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NAL, under the head "Official Budget,” and it has always been emphasized and observed.

The gentleman speaks of the "action of the executive council in deserting No. 2 by withdraw.

its financial support." The editor of The JOURNAL desires to again call Mr. Meade's attention to the action of the executive council, as published in the March JOURNAL, and also to the editorial statement on page 264, in part as follows: "The council in this last decision, which bears the heading Further Action of the Executive Council in the Philadelphia Case, again draws attention to the fact that it has not declined to appropriate money for work in Philadelphia, and reiterates its desire to assist in organizing that city, and again announces that it is willing to make such an appropriation as in its opinion is necessary to carry on the work in question. The council does insist, however-and this has not hitherto been denied by any local union-that the council and not the local union shall from time to time determine the amount of International money necessary to be expended, and that its wishes must prevail as to the conduct of a campaign in which International funds are disbursed. Reference to the proceedings will show that the International conventions of later years have invariably stipulated that the council shall exercise such authority. The Inter national constitution and by-laws are also exceedingly plain on this point.” Ed. Journal.

the next meeting, and then the next meetingmand then-well, you all know what will happen: nothing done. The officers will have to be the leaders in keeping alive the interest, but every member will have to do his part and give encouragement to the eight-hour committee. Let every man and woman say this is for me-I must be up and doing. Bury the hammers. Attend the meetings of your union, and there say what you have to offer. Become an interested party and one of the directors, so to speak. There is no question but that all outside unions will watch with interest the outcome of our work, and the printers ought to be able to give a good account of themselves. Be a recruiting officer; fill up the gaps in the ranks. The members of the typographical unions have always been ready and willing, both morally and financially, to give aid to others, and now why not do something for ourselves? Eight-hour literature should be read and placed where it will do the most good, and there is no doubt that we will come out all right at the final accounting.

P. H. McMahon. North Adams, Mass.

THE EIGHT-HOUR MOVEMENT. In the eight-hour movement in which typographical unions are now interested and are agitating, the outcome and results will have to be accomplished largely by the members themselves. In this, as in the matter of scales and other union rules, local conditions will play an important part in the problem. By this it is meant that what would come without any difficulty in one locality could never be accomplished in another. This may be attributed to two reasons: Radical or unthinking action by the union, and the belligerent attitude of the employers. Happy to say that we have so far been free from both. Now is the time to think the question over; see that all the members are interested, and gather in all the eligible printers that can possibly be reached within our jurisdictions. The large majority in favor of the eight-hour day by the referendum should be sufficient guarantee that we are united on this and bring about an increased membership in our unions. Worrying and growling and a fear of the outcome without any thought or action beforehand, and then at the stated time for the asking for the eight-hour rush at it blindly, will never do.

We have met and decided other questions of interest to our unions, wisely and justly. Why not this one? We should go forward and not back ward, and look some distance ahead. Progressive, but not aggressive, always willing to concede to others and give them due consideration. We may have been slow in arranging and bringing about this long-desired general eight-hour day, but that -should be no bar to our success now. The time to start to strengthen your union is right now, not

BELLINGHAM, WASH. Bellingham-by-the-Sea has not been represented in the columns of THE JOURNAL for some time, and as we have a city here containing a population of some 25,000 people, the finest Italian climate in the world, and a typographical union second to none in this part of the sphere, I will endeavor to enlighten some of my brother readers of this publication on what is being done among members of Whatcom Typographical Union No. 355.

We have in our midst three daily newspapersthe Reveille (morning), Herald and American (evening)--and six job offices. Work on the news. papers has been fairly good the past several months, but a goodly supply of both operators and admen have been here to do the work. The job offices have also been doing quite well, and at present things seem to be a little on the pick-up among the various shops.

John C. Boyer, who has been conducting Ye Colonial Press, recently purchased the Holly Press and has consolidated the two shops, making one of the largest and best equipped job offices on the coast.

E, C. Coleman, our newly-elected president, was called to his home at Dubuque, Iowa, suddenly a few days ago on account of the dying condition of his sister. He is expected to return to Bellingham soon and resume his position as operator on the Reveille.

The Herald has recently installed a new Duplex press, and now that paper is doing some very fancy color printing.

The Reveille last week removed its entire plant to new quarters, and now has the finest composing and press room on Puget Sound.

There is some talk of the American commencing the publication of a Sunday morning paper. If this is done it will no doubt stimulate the printing business in Bellingham, and may be the means of compelling the other two publications to issue seven-day papers.

AL SEBRING.

TORONTO, CANADA. Great consternation and grief was felt by all classes throughout Canada when the death of Ed. ward F. Clarke was announced on the evening of March 4. More particularly will his loss be felt by the trades unionists of this country, as in Mr. Clarke's death we lose one of the warmest friends we ever had in the halls of parliament. Mr. Clarke was born in Bailieboro, county Cavan, Ireland, on April 24, 1850, and came to Toronto in 1864. He served his time as a printer in the Globe office, and in 1869 joined the typographical union, and was one of the leaders in the great strike of 1872, when the printers of Toronto secured the nine-hour day. During the progress of the strike Mr. Clarke, along with others, was arrested on

energies that an agreeable settlement was effected. Mr. Clarke was a splendid specimen of manhood, with a pleasant face and frank eyes; he was a pleasing, forceful speaker, and a generous and sympathetic friend. Mr. Clarke caught a cold while campaigning, which developed into pneumonia, and while he had partly recovered, he eventually suecumbed to heart failure. Out of respect to Mr. Clarke the union adjourned their March meeting and decided to attend the funeral in a body. A beautiful pillow was placed upon the coffin on behalf of the members. What the late Amos J. Cummings was to the American workingmen, so was the late Edward F. Clarke to their Canadian brethren.

It is never clever to try to make trades unionism look ludicrous.

Some laws make rulers, but some rulers will never make just laws.

From present conditions Toronto will have the largest convention ever held in the history of the International Typographical Union, so we will not say much, but leave it to those in attendance to say how well the Canadians can entertain.

Mr. Albert Hacker, a member of No. 91, has been appointed assistant license inspector for the city.

Never allow your politics to interfere with your trades unionism.

The label is our most convenient weapon for the betterment of our conditions.

It is with extreme regret that the writer chronicles the departure of Mr. Ernest Webb for the Home at Colorado Springs, his doctor having or dered him there for a six months' rest on account of a general breaking down of his constitution. During his entire membership in No. 91 Mr. Webb has been a zealous worker in the cause of unionism, and there are few members who have worked as faithfully on committees. Gentle in spirit and generous in action, Mr. Webb has proven himself an ideal trades unionist, and it is sincerely hoped that the day is not far distant when he will again enjoy his former good health and be one of us again.

"Are you a 'Wahneta'?” was asked the writer recently.

Do you get your information at the union meeting or on the street corner?

The question of boys and girls on the machines has been a troublesome one for the officers, but so far they have been able to have the rule strictly observed in all offices. Probably we do not give our officers as much credit and encouragement as they are entitled to—for many's the hour they spend looking after the interest of the membership that the average member never thinks of.

If the term "growing time" was not worn threadbare it could be aptly used to the present condition of No. 91. Never before in the history of the union has there been so large a surplus in the treasury, never has the membership been so large and so few in arrears, and the general conditions prevailing are of a harmonious nature, not only in the union, but also our relations with the employers—both job and newspaper. The total as sets of the union now are $4,148.45 in cash, 600

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charges of intimidation, but was soon released. From the case he aspired to the proofroom, and from there he assumed the editorship of the Orange Sentinel, eventually becoming sole proprietor of that publication. From that time Mr. Clarke made rapid progress in public life, and he won his way into the affections of all classes and had the honor of being elected four times to the mayoralty of Toronto. In 1886 he was elected a member of the provincial legislature and remained a member until 1894, when he aspired to a seat in the federal par. liament, and so well had he represented his constituency that he was returned at the head of the poll, and was successful in each succeeding elec tion. All through Mr. Clarke's public career he re. mained an active member of No. 91, always ready to give advice and counsel to its officers and members. At the time of the trackmen's strike in Canada Mr. Clarke championed their cause on the floor of parliament, and it was greatly through his

spread unrest and lack of confidence in our pres. ent administration. They should remember we are facing a crisis in our organization in the eighthour movement, and it would be well for our membership to let the capitalists wage all the warfarenot have us fight the employers and part of our membership at the same time. However, the Canadians have not been educated up to the standard of union politics such as we have them exemplified in the Western Laborer and Trades Union News.

The Labor Temple Company held its annual meeting recently, and a very creditable report was presented. James Simpson, vice-president of No. 91, was elected secretary-treasurer of the company.

A battery of Mergs, is being installed at Warwick's by the Toronto Type Foundry.

During convention time the freedom of the city will be yours-so on to Toronto! Two Stars.

shares in Labor Temple Company, and $100 worth of stock in the Toiler Publishing Company, not counting the convention fund. The wisdom of having a permanent secretary is amply justified, and even the winners" will admit that the "progressives" were right in demanding the establishment of the office of permanent secretary.

The eight-hour day will only be attained by united efforts on the part of the membership. Beware of enemies within our camp.

W. R. James has been appointed organizer for this district, having received the endorsement of No. 91 for that position. Mr. James will have the hearty co-operation of the membership in his dis trict in the discharge of his duties.

The allied printing trades council has issued a financial statement, showing a cash balance of about $200.

The Warwick-Rutter firm now occupy their new premises, the finest appointed printing establish ment in Canada.

The firm of Mihi-Bingham have secured the con. tract for printing the convention souvenir.

Labor's official organ, The Toiler, is now issued as a monthly. Its columns are now contributed to by the lance of "The Owl."

The "powers that be" are to be commended for their firm stand against the inauguration of a bonus system on machines in book and job offices.

L. A. Lewis is now foreman of the McLean Publishing Company.

The Printers' Bowling League has almost finished the season's games, with the News as probable champions, having defeated the Globe team, who were leaders in the morning newspaper section. It is hoped that the many causes of protests will be obliterated before a new series of games is commenced.

The woman's auxiliary recently conducted a successful progressive euchre party at the residence of their president, over fifty being in attendance. Success seems to be with the ladies, and well do they deserve it.

From the present outlook, standing room will be at a premium at No. gi's Good Friday entertain. ment. The members are to be commended for the enthusiastic support they are giving this affair. Arrangements have been completed whereby the regimental band of the Forty-Eighth Highlanders will appear and give the latest musical success, “The Battle of Waterloo."

Convention arrangements are progressing very favorably, and Secretary-Treasurer Bramwood is expected to visit Toronto during the early part of May, after which more definite particulars will be given out.

A second term for the present officers seems to be the prevailing opinion of the membership. Hav. ing received the confidence of the members for two years, the recording secretary announces his retirement.

The executive council is to be commended for its attitude in the Philadelphia affair. If No. 2 is entitled to $200 a week, there is a constitutional method of obtaining it, and that is by appearing on the floor of a convention and receiving the endorsement of that body-not by endeavoring to

OMAHA, NEB. To J. J. Dirks: “It was a long time ago, I remember it well," but will reply soon,

The list of candidates for office is so changeable that it is impossible to give anywhere near a correct line-up.

John Bonner said: "You can announce my candidacy as delegate to the Toronto convention. I will be in the race to the finish, and am sure of at least one vote."

It would do no harm if an attempt were made to organize some of the smaller towns about Omaha. The attempt might not be successful, but it is believed that it can be done.

The report from the committee having in charge the recent minstrel show for the benefit of the Cummings memorial fund leads one to believe that the sum to be turned into the fund will approximate $150.

The local central labor union and the ministers' organization have arranged for the exchange of fraternal delegates. The experiment will be watched with interest by laboring men in general and union men in particular.

A story was circulated in Omaha that Lincoln (Neb.) Union had signed a four-year contract, leaving the number of hours at nine for job printers. This caused quite a rise in temperature in this city for a time. I understand the report was erroneous.

In speaking of the eight-hour proposition a man who necessarily stands close to the "front office," because of the position he holds, said: “I am sure our place will grant the eight-hour day to its printers on demand. While we are not considered as one of the largest job offices in Omaha, still we do more work in proportion than the big offices. We can afford to give our printers the eight-hour day, and we can see nothing to prevent us froin doing so. Our class of work is such that we have no fear of a successful boycott by the typothetæ, even if the latter should decide on such a course. Still, the other offices are likely to cause trouble, and it will be well for the printers to raise as much money as possible.” I. J. COPENHARVE.

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. With a membership of about 450, Minneapolis Typographical Union No. 42 has gone on record, and that in an emphatic manner, that while there has been much "doing" in the past, it will be but a marker of that in the future. The occasion of all this is nothing more or less than placing its financial secretary on a salary basis, making him business agent of the organization and general rounder-up of any unbranded mavericks, unruly boss drivers and unscrupulous label infringers. That Mr. O'Connor is the right man for the position, none will gainsay, and with the union commanding his entire time during business hours, it is a safe proposition to state that there will be something doing all the time.

The Stick seems to have found a warm place in the hearts of some of its recipients in this locality. One of its most ardent admirers remarked that if its publisher would submit samples of work whereby the union label was placed in an artistic manner, many job printers would thank him.

Brother Dirks, kindly take notice that Mr. Wari. law, Atlanta, seems to have been overlooked in be. ing allowed to finance the correspondents' society. We would respectfully suggest that the secretary issue a few shares to the scribe from that place.

It seems that it was up to the woman's auxiliary of Minneapolis to awaken the lethargic, comatose, hibernating and Rip Van Winkle condition of old St. Paul. And they appear to have done their work well, judging from what “Pope" had to say in the last JOURNAL.

Andy Carlson, of the pressmen's union, gives it out cold, that if the various candidates for the del. egateship keep their weather eye open, he will show them how to make the Toronto trip without walking. Andy is playing for San Francisco, and the pace promises to be a hot one.

Again the time has come when the very air which one breathes-between expectorating great gobs of flying real estate--the great and glorious time when ye printerman girds his loins and shics his castor into the political arena. By using the word castor, it is not intended to imply that it is used in the past tense, but that the exigencies of the case warrant that the fellow who does get in the game will be compelled to "go some," and then a few. For president, the names of three have come to our notice: William Ronold, of the Journal; F. N. Gould, of the Daily News, and Will J. Rohr. For delegates to Toronto, many

many have been mentioned, but the ones who receive most frequent mention are President Kennedy, S. A. Thomas, “Gene" Hyland, G. T. Winberg and Harry Holcomb. l'p to the present time there seems to be no opposition to Secretary O'Connor, and the chances are very much in favor of his reelection without opposition.

The woman's auxiliary will give a "hard-time" ball on March 29, which event promises to bring out the natives. One of the concessions offered to those who attend is "that no glad rags go.” Such being the case, our present wardrobe will be ample. Last year the auxiliary neglected to send a delegate to St. Louis, or overlooked sending the

per capita until too late to allow a delegate to attend. This year, with ample funds, and the benefit of the past, the ladies are making aprons, holding card parties, luncheons and dances, and are making a strenuous effort to fatten their bank account. Mrs. Olsen was elected last year, and the chances are that she will be elected this year, with the per capita paid and also her expenses.

It has been said that a rolling stone gathers no moss, and this no doubt was true at the time of its origin. On the other hand it has been con. ceded that in a great many instances the versatility of a man is judged from his past experience or travels. Some men can wander this country o'er and o'er and never take unto themselves any of the conditions under which work is done or the method used. In this connection it may be stated that if there ever was a printer who used both eyes, and then his ears, in accumulating a fund of wis. dom and know-how, it is none other than George Thayer, now president of the Carnival Poster Company, of this city. Mr. Thayer is undoubtedly one of the best known printers who traveled the east, south, west, and at length came north to put what he had learned into practical use. The outcome has been the above company. It is the most complete establishment north of Milwaukee, capable of turning out work from an envelope corner card to a thirty-six-sheet stand; having linotypes, twocolor Huber presses, a dozen engravers, artists, designers, printers, pressmen--in fact, everything that goes to make up the most complete plant has been gathered together by Mr. Thayer in little more than one year. His is the only large office in the city that goes the union one better on its job scale, which calls for nine hours, and $18 per week. Practically all of Mr. Thayer's employes, printers included, receive over the scale and work one-half hour per day less than in other shops. It is needless to state that the printers have a very warm place in their heart for Mr. Thayer, and when the time comes for an eight-hour day, the Carnival Poster Company, with George Thayer as president, will have a working contract with the allied printing crafts for an eight-hour day.

Another firm that is forging to the front in printing circles is that of Byron & Willard, for many years located on Fifth street, between Nicollet and Hennepin avenues. Recently this firin removed to a new brick building, built to take care of their ever-increasing business, on Fourth street south. Their long suit is fine commercial work, and the foreman, Ben Ribble, is to be congratulated on the part he has played in making this firm's work a standard of excellence.

Recently one of the boys complained about feel. ing gouty (whatever this may be), and he was oifered the suggestion that he was living too high. "Well," said he with the rich man's disease, “I only live on the third floor, and then only for a short time until subbing gets better. I intend to get ground floor rent just as soon as work picks up." His auditors were too crestfallen to laugh.

President Lynch seems to have some pretty good correspondents of his own, judging from the excerpt made on the President's Page in the last JOURNAL. It does not seem to make any difference

from what source you get information in the ranks of organized labor, it generally proves to be meaty and logical, and above all--convincing.

J. H. Doremus, chairman of the office of the Minneapolis Typesetting Company, resigned his po. sition to accept one with the Publishers' Typeset. ting Company. It has been our pleasure to have "Joe" for a side partner for some years, and if we are any judge of the capabilities of a machine and operator, "Joe" can give the machine cards and spades and then win out. G. F. Andrews was elected to succeed Mr. Doremus. “Andy" has the temperament and ability to set a pretty fast pace, and every one appears satisfied.

It has been brought to our notice that there are some printers who seem to be ignorant of the law appertaining to whom to apply when in want of work. Recently a wayfarer strolled into the front office and began showing samples of his work. Show it to the foreman, and you will save your. self much humiliation, for not all front offices are good judges of commercial work. Will J. RoHR.

some have none at all. This fact causes class distinctions, for those with plenty are the masters, or aristocrats; those with little are the wage slaves, or common people, and those who have none are the outcasts, or homeless tramps.

In this report the claim is made that we have a circulation of $30 per capita. But with one-half of our money stored away in bank vaults, you can see we have only $15. In some of the foreign countries, where they have $8 and even less, women work as blacksmiths, and others are hitched up with the cow or ox to do the season's plowing.

I very much desire to be understood, for the intelligence of a people lies in their capacity to un. derstand that which they see, hear or read; and mystery is ignorance, which a correct understanding dispels. The mysterious power of money lies in its scarcity, which an adequate supply would dispel.

In conclusion, let me say that the truths contained in this letter would be tabooed and refused publication by the capitalist and socialist press of the country, for they are, either through igno. rance or design, inimical to the real welfare of labor. One teaches that money is plentiful, times good and labor prosperous; the other expatiates on the wrongs and injustice done to labor, and also teaches that money is plentiful but monopolized, thus upholding the money power in the very thing that does enable them to rob labor and keep it humble.

J. C. PATTERSON. San Francisco, Cal.

SCARCITY OF MONEY. In my last letter I spoke of a great scarcity of money in circulation in this country. In this letter I propose to prove that assertion.

If I can prove to the satisfaction of your many intelligent readers that a great scarcity of money in circulation does exist, then will I have shown the cause of the centralization of wealth, through unequal distribution, which has produced unjust conditions, or social injustice, and its offshoot, a perplexing labor problem, which some of our most astute thinkers, both in the ranks of labor and out of it, believe to be unsolvable.

I may be told that money is not scarce, but on the contrary is really very plentiful, and to prove their assertions some may point to the billiondollar steel trust, and to hundreds of other trusts whose combined capitals would count up into more billions; to hundreds of millions of gold dollars in the treasury vaults, and to our thousands of banks, said to be fairly surcharged with gold, silver and paper money.

I am aware that this is the popular opinion, an opinion held generally by all classes. I am also well aware that our shrewd financiers adopt every device that can be thought of to foster this belief, for this is one of their principal props; and the main object I have in writing these letters is to knock that prop from under them.

According to the official report of the comptroller of the currency, we have, all told, $2,500,200,000 of money in this country. Of this amount, $1,320,400,000 is in gold. And of this gold money $859,000,000 is taken out of circulation and safely stored away in the United States treasury and the different banks of the country. Then there is silver enough locked up in the banks with this gold to take just one-half of the money out of circulation.

This would leave $1,250,100,000 to be distributed among 80,000,000 of our people. I won't say pro rata, nor per capita, but in degrees; that is, some have abundance, some have but little, and

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. Already the members of Typographical Union No. 233 are engaged in making arrangements to entertain the delegates and visitors who attend the convention in Toronto in August. The union always starts about things in sufficient time to have everything done right when the time comes, and those of our craft who pass through Niagara-and there will be few, indeed, who pass us by-will be shown what No. 233 hospitality is. At the March meeting President Cooke appointed a committee composed of F. M. Hallett, chairman, William M. Mahoney, A. E. Stevens, Max McCoomb and G. E. Lock to devise ways and means of taking care of our visitors while under the rainbow at the Falls. It is more than likely that a day will be set aside by the Toronto convention to visit the wonder of the world, and that the whole convention will come over and spend some hours with us. As this convention will be the biggest and best in the history of the organization, and as we have only about forty-five members, considerable work will have to be done by the committee to raise the funds, but there is no doubt of giving the delegates and visitors a good time. Make it a point to drop in and see us before you go to the convention, and, while not in the mule state, we can show you something.

Labor Editor Mahoney, of the Cataract-Journal, is doing good work on the label committee.

The sick benefit fund is almost up to the $300, and members well at present.

With the eight-hour assessment, our dues amount to $1.55 a month if the members attend meeting,

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