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well-to-do Hebrew citizens of the "self-made" type, while being shown over the plant of the Constitution, was introduced to "the Big Jew.”

"How long you been vid de Gonstitootion, Mr. Salosheen?” inquired the self-made citizen.

"Twenty-five years," replied Louie.

"Vat! Twenty-five years!” (Both hands went up a la Hebrew.) “Twenty-five years and you don't own the paper?"

Both of the above named veterans-Henderson and Saloshin-have many friends over the country who will be glad to learn they are still in active harness and look as young as they did twenty years ago. Atlanta, Ga.

W. S. Wardlaw.

FREEPORT, ILL. At the April meeting a committee was appointed to draw up new contracts for one year, which were to contain the eight-hour day agreement. The contracts were made out and presented to the various proprietors, and one week from that time four of the offices had signed, and only one office now remains open, and this one, we think, will join in line before many weeks pass by. The scale • contract remains the same, but fifteen minutes will be deducted from the workday each quarter until January 1, 1906, when the eight-hour day will go into effect. The committee is to be congratulated on its earnest efforts in securing the signing of these contracts.

The first annual dance given by Freeport Typo. graphical Union was a big success, both financially and socially. Fifty cents per member was deducted from the dance fund for a donation to the Cummings memorial.

New linotype machines have been installed in the offices of the Journal Printing Company, Bulletin office and the Evening Standard.

Work has been very good in Freeport for the last year, but we have plenty of "prints" to supply the demand.

No. 524 entertained the proprietors and editorial · staffs of the various offices recently at its second

annual smoker and banquet. Organizer Colbert, of Chicago, was present, and an excellent program was rendered. Addresses were made by representatives from each office, and Mr. Colbert gave quite a lengthy talk on the eight-hour question.


JACKSONVILLE, FLA. In perusing the columns of THE JOURNAL I invariably turn to the list of “Addresses Wanted" first. It behooves me that it would be a great source of satisfaction to the craft, if JOURNAL correspondents would insert in their letters the condition of trade, and a list of arrivals and depar. tures. This would, I believe, to a marked degree, have a tendency to fill the proverbial long-felt want in this connection and add value to the interesting columns of our paper. So here goes!


Arrivals--Clifford S. Newsom, Boston; W. W. Ferguson, New Orleans; J. D. Grove, Birmingham, Ala.; Harrington Jones, Memphis, Tenn.; T. J. Smith, Nashville, Tenn.; M. Walton, Augusta, Ga.; John W. Hayes, Jamestown, N. Y.; V. P. Kimble, Meridian, Miss.; W. D. Yarrington, Mo. bile, Ala.; A. R. Jordan, New Orleans; Tommy Todd, New York.

Departures-John A. Leslie, D. W. Dean, A. McIntyre, C. L. Grigsby, A. C. Thompson, W. A. Riggs, Thomas Curran, W. K. McDonald, Johın W. Bell, Con C. Sharp.

On April 22 the Florida Daily Sun contained a page write-up (illustrated) of our local typographical union, its officers, the International, and the Union Printers' Home, with cuts of Secretary Bramwood and President Lynch. In speaking of these gentlemen, the article reads:

The International Typographical Union has made rapid strides in the past few years. Once a month a journal is issued, the contents of which relate to nothing that doesn't savor of printing. It gives valuable information to the craft and is one of the best publications of its kind extant. John W. Bramwood, Denver, Colo., is its editor, and also secretary-treasurer of the International Typographical Union. Since his incumbency, both the paper and the office have forged to the front in a manner that leaves no room for doubt that the membership have at last succeeded in finding the man for the place. His strict attention to business, and his sterling worth has won for him congratulations on his success in the office, and the name of John W. Bram wood is one that is linked with friendship with the different locals in the land. He is a power in the International Typographical Union, honest, courteous, and a gentleman-in all that the word implies.

James M. Lynch, the president of the Interna. tional Typographical Union, is also a gentleman in whom the membership have the utmost confidence, and his re-election seems an assured fact. The president's most strenuous endeavors are being used in securing the eight-hour workday for the members. He has made an admirable president, and has hosts of friends throughout the country.

Delegate Charles Allan! It will unquestionably interest the large number of tourists who have at times rusticated in Jacksonville, to learn that this time-tried and tested friend of theirs was selected on the 17th to represent No. 162 at Toronto. The contest was friendly and exciting. The selection was a good one. During the past six months the gentleman's health has not been of the best, necessitating his leaving his situation at the Times. Union. It is believed that the trip, which en passant it might be stated is also up to his old home, will be of benefit. He is well known throughout the country, and I assure delegates from sister cities who have not the pleasure of knowing Charley Allan to meet him, for in him they will find

ELIZABETH, N. J. The Daily Leader has discontinued publication. J. Madison Drake, jr., son of General Drake, an. nounces that beginning June 4 he will publish a Sunday paper, to be issued from the office of the defunct daily. Success to the venture.

The election of delegate developed a pretty contest, which was not decided until the last ballot had been counted. President W. A. Schultz was elected to represent No. 150 at the International Typographical Union convention in Toronto. Wil. liam F. Pender was chosen alternate.

When so many good fellows want an office it is really embarrassing for the mere voter to make a choice.


a man well worthy to be called friend. He has now under course of construction a highly-colored unique card depicting him in the act of straddling a Florida alligator, skimming along the Atlantic, on his way to the convention city. In his left he holds the reins, while in his right hand he is seen “carrying the banner," with the words distinctly visible: "Eight hours January 1, 1906."

Jacksonville Typographical Union has little use for the “knocker." 'Rouse mit him!

And in the meantime No. 162 wants to go on record as favoring the policies as outlined by our International officers.

Jacksonville, Fla., is in a very unique position to entertain the International Typographical Union in 1906. What say!

Old Grapenuts Post is nearly ready for the post mortem. There's a reason. Jack Tracy.

“ THESE SEVERAL TESTS." It must be one of the saddest things in the world to build up a beautiful theory, with cupolas, cornices, and all manner of ornamentation, and then, when it seems perfect in every detail, to find that facts suitable for a foundation do not exist. To "the shallow student" such a structure may appear fair and beautiful, “but the workingman who earnestly and honestly seeks the truth" wants theories based on something a little more secure and tangible than the foundation of a free balloon, and one can hardly blame Mr. Jackson of Buffalo for getting mad at the census report and statistics in general when, after having stated that the question should be submitted "to these several tests: His. tory, scientific research, political economy, everyday experience and common sense,” he finds it necessary to "draw aside the veil and expose the middle-class illusion." "After all," says Mr. Jackson, "what are census reports? * * * I challenge their correctness.” And then, to make his position on the value of statistics in relation to his theories more clear, Mr. Jackson says: "He who deliberately evades the truth is 'regarded as' a liar." Nothing can be more clear than this. It is confession. Mr. Jackson should be forgiven.

Having forgiven Mr. Jackson, as is a Christian duty, one has a right to hold up his sins as warnings.

It is a generally accepted fact among political economists, since and including Adam Smith, that "capital is only saved labor," and the workman who denies this denies the reproductive value of his work. The "watch” referred to by Mr. Jackson would have been termed "wealth,” including the idea “dead capital," by Adam Smith.

In fine frenzy Mr. Jackson exclaims: “Yet who will deny that natural resources are capital?” John Stuart Mill calls capital “a stock, previously accu. mulated, of the results of former labor," and he limits that definition by saying this "stock" must be devoted to production. “From a standpoint of mere correctness," Smith and Mill were probably in league with the census enumerator against Mr. Jackson.

The gentleman appears to have a very limited idea of what constitutes labor. Referring to the

Douglas shoe factory, he says: "In the offices, where not a shoe is handled or a machine touched, are more workers. What are they doing, these latter? Are they the muscle and sinew of industry?" The great weakness of the socialist is that he does not recognize the value of brain unless it produces something he can feel with his fingers. The capitalist does understand it. “Shoes and all other commodities are produced by thousand of workers, collectively," under the direction of some competent individual, whose efforts are directed to producing an individuality in large numbers of shoes. It is the value of this individuality which Mr. Jackson does not understand, but Mr. Douglas spends a million a year, more or less, among printers to keep the individuality of his shoes before the public, and he pays good salaries in the office, where not a shoe is handled or a machine touched," in order to preserve this individuality, which is the foundation of his prosperity, and which is his individuality as exemplified in shoes.

"Thus competitive individualism was the mother of combination of both labor and capital,” as Mr. Jackson elsewhere says, although he neglects to

state that the combination in both instances serves * to assert the strongest, most fit individuality for

the work in hand, and that the organization is weak or strong, turbulent or peaceful, retroactive or progressive, evil or good, in harmony with the leading individuality. Capitalists understand this. That is one of the reasons for the difference between the pay of the railroad president and that of a section hand. Railroads are overburdened with applications for jobs "on the section," but they hunt long and earnestly for general managers, freight managers, presidents, etc., and quarrel and outbid each other to secure the services of men whose qualities co-operate to produce the sort of individualities most fit for the service required. They are not outbidding each other for the serv ices of section hands. If the section hands want more money they must organize and put them. selves under the direction of some competent man whose qualities co-operate to form an individuality fitted to lead in progress.

Mr. Jackson asks, "Where is individualism now?" He can find it at the head of everything which progresses, of everything which has a definite purpose. It has always been the dominant and directing force in the world's work, whether for good or evil.

The development of individuality is one of the first evidences of progress toward civilization among savage tribes, and the duration and rapidity of progress depends upon the sort of individualities they recognize as most fit to emulate.

That "the construction of society is determined by the means of producing wealth" is a misleading half-truth, because the construction of society is determined by the manner of using wealth. Part of it is used in production. This part is capital. Part of it is used in repressing production. This part is "watered” stock, with no more real value than Mr. Jackson's theories. The crusades changed "the construction of society" in the middle ages because they used wealth. It is manner of using wealth which is about to change the structure of test of history" if one, after reading the chapters noted in the “History of Political Economy," will take up either "History of the Poor Laws," or “Pauperism and Poor Laws,” or “History of England," and endeavor to find out how Mr. Jackson got his "original accumulation" of history.

Any one desiring further amusement may take a lead pencil and mark out the purely oratorical part of Mr. Jackson's article (p. 538 of May JOURNAL, first column, fourth line, starting with Continuing its growth,” to the end of paragraph, is typical), and then compare the remainder with the second paragraph of the article.

Mr. Jarrold of Binghamton has the basic idea of justice in his little syllogistic statement. Accurately understood, it leaves no place for the socialist to stand, as I shall show soon, with the permission of our editor. M. H. BATTENBERG.

Chicago, Ill.

society in Russia; that and the fact that the intelligent mass of the people are not permitted to select that individuality which they consider most fit to lead their progress. It is manner of using wealth of which Mr. Jackson complains when he refers to "employer's account in abstemious living ($25,000 for a poodle).” (Is that price to be found in “history, scientific research, political economy," or "everyday experience"? There certainly is no “common sense" in it.)

"Is it any wonder she (the Catholic church] fought to maintain the feudal regime? Yet, nobly and courageously as she fought against capitalism, her enemy rose triumphant over her. History incidentally discloses the secret of the 'original accumulation of the present class whose abstemious lives cause them to pose as the ascetics of modern society," says Mr. Jackson.

This sounds well, but the facts are these:

1. The Catholic church did not fight to “main. tain the feudal regime;" she fought to hold her own property.

2. She did not fight "against capitalism;" there was none, unless we take Mr. Jackson as authority when he says, “Yet who will deny that natural re. sources are capital?" In which case the church and feudal aristocracy, controlling nine-tenths of the landed property, were themselves the capital. ists, possessors of “natural resources."

3. There are no capitalists in America whose original accumulations' date farther back than the Astor and Stewart "original accumulations,” both made altogether in this country. Most of the great capitalists are men who started out as "wage slaves."

A part of the paragraph from which the preceding quotation is taken refers to "turning the people off the land to make room for sheep.” This happened before the confiscation of church property, and was due to the fact that the serfs were being freed. They were not "turned off the land,” but left their old homes and flocked to the cities, where they could not become "penniless wage slaves in the factories," because the "factories" were controlled by the guilds, and to get into one it was necessary to pay an indenture fee of from

£5 to £100 and come in as an apprentice. The landlords put sheep on the land because they could not get laborers to cultivate it. (See Macaulay's “History of England," "History of the Poor Laws," by Doctor Burns; "Pauperism and Poor Laws,” by Robert Pashley; and noted in “History of Political Economy in Europe," by J. A. Blanqui, in which latter, chapters XIII to XVII, a clear view of relative conditions is given.)

In the works referred to may also be found the condition of the laborer during what Mr. Jackson terms "the golden age of labor." Even at the be. ginning of the last century master tailors in and within five miles of London were prohibited under heavy penalties from giving their workmen more than 25 7%ad per day of twelve hours or more, time at the master's option, “save in periods of public mourning,” that is, when some one high in state was dead; and the worker was jailed if he accepted more. Much amusement may be obtained by following Mr. Jackson's request to "apply the

THE TYPOTHETÆ CAMPAIGN. Nearing the last quarter of the great eight-hour race, the “United" Typothetæ of America is jockeying and whipping with the proverbial frenzy born of desperation. In a circular recently issued from their headquarters, and spread broadcast among employing printers at much expense for circus writers and postage, dire results to business in general and the art preservative in particular are foretold with an inaccuracy and effrontery paral. leled only by the weather prognostications of old yearly quack almanac. O bitters and pain alleviator! What seed ye sowed has borne emulative fruit, fearful and wonderful of comprehension! No more after January 1, 1906, will the types click and the presses rumble and the good shekels jingle in the pocket of employer and employe. That diabolical factor yclept the typographical union is undermining the very principles of freedom by declaring, through its membership, individually and collectively, that they who work for hire shall venture an opinion as to their hours and remunerations, and strive for that right. A "gang of aliens and hoboes!" "Wreckers of freedom!” Arise, ye shades of "aliens" and "hoboes" who, long years gone, lugged forth that cargo and threw it to Neptune in Boston's historic harbor. And ye, also, who starved and froze at Valley Forge-were ye, too, "aliens" and "hoboes," that ye dared bleed and die for liberty and union? History answers for ye, but not through the mouths of Kirby, Parry, Otis et al.

The United Typothetæ of America urges all printing employers to come in out of the wet and join them in their fight against the organization of the craft. Perhaps there is a nigger in the woodpile. Let us take a look. What employer, city er country, now gaining a living from a small business, whether his shop be union, non-union or open, can, after sane deliberation, believe that the powerful employer of hundreds, after inveigling him into the typothetæ by carefully and craftily written literature, will hesitate to coax his few workmen away from him when he needs them at the final hour? Every small independent employer who "joins” will find to his sorrow that his decision was his undoing—that he has played catspaw for the monkey to get his live coals. Hearken, Mr. Non-Union Printer, your employer who listens to the sinister voice of Ellis and Greene and the other Moguls will advise and cajole you to remain non-union and be among the saved. And this is just what he is wanted for to keep you out of the union and nothing else, so that you will be available material to steal from him as a loathed and losing strikebreaker in the big shop, leaving him to pound sand, when the finish comes. But have no doubtings or qualms about the outcome of this race. There is but one best bet. Old I. T. U. is the winning horse, and he won't have to stick out his tongue to do it, either. He will be under the wire in a safe lead, even though it take some tall “hiking" to get there.

The typothetæ tells us that the printing business can not survive an eight-hour day. How did the great newspaper and book publishers live and flourish through the years when big forces of compositors were required, before the introduction of machinery which has resulted in reducing expenses the world over? If that statement be accepted as truth, then the linotype and the Hoe, the monotype and the Harris, and a dozen others have not been the gold mines for employing printers that statistics show them to be.

El Paso couldn't-ahem--stand it, eh? So. Perhaps some light might be obtained on this mat. ter from those typothetæ members whose non-union forces were working nine and ten hours a day, and who were possibly thus enabled to "butt in" and underbid every estimate of El Paso employers during that eight-hour period. “Conditions" will be somewhat altered when the eight-hour law becomes effective and the unfair shop unknown.

Well, to think that San Francisco goes back to nine hours on July 1! That is surely hard lines, yet it must be true, for the powers say so in their latest propaganda. However, bide a wee. Pacific coast printers know a thing or two about taking care of themselves, and they may be depended on to emerge victorious, early or late. Looks like a · trial heat was being planned by the aforesaid powers.

Let us need not nor fear the alarmists. They will be doing business at the old stands next year, as this, and eight hours will limit the call of "time" for every union man. Therefore, be of good cheer, and devote every energy to the strengthening and perfecting of our campaign. Leave no stone unturned to gain the right, so long as it can be turned without fouling the hands with the clay of dishonor. We are racing for the goal of better hours, better conditions of every kind, and again, there is only one winner-I. T. U.

a tour of New England within a month, and No. 47 is arranging an open smoker to mark their visit here, which, it is confidently believed. will be productive of beneficial results, as John Knox would say. Organizer Scott favored us with his presence at our April meeting and made an elo. quent address, reviewing the progress of the eighthour movement, and replete with good advice on the local plan of campaign.

Wonder if Andrew Carnegie, when he is endowing libraries, ever thinks of the hundreds of young men and women who can hardly read, if at all-whose education was virtually prohibited and lives blighted by the starvation wages he paid their fathers, before their massacre at Homestead, in order that he might become famed as a philanthropist?

And they say that Farley also is a millionaire and a devotee of fine horsefesh. Automobiles, too, of course. But many a victim of his noble work can't dig up today the price of a gocart for the baby.

A number of applications for membership are under investigation by the executive committee.

Secretary-Treasurer Van Dyck is now business manager of the Kiernan Printing Company, and is booming the work of that establishment. It bears the label, as do likewise about fifteen other productions of this city. E, R. OTTARSON.

New Haven, Conn.

- FORT SMITH, ARK. It has been very seldom that the above heading has appeared in Tue JOURNAL—so seldom, indeed, that the writer feels somewhat diffident about appearing among the oldtimers. It surely will be necessary to ask the craft to examine a map and let us point out Fort Smith on the western border of Arkansas, and only separated from the Indian Territory by the Arkansas river. Though some- what obscure in printerdom, Fort Smith is rapidly raising her standard, and will be found marching in the front rank of her division, fighting for the union principle and for eight hours.

At a recent meeting Fort Smith Union No. 249 appointed for the first time a regular correspondent to THE JOURNAL. They also did several other things worthy of note, the results of which will from time to time appear in these columns. One of these is the appointment of a committee to de. vise ways and means of raising funds to send a delegate to the convention at Toronto.

Fort Smith supports a half dozen job offices, besides two daily and three weekly papers. All these offices are “fair” except one, which is known as the Weldon, Williams & Lick Company. This company is managed by C, A. Lick, whose name appears as a charter member of No. 249, but who has for some time been trying to give unionism a solar plexus blow. It may almost be said to be an established principle that fighting is a healthful exercise for any union, and ours is no exception to the rule. Since the above company was declared unfair this union has exhibited signs of surprising vigor, and is carrying on the fight with buoyancy of spirit and good success. An incident in the fight involves the Chautauqua meetings to be held

New Haven No. 47 elected officers for the en. suing year on the 17th, as follows: President, William D. Williams; vice-president, Fred L. Neebe; secretary-treasurer, Frank Van Dyck; International Typographical Union auditors, Charles Greenspun, E. R. Ottarson, Michael F. Shea. No delegate was elected to Toronto. The president appoints the executive committee.

President Lynch and Organizer Scott will make

in Fort Smith, July 3-10. The committee having in charge the Chautauqua printing, amounting to several hundred dollars, placed an order for tickets with the unfair firm. As soon as our strike committee learned of this it called upon the Chautauqua committee, explained the situation, and succeeded, after some pressure, in diverting all future work from the unfair shop; the Chautauqua committee, through its chairman, agreeing to this.

An election of officers was held on the 17th inst., C. C. Calvert being re-elected president, also delegate to the Toronto convention; E. B. Trickett, alternate; Louis Allen, vice-president; Percy Dar. by, secretary-treasurer.


port a labor representative for member of the school board. The federation centered its efforts on this one "enemy" to defeat him. When the votes were counted this candidate looked like an ant in a sugar barrel. As a result, Charles Flatt is labor's representative on the board.

The other instance was in the park board election. The federation desired the appointment of Fred Long, of the clerk's union, to fill a vacancy two years ago. All the board members turned the request down. At the election held on the 16th inst. the old members who stood for re-election were overwhelmingly defeated by the opposition, Fred Long getting the largest majority of any candidate. Secret committee work of the federation "made good," sure enough.

The miners were successful in their efforts with the shot-firers' bill. The governor has signed the bill, and now the mine operators will have to pay for "shooting" coal.

Labor day will be celebrated here with all the glory and pomp imaginable. The parade has been abandoned, and a picnic is the thing now.

While the sun shines, some people make haythe printers'll work only eight a day-after 1906.

FRANK C. Regd.

JERSEY CITY, N. J. Quite a hot election occurred here May 17, in which the following officers were elected for the ensuing year and delegates to the International Typographical Union convention and state convention: President, Forrest A. Rice; vice-president, Allan Ball; secretary-treasurer, K. M. Forbes; ser geant-at-arms, William Graham; auditors, Joseph Green, Joseph Fisher, Fred N. Cornell; delegates to central labor union, George W. Point, jr., Allan Ball, Michael Culloo; delegate to International Typographical Union convention, Kenneth M. Forbes; alternate, Allan Ball; delegate to New Jersey state convention, George W. Point, jr.

Pay your dues.


SPRINGFIELD, ILL. The annual election has come and gone, and Louis A. Gude will "shy his castor in the ring" at Toronto next August. He had a walk-away.

In the election for local officers W. H. Rotra mel was elected president; F. W. Lamey, vicepresident; Joseph Marx, recording secretary; George Hoole, financial secretary; C. C. Dye; treasurer; executive board (eight-hour committee), F. W. Lamey, chairman; James Corcoran, L. A. Gude, G. L. Fort, J. J. Markham.

George Hoole, who was re-elected financial sec. retary at the last election, has filled that office for twenty-two years. No. 177 knows a good thing

Chester Bloom has resigned his position as foreman of the State Register, and is now connected with the editorial staff of the State Journal.

The governor has signed the new printing bill. Now, instead of receiving one bid for all the work, the printing commissioners can farm it out all over the state, one job at a time. What effect this new law will have on the printing trade in this city remains to be seen, as it does not effect the contract now in force, which runs for eighteen months yet. No. 177 had a legislative committee at the state house constantly, acting in conjunction with President Wright, of No. 16, to prevent the passing of the bill, but as it was an administration measure it went through with a whoop.

Organized labor has made itself felt in two instances recently. At the spring election the fed cration of labor desired a representative on the school board. Promises were secured from all but one candidate for alderman that they would sup

SAULT STE, MARIE, MICH. Charles Julius Neary will represent Sault Ste. Marie Typographical Union No. 359 as a delegate to the convention in Toronto next August. This was settled at the meeting of the union held May 7, and more forcibly verified at the election, Wednesday, May 17. Although Alfonsus Taylor was nominated for the honor against Mr. Neary, he made no endeavor to land the plum, and it was against his wish that he was placed in nomination, because he, like all of the other members, believed that Mr. Neary was entitled to the office. The membership made no mistake when it elected Mr. Neary, for he is a man that will fulfill the duties of this very important office with honor to himself and credit to the union that has seen fit to send him. They could not have found a better man for the position, for he has that wide-open countenance and frankness of nature which are characteristic of a good fellow, and Charlie Neary is certainly one. His popularity was made evident by his receiving the entire vote of the membership. We can only say to the members of Toronto Union to look out for the Soo Indian when he lands at the depot with his wigwam, tomahawk, feathers and war paint. Thomas J. Watchorn was chosen as alternate.

The Canadian Soo Union will no doubt send a delegate to the convention, and D. W. Hilts, the popular president of that union, wili in all probability be the successful candidate.

Work has been very good in the printing line in the Soo this spring, and the boys are all working.

A. Eph Fydell, vice-president of No. 359, who has spent the past couple of months at his home in Manistique, has returned to the Soo and taken up his old job on the Evening News.

As no nom de plume goes hereafter, your correspondent will sign himself not “Jim Squirt,” but


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