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The Ictiny Secretary of State to the British Ambassador.

No. 496.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, August 3, 1906. EXCELLENCY: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram of the 30th ultimo, inquiring whether the Government of the United States intends to demand the extradition of Harry L. Holmes, now held at Montreal for theft, and of your note, No. 156, of the following day's date, in confirmation and explanation of the telegram.

It appears from your note that Holmes was committed at Montreal on May 21 last for extradition to the United States; that it is now believed by the Canadian authorities that a writ of habeas corpus has been taken out, and that the minister of justice has been informed that the private prosecutor does not intend to press the matter. In these circumstances the Canadian government is desirous to ascertain whether the Government of the United States still intends to demand the extradition of the prisoner.

In reply I beg to state that this department has no record of any requisition having been made upon it for any fugitive under the name of Harry L. Holmes. It would be obliged if the embassy could obtain a short statement of the proceedings that have been taken in this case. Inasmuch as this department appears not to have initiated the proceedings through its consul, it would be glad to know in what manner and by whom the proceedings were instituted. As the Canadian practice is understood by the department, any person representing the demanding government may swear out a complaint before an extradition magistrate and cause the arrest of the fugitive. In cases where an American consul takes action and makes the complaint he does so in pursuance of instructions from this department, but in other cases--as, for instance, where a police officer goes to Canada and makes such complaint-this department is often not advised of the action that has been taken.

The particular purpose of this note is to ascertain just what degree of authority an officer of the latter class must present to the Canadian authorities in order to receive recognition from them. Inquiries of this nature have recently been made of the department, and it would like to be in a position to give an authentic answer.

Another question in connection with extradition practice which sometimes confronts the department is whether it is not necessary, in all cases where the provisional arrest and detention of a fugitive upon telegraphic information is desired in Canada, to make such request through the medium of this department and the proper consular officer in Canada. Under the department's practice in cases of this kind, it has been considered necessary to instruct our consul in the premises in order to obtain action by the Canadian government. If any other procedure is lawful, the department would be glad to be advised. I have, etc.,

ROBERT Bacox.

The British Ambassador to the Acting Secretary of State. No. 170.]

BRITISH EMBASSY,

Lenox, Mass., September 7, 1906. SIR: I referred to the Governor-General of Canada the note which I had the honor to receive from Mr. Bacon under date of August 3, relating to the extradition proceedings against Harry L. Holmes, and inquiring as to certain points of procedure in extradition cases in Canada.

I now have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a letter from the department of the secretary of state of Canada to the GovernorGeneral explaining the bearing of the extradition act, and forwarding, in accordance with Mr. Bacon's request, a statement of the proceedings in the case of Harry L. Holmes. I have, etc.,

H. M. DURAND.

[Inclosure.)

The Canadian Department of State to the Governor General.

OTTAWA, August 29, 1906. SIR: With reference to a dispatch, dated the 6th instant, from His Majesty's ambassador at Washington in relation to the case of Harry L. Holmes, I have the honor to state that more than two months having elapsed from the date of the committal for extradition of the fugitive, and it appearing from Sir H. M. Durand's telegraphic dispatch of the 10th instant that the State Department of the United States has made no requisition for the fugitive's extradition, an order was made by the minister of justice for Holmes's discharge under section 15 of the extradition act.

With reference to Mr. Bacon's question as to the exact degree of authority which an officer must show to obtain recognition from the Canadian authorities, I beg leave to refer to section 6 of the extradition act, from which it appears that an extradition judge may issue his warrant for the arrest of the fugitive on an information or complaint laid before him and on such evidence or after such proceedings as would, subject to the provisions of the act, justify the issue of a warrant if the crime had been committed in Canada. It does not appear that there is any restriction as to the person making the complaint or laying the information,

I inclose, at the same time, copy of the proceedings before Mr. Choquet, extradition commissioner, and beg to request that his excellency may be humbly moved to forward the same to His Majesty's ambassador at Washington for his information. I have, etc.,

P. PELLETIER, Acting Undersecretary of State.

* Not printed.

GREECE.

GREEK IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES.

Minister Jackson to the Secretary of State.

No. 402.-Greek Series.]

AMERICAN LEGATION,

Athens, June 14, 1906. Sir: I have the honor to report that at his usual weekly reception to-day Mr. Skouses, the minister of foreign affairs, referred in general to the emigration of Greeks to the United States and to a particular instance when a considerable number (more than a hundred) had been sent back again to the ports from which they had sailed.

It seems that about two months ago quite a large number of Greeks left Megara, Thebes, and Corinth for Boston, New York, St. Louis, and other American cities. Most of these emigrants were passed satisfactorily, but a number of them notably those whose destination was St. Louis-were stopped and sent back. About a hundred of them reached Hamburg on board the steamer Patricia on May 12, and they were forced to undergo considerable hardship before their eventual repatriation.

These emigrants pretend not to know why they were sent back, while others from the same towns, whose sanitary and financial condition was no better than their own, were allowed to pass. They claim to have had no knowledge of any contract with employers at St. Louis, which may possibly have been made by some agent on their behalf.

Under the circumstances the minister has asked me to ascertain, if possible, the reason for their having been sent back, so that an appropriate warning can be issued, especially if there is any reason why the immigration of Greeks to St. Louis is considered as undesirable. I have, etc.,

John B. Jackson.

Minister Jackson to the Secretary of State.

No. 409.--Greek Series.]

AMERICAN LEGATION,

Athens, June 21, 1906. Sir: Referring to my dispatch No. 402, of the 14th instant, I have the honor to report that Mr. Skouses spoke again, at the usual reception at the ministry of foreign affairs to-day, of the emigration of Greeks to the United States and of the special case which I mentioned last week. During the interval there was an interpellation in regard to this subject in the Chamber of Deputies, and fault was found with both the Government and the Greek consul-general at New York. In reply to the remarks of the opposition, Mr. Skouses

said that he had spoken to me of the case in point and that I had written to you for information in regard to it. This information the minister would like, if possible, to have sent me by telegraph, so that he can communicate it to the chamber at once. It is expected that the chamber will adjourn early in July.

Mr. Skouses spoke of having seen notices in the newspapers in regard to the formation of associations for the purpose of diverting immigration to the Southern States, and he asked me if it were not possible for immigrants arriving in the United States to be directed to places where people are wanted, in the event of there being any reason (except of course health, ignorance, etc.) which might make it undesirable—as in a case where a contract has been made by the agent without the knowledge of the immigrant-for them to be forwarded to the destination mentioned in such through tickets as they may possess. The minister is especially anxious to know if there is any reason why Greeks should not emigrate to St. Louis. I have, etc.,

JOHN B. JACKSON.

Minister Jackson to the Secretary of State.

[Telegram- Paraphrase. ]

ATHENS, July 2, 1906. (Mr. Jackson requests a cable answer to the inquiry in his dispatch No. 402.)

Minister Jackson to the Secretary of State.

(Extracts. ]

No. 413.-Greek Series.]

AMERICAN LEGATION,

Athens, July 2, 1906. SIR: I have the honor to confirm the text of the telegram sent you in cipher this morning."

My dispatch No. 402, of the 14th ultimo, should have reached the department before this, and it will shortly be followed by my No. 409, of June 21, in which I explain why the minister wishes to obtain the desired information in regard to the emigration of Greeks to the United States at the earliest practicable date. Another company of Greeks were sent back a short time ago, and considerable excitement has been caused thereby in political circles, and threats have been made to mob the agencies through which these people were sent to America. The minister is very anxious to be able to explain why the emigrants in question were found undesirable, so that proper warnings may be issued to prevent the recurrence of similar cases.

The emigration of Greeks to the United States is more or less of recent date. The number exceeded 1,000 for the first time in 1890. Since that year the emigration has been of more importance, the increase being fairly regular. In 1903, according to recently published statistics, more than 14,000 Greeks left for the United States, while

a Supra.

in 1904 less than 10,000 are said to have gone. Last year, however, the number is given as 15,150. No especial reason seems to exist for this emigration, as it is certainly not due to lack of work, for most of the men come from the Peloponnesus, where agricultural laborers are always in demand. The Greek has always gone abroad to make money, and education is making the peasant more or less dissatisfied with his lot. It is practically impossible to ascertain how much money these men send home, but it is certain that there has been a rapid increase in the amount (which is one of the causes of the increasing expensiveness of life in Greece—my dispatch of April 19th last). The following table shows the amounts sent from the United States to Greece by postal money orders alone during the last four years:

France. 1902

66, 475 1903

267, 364 1904

701, 943 1905.

1, 734, 967 It was estimated that at least 20,000,000 francs were sent to their families in Greece by Greeks in the United States during the year 1905, in one way or another. I have, etc.,

John B. JACKSON.

The Acting Secretary of State to Minister Jackson.

| Telegram---Paraphrase.)

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, July 13, 1906. (In reply to dispatches Nos. 402 and 409, Mr. Bacon informs Mr. Jackson that the Greeks therein referred to were specifically deported under alien contract law. He adds that there is no objection to Greeks not of classes excluded by law emigrating anywhere in the United States.)

Chargé Wilson to the Secretary of State. No. 417.]

AMERICAN LEGATION,

Athens, July 15, 1906. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt yesterday of the department's telegram."

I communicated the substance of the above telegram to the minister of foreign affairs, as well as a copy of the alien contract labor law, for which he asked. Mr. Skouses said that he had talked with a number of the Greeks who had been deported, and all of them denied having made any contract before going to America. The complaints come almost entirely from Greeks who gave St. Louis as their destination, those going to other parts of the country having no difficulty. I have, etc.,

CHARLES S. WILSON.

Supra.

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