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REFERENCES TO THE CIVIL AND OTHER SYSTEMS OF FOREIGN LAW.

BY

JOHN BOUVIER.

Ignoratis terminis ignoratur et ars.-Co. LITT. 2 a.
Je sais que chaque science et chaque art a ses termes propres, inconnu au common des hommes.-FLEURY.

FIFTEENTH EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED.

VOL. I.

PHILADELPHIA:
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.

1883.

US

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Entored according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by

JOAN BOUVIER,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1843, by

JOIN BOUVIER,
in the Clerk's Omco of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Entered according to Act of Cougress, in the year 1848, by

JOHN BOUVIER,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by

ELIZA BOUVIER AND ROBERT E. PETERSON, TRUSTEES,
in the Clerk's Ofice of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by

ELIZA BOUVIER AND ROBERT E. PETERSON, TRUSTEES,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by

ROBERT E. PETERSON,
in the Omce of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

MAY 27 192

ADVERTISEMENT.

In the preparation of the present edition of the Law DICTIONARY, it has been the aim of the Editor, FRANCIS RAWLE, Esq., of the Philadelphia Bar, to vary in nothing from the general plan of JUDGE BOUVIER, and to make only such modifications and additions in his work as the changing conditions of the law seemed to require. The period since the death of the able author has been so fruitful, however, both in legislative enactments and judicial decisions, that numerous alterations and additions have been rendered necessary, so that the present thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged edition contains three times the matter of the original edition. This new matter has been supplied by upwards of one hundred gentlemen of recognized eminence at the bar or on the bench, and peculiarly well acquainted with the special topics upon which they have treated. Their names will be found in the List of Authors appended to the work, and in the Preface of the Editor of this edition. Careful attention has been given to the citation of authorities, and they have been brought down to the date of the preparation of the respective articles. Neither time, labor, nor expense has been spared to make the book accurate and complete; and the present edition of BOUVIER'S LAW DICTIONARY is submitted to the profession and to the general public, in the firm belief that it will sustain the high reputation it has achieved, and that it will be found even more valuable in the future than

it has been in the past.

PAILADELPHIA, January 1, 1883.

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