic missions, hold an important place in the educational field of China to-day, and are really doing the larger part of the educational work. These institutions have erected large and costly buildings specially adapted to their needs; they have marked out full and thorough courses of study; they, moreover, have on the field good corps of competent professors devoted to their work. These schools are not only doing good work for China, but are, in fact, doing better work than China will be able to do for herself for some years, and which she can only hope to equal through a very large expenditure of money. These mission schools cost China nothing. They are the free gift of the better element of western lands, especially of the United States, to China's advancement and progress.
Now, if the Chinese Government will recognize the work done by these mission colleges by conferring on their graduates the same literary degrees that are granted to graduates from the government schools, also having obtained their degrees, by giving them the same opportunities of government employment or of being selected to go abroad for further study, such action will not only greatly advance the interests of these mission industries, but will also