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were added. On Historical Pictures, Mr. Roy W. Hatch, of the Somerville High School, was made chairman, and Miss Blanche Leavitt, of Newport, R. I., was added. Professor Hormel, of Bowdoin College, was added to the Committee on Membership. The Council voted to renew for the ensu ing year the appropriation for the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE on the same terms as have existed during the past three years. The next meeting of the Council will be held on Saturday, February 6, in Boston.

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The Texas History Teacher's "Bulletin for November, 1914, contains an article by Professor Frederic Duncalf, of the University of Texas, on "Some Reasons for Teaching Social and Economic History in the High School History Courses." Another article in this number of the "Bulletin " is an outline of the history course in the San Marcos High School, giving a detailed outline showing how the period of the French Revolution is treated by topics and references. Mr. F. B. Marsh, of the University of Texas, has an article on map work in Ancient History. Mr. J. B. Layne, of the Comanche High School, makes practical suggestions for the preparation for history teaching. The usual personal notes and book news articles complete the pamphlet.

Periodical Literature


"Harper's Magazine" for December presents "Lincoln and Some Union Generals," from the hitherto unpublished diaries of John Hay, Lincoln's private secretary, compiled and edited by William Roscoe Thayer. The extracts throw interesting light upon Lincoln's attitude towards several Union military leaders.

Man as a Geographical Agency". (" Geographical Journal," November), by Sir Charles P. Lucas, lately of the British Colonial Office, calls attention to the great changes wrought by man in the flora, fauna, climate and topography of the earth.

In an article entitled, "The Physical Emancipation of Porto Rico," in the "Review of Reviews" for December, Alton G. Grinnell describes the victorious campaign of the United States Government against hookworm among the Porto Ricans.

The most vital factor making for the strength of England, in the opinion of Professor Roland G. Usher, of Washington University, is her "spiritual national consciousness," which quality England possesses in a greater degree than any other nation in the world, because she led all in the attainment of territorial and racial unity. This idea appears in an article on "The Oldest Nation of Europe," published in the "National Geographic Magazine" for October.

"Practical Mediation and International Peace" ("North American Review," December), by Charles H. Sherrill, calls attention to the great importance of the A, B, C mediation in connection with the difficulty between the United States and Mexico last spring. The two outstanding results of the efforts of the three Latin-American republics are (1) the establishment of a High Court of Public Opinion for the Western Hemisphere, which really amounts to the formulation of a peace plan for the New World; (2) the assumption by the South American states of a share in the responsibility and development of the Monroe Doctrine, and in consequence, a growth in friendliness and understanding between the states of the two Americas.

"Was the War of 1912 a Crusade?" Elizabeth Christich asks in the "Catholic World" for December; and she answers the question in the affirmative by presenting much evidence that a strong religious spirit dominated the Balkan States in their fight against the Turk, and by calling attention to the activity in building and restoring Christian churches which took place as soon as the war ended.

The "Nineteenth Century and After" for November contains the following articles relating to the war: "The Responsibility for the War: German and British Official Papers Compared," by R. S. Nolan; "The Ultimate Disappearance of Austria-Hungary," by J. Ellis Barker; "Belgium in War: a Record of Personal Experiences," by J. H. Whitehouse; 'How Belgium Saved England," by D. C. Lathbury.

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France, 1914 " ("Century," December), by Lester G. Hornby, is an artist's diary of the first days of the war in Brittany, Paris, and Havre, illustrated by the author in colors and in black and white. Because of the vividness with which it reflects the atmosphere and spirit of the period, the account possesses unusual interest.

The "North American Review" for December contains a study upon "The Neutrality of Belgium," by Professor A. G. Lapradelle, of the University of Paris. The author believes that, rather than divert the hopes of the pacifists from the organization of neutral states, the experience of Belgium should lead to the widening of the system by increasing the number of guarantors, and by enabling neutral states to uphold one another's neutrality.


"World's Work" for December is a war manual," devoted largely to the effect of the European war upon the Americas. The table of contents includes the following articles: "An Invitation to Brazil," by Dominico Da Gama, Ambassador of Brazil to the United States; "Peru, a Rich Commercial Field," by Federico Alfonso Pezet, Minister of Peru to the United States; "Bolivia's Commercial Possibilities," by Ignacio Calderon, Minister of Bolivia to the United States; "Anglo-American Relations and the War," by Arthur Willert, Washington correspondent of the London "Times; "The Ties That Bind America and Germany," by Bernhard Dernberg, formerly Secretary of State for the Colonies of the German Empire.

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According to Bernhard Dernberg, Germany is nation of Europe that, even in the face of intense provocation, has never let herself be dragged into any war, or has taken by force a foot of territory against the will of the owner." This remarkable statement occurs in the "Independent" for December 7, under the title, "When Germany Has Won." The peculiarly illogical, non-committal character of Mr. Dernberg's article makes it unique. After referring to the unrest in Lorraine and northern Schleswig, the writer states that any peace arrangement not following pretty closely definite national lines would result in friction. He adds, however, that this does not say that every single German is to be returned to Germany, or every Frenchman to France. The plan proposed for territorial settlement seems to bear little relation to the preliminary statements. It is also somewhat vague and indefinite, but appears to include the following points: Commercial union of Belgium with Germany; neutralization of all of the Channel ports; German colonies to be secured from " some such place like Morocco; acquisition of German sphere of influence from the Persian Gulf to the Dardanelles; also, possibly, the restoration of Finland to Sweden, and Egypt to Turkey, and the independence of the Boers and the Russian Poles.

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MACALISTER, R. A. S. The Philistines: Their History and Civilization. London: Oxford University Press, 1914. Pp. iv 136. $1.20.

This little book on the Philistines, whose opposition to the Hebrews has made their name to-day one of reproach, appears in the Schweich Lectures. As their purpose is to discuss the relation between modern thought and the Bible, one might fear an apologetic motive, but no opponent of the "Higher Criticism" will gain comfort from it, for the latest results of the historical criticism of the Old Testament are fully utilized.

Unfortunately, the first chapter is the least inviting. Even the professional student will manifest little enthusiasm over the meaning of the Philistine name or theories long since abandoned as to their origin, while he will hesitate over the dangerous game of equating proper names, for example, Carpathus with Caphtor. Philistine connection with the wondrous Cretan civilization awakens more interest, but a detailed study of Egyptian name lists can hardly be popular.

Readers who persevere to the second chapter reap their reward in the story of Wen Amon, the Egyptian who sailed to the north Philistine coast for cedar. His unconscious humor and the scrapes into which he gets himself have long made his narrative (see Breasted's "Records of Egypt"), an ideal source reading. Interpreted by Macalister in terms of the modern tourist, it becomes even funnier. He forgets his letters and suffers the troubles of a modern traveler without a passport. He interviews the Governor about his stolen valuables in person, as there was no Egyptian consul at the time." Then, too, there is that grim little joke when the king would show Wen Amon the graves of the last ambassadors from Egypt, and the poor hero wails, "Oh, let me not see them!"


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The study of the earlier relations between the Philistines and Hebrews is exceptionally good, and shows much independent thought. Macalister believes that the difficulties in the David and Goliath story are evaded by an important group of the Greek MSS., which omit bodily" certain verses in this account. Their absence in our best authorities proves rather that they form a consistent story which was added later than the time of the Greek translation. The history after David is given very briefly, and can hardly be understood without a fuller background. The chapter on "The Land of the Philistines" is devoted almost exclusively to the individual cities. Macalister modestly writes that the land "has been so often described that it is needless to waste space in an account of it." This is a cause of great regret, for throughout the book we have brief statements which show that our author knows the land and its effects on the people in a way no tourist can hope to equal.

The final chapter on culture is dominated by the discussion of the language, which in turn is dominated by the theory that the inscribed Cretan disc from Phaestus is Philistine, while even the invention of the alphabet is tentatively assigned to them! The study of the religion is good, if not novel, but we look in vain for an adequate summary of the results of those fruitful excavations on the borders of Philistia carried on by Macalister himself.

The book represents a type more common in England than America, which can be termed popular by clergymen and laymen interested in Bible problems, but forms rather

heavy reading to the average student of history. Nevertheless, it would be a great pity if this should prevent such a student from perusing the best history of the Philistines yet written. A. T. OLMSTEAD.

The University of Missouri.

HULME, EDWARD MASLIN.-The Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic Reformation in Continental Europe. New York: The Century Co. Pp. 589. $2.50.

In the great libraries there is no lack of great works on such significant movements of European history as the Renaissance, the Protestant revolt, or the French revolution. But the difficulty has been that the scholarly works on such subjects have been found too detailed, too intensive for the average student and for the general reader. The popular books, on the other hand, are often too superficial to be strongly recommended. This book will, therefore, fill a real demand. It is not, as its title suggests, devoted solely to these three great movements. It is a history of Europe from about 1300 to about 1600. There is a chapter dealing even with "Magyar and Slav." Purely political history is merely sketched, but by a clever hand. The emphasis is properly laid on the great intellectual and religious movements, and the author's interpretation of them is excellent. His tone is broadly tolerant; he criticizes intolerance in both the Catholic and Protestant camps. He seems to have used much recent monographic literature in the preparation of his book. Occasionally a few pages are crammed with factual summaries, but as a whole the book is distinctly readable and interesting, notwithstanding the comparatively broad field which it covers. The reviewer believes it will prove very useful to students and teachers of history. Many parts of the book may be a little heavy, but others will be found very acceptable for reference readings. CLARENCE PERKINS.

Ohio State University.

OGG, FREDERICK A. Daniel Webster. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1914. Pp. 15+433. $1.25.

This life of Webster is a welcome and notable addition to the admirable series known as the American Crisis Biographies. Professor Ogg has an interesting style, is very clear and direct in his statements, and holds steadfastly to his theme. The emphasis throughout is placed on Webster's interpretation of the constitution and the effect his views had in establishing a standard for the whole nation. So closely has the author held to this idea that the personality of Webster becomes at times somewhat obscured. However that may be, no one can read this biography without getting a clear conception of Webster as the great leader in establishing for the country as a whole a broad view of the proper functions of the national government.

One realizes the difficulties attending the writing of a brief account of the activities of a man like Webster. If all his important exploits are to be recorded, a brief account can be little more than a summary. The author has succeeded in avoiding this, for the most part, though in places it would seem that some events might have been left out to give more room for detailed accounts of more important affairs. The accounts of Webster's work against 'Nullification," and his negotiations of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, are perhaps the most spirited in the book, and the work of Webster in combating the financial policy of Van Buren, the least satisfactory. The view accepted by

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most scholars, that Webster did not make the 7th of March speech as a bid for the Presidency, is taken by Professor Ogg and very clearly set forth.

Webster's faults and weaknesses are touched lightly, but enough to show some of the reasons why the people did not put entire confidence in him, which, with his tendency to disregard party affiliations and party discipline, as shown in the biography, make it evident enough that he never could have been the President of the United States.

Professor Ogg's account of Webster as an orator and the occasions when he appeared at his best are sufficiently interesting and attractive to make anyone desire to read the orations at once and see for himself how such effects could be wrought.

The book is readable and interesting throughout. It will be well received by high school seniors in connection with their work in American history, and will be of interest to the general reader. It will not replace Lodge's life of Webster, however, but may be a pleasing variation to it. Professor Ogg gives more events, more quotations from Webster, gives less of his own opinions, judges Webster less freely and comments less sweepingly on the effect of Webster's work. He also gives his references. Senator Lodge, in taking up fewer topics, discusses them more freely, holds Webster up for judgment with less hesitation, gives no references and very few quotations.


Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich.

HAYNES, JOHN. Economics in the Secondary School. Boston: The Houghton Mifflin Co., 1914. Pp. xi + 192. 60 cents.

Mr. Haynes' monograph is both an appeal and an argument for the teaching of economics in the public schools. Economy, industry, sympathy and adaptation to environment justify the claim of economics as an ethical subject, while the laborer, the employer, the legislator and the citizen justify its claims as a vocational subject. The great problems of the day are economic, and citizenship is more closely related to economics than to civics. The secondary school furnishes the last chance to teach the subject to any considerable number of students.

The argument of the author is brief, but to the point. The suitability of economics as a secondary school subject is recognized by leading educators. A questionnaire brought in considerable proof of progress in the teaching of economics in the schools. "From all the evidence we may be entirely satisfied that whenever the importance of economics receives recognition, and there is as much insistence on having an adequate time allottment and qualified teachers as in mathematics, language or science, the objection that the secondary school pupils cannot master its fundamental principles, will vanish."

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A place for economics in the curriculum should be found during the last half of the senior year, because of the nature of the subject and the sequence of the history courses. This will necessitate some violence to the four blocks of history, namely, the teaching of only three blocks, and the reserving the place of the other for civics and economics. The author advocates the division of European history into two parts; the first, ancient; the second, modern history, allowing each to occupy one year. He would reserve the third year for American history, and the fourth for civics and economics. As we see, this is not a curtailment but an extensification of the history content. A very large number of history teachers would agree to this plan.

Mr. Haynes would not sacrifice the scientific nature of economics that it may be taught in the high schools. There is no attempt to unduly popularize basic economic

content. The outlines submitted, and his discussion make this clear. There is no attempt to convert the recitation into a committee of the whole for the discussion of town views, nor to make the subject matter carry the load of industrial history, sociology and government. STEPHEN IVAN MILLER, Jr.

Leland Stanford, Jr., University, California.

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY. Writings of. Edited by W. C. Ford. Vol. IV, 1811-1813. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1914. Pp. xxv + 541. $3.50.

These years, though marking the climax of the Napoleonic struggle in Europe, were probably the dullest in Adams' career. With the object of his Russian mission for the most part accomplished, and with the Ghent negotiation only slowly taking form, he lived in St. Petersburg, on the edge of great events, with few close associates. He was not remarkably well informed as to current happenings, and his guesses as to the next turn were for the most part wrong. It would seem that the editor has devoted too much space to this period as compared with that given to the years up to 1811.

The main interest for the student of American history continues to be in the material on our commerce, and incidentally that of other nations. Of minor interest are letters concerning Fulton's application for privileges of steam navigation in Russia (pp. 402, 405, 409, 540). Adams' rejection of his election to the Supreme Court had been foreshadowed by a letter to his brother (p. 48), in which, with his usual just self-consciousness, he had written: "I am also, and always shall be, too much of a political partizan for a judge.

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Adams' view as to the importance of conscription as the basis of French power are of present interest (pp. 325, 485). Letters to his mother give some pictures of life at St. Petersburg, drawn with all the minuteness of Arnold Bennett, while a letter to his brother and son reveal much sound sense on the subject of education. A certain, almost good humor, characterizes some of them (p. 44).

The editor still fails to help the reader on those few occasions when Adams' pen plays him false (i.e., p. 27, line 1, for "I," read "It."). CARL RUSSELL FISH.

The University of Wisconsin.

OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ. The State: Its History and Development Viewed Sociologically. Translated by John N. Gitterman. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1914. Pp. v, 302.

This work, by a Berlin privat-docent, appeared in 1908, has since been issued in Hungarian, French and English, and is now being translated into Roumanian and Italian. It "regards the State from the sociological standpoint only, not from the juristic," says the author-" sociology, as I understand the word, being both a philosophy of history and a theory of economics." The author assumes a fair knowledge of history in the mind of the reader, and proceeds in this very small book to trace the development of the State from its earliest appearance to the present constitutional systems. The translator's style is easy and agreeable. No great mass of details is introduced, but the reasoning is close and demands the attention of a thoughtful mind. A perusal of the work will certainly repay the effort of the teacher of history who is of a philosophical turn. If he fears "socialism," whatever that may mean, he should avoid it, because it does tend to leave the impression that some rather firmly planted institutions are neither divinely inspired nor necessary. Hunter College, New York City



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(Continued from page 19.)

tion, "Mention the leading authors of Louisiana and state in what line of literature each was noted," included all the text-books written by various members of the faculty of the State University.

The prizes this time (as each school could send only one contestant) were gold, sterling and oxidized medals for the first, second and third places, respectively. The schools had selected their representatives by preliminary competitive examinations.

It is the intention of the History Department to continue the contest along this line until every phase of history taught in the Louisiana high schools shall have been g covered, in order to stimulate both teachers and pupils to a greater interest and a more thorough knowledge. When the four years' work has been covered, some other plan will be devised.

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SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, two dollars a year; single copies, twenty cents each.

REDUCED RATE of one dollar a year is granted to members of the American Historical Association, and to members of local and regional associations of history teachers. Such subscriptions must be sent direct to the publishers or through the secretaries of associations (but not through subscription agencies).

POSTAGE PREPAID in United States and Mexico; for Canada, twenty cents additional should be added to the subscription price, and for other foreign countries in the Postal Union, thirty cents additional.

CHANGE OF ADDRESS. Both the old and the new address must be given when a change of address is ordered.

ADVERTISING RATES furnished upon application.

31 TO NOVEMBER 28, 1914.

American History.

Atherton, Gertrude F. H. California: an intimate history.
N. Y.: Harper. 329 pp. $2.00 net.
Cambridge, Mass. Historical facts; an outline of the
salient events in the history of Cambridge, Mass. Bos-
ton: Newtowne Pub. Co. 16 pp. 10 cents.
Dickson, Marguerite S. New American history for gram-
mar schools. N. Y.: Macmillan. 560 pp. $1.00 net.
Fleming, Walter L. Civil war and reconstruction in Ala-
bama. Cleveland, O.: A. H. Clark Co. 838 pp. $5.00

Hunt, Gaillard. Life in America one hundred years ago. N. Y.: Harper. 297 pp. (8 pp. bibl.). $1.50 net. Indiana State Teachers' Assn. Com. of History Section. Compiler and editor. Readings in Indiana history. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Univ. 470 pp. 70


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Love, William D. The colonial history of Hartford. Hartford, Ct.: The author. 369 pp. $5.00. McElroy, Robt. M. The winning of the far West. 1829-1867. N. Y.: Putnam. 384 pp. $2.50 net. Nead, Dan. W. The Pennsylvania-German in the settlement of Maryland. Pt. XXV of a narrative and critical history. Lancaster, Pa.: [New Era Pr. Co.]. (3 pp. bibl.). $5.00. Sanford, Albert H. A teacher's manual to accompany the Sanford Am. History maps. Chicago: A. J. Nystrom & Co. 95 pp. 25 cents. Stevenson, Edward L. Willem Janszoon Blaew, 1571-1638, with special reference to his large world map of 1605. N. Y.: Hispanic Soc. of Am. 67 pp. $12.00 net. Virginia State Library. Maps relating to Virginia in the library and other depts. of the Commonwealth with the 17th and 18th century atlas maps in the Library of Congress. Richmond, Va.: [The Library]. 262 pp. (Bulletin.)

Weber, Anselm. The Navajo Indians. [St. Michaels, Arizona. The author.] 29 pp. Privately printed. Weeks, Stephen B. Historical review of the Colonial and State records of North Carolina. Wash., D. C.: The author, 409 B St., N. E. 176 pp. $1.25 net. Ancient History.

Geikie, James. The antiquity of man in Europe. N. Y.: Van Nostrand. 328 pp. $3.00 net.

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wars between English and French for southern India.] N. Y.: Longmans. 320 pp. (31⁄2 pp. bibl.). $3.50 net. Innes, Arthur D. History of England and the British Empire. In 4 vols. Library ed. Vol. 2, 1485-1688; Vol. 3, 1689-1802. N. Y.: Macmillan. Each $3.25 net. Levis, Howard C. Baziliwlogia, a book of Kings; notes on a rare series of engraved English royal portraits from William the Conqueror to James I, published under the above title in 1618. N. Y.: Grolier Club. (5 pp. bibl.). $10.00. To members only.

Macaulay, Thomas B., Lord. The history of England, etc. In 6 vols. Vol. 4. N. Y.: Macmillan. 549 pp. $3.25 net. Scholefield, E. O. S., and Howay, F. W. British Columbia from the earliest times to the present. In 4 vols. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Co. $30.00.

European History.

Breasted, James H., and Robinson, J. H. Outlines of European History. In 2 vols. Vol. 1, Earliest man, the Orient, Greece, Rome, by J. H. Breasted; Europe from the breakup of the Roman Empire to the opening of the eighteenth century, by J. H. Robinson. Boston: Ginn & Co. 730 pp. (13 2-3 pp. bibl.). $1.50.

Cramb, J. A. Germany and England. N. Y.: Dutton. 152 pp. $1.00 net.

Fisher, Herbert A. L. The war, its causes and issues.
N. Y.: Longmans. 31 pp. 20 cents.
Hart, Albert Bushnell. The war in Europe, its causes and
results. N. Y.: Appleton. 254 pp. $1.00 net.
Kilpatrick, James A., compiler and ed. Tommy Atkins at
war; as told in his own letters. N. Y.: McBride, Nast.
127 pp. 50 cents.

Oxford University Press. Pamphlets on the present war in
Europe by various authors. Twenty-six issued to date.
Each, 3 to 10 cents. N. Y.: Oxford Univ. Press.
Sadler, Michael E. Modern Germany and the Modern
World. N. Y.: Macmillan. 14 pp. 10 cents net.
Stoddard, T. Lothrop. The French Revolution in San
Domingo. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. 410 pp. (15 pp.
bibl.). $2.00 net.


Bancroft, Herbert H. History of Mexico. N. Y.: Bancroft Co. [156 Fifth Ave.]. 581 pp. $2.00 net. Bartholomew, John G. The international reference atlas of the world. N. Y.: Scribner. 12069 pp. $4.20 net. Coss, John J., and Erskine, J. A pageant, of the thirteenth century; for the 700th anniversary of Roger Bacon, given by Columbia University. N. Y.: Lemcke & Beucher. 75 pp.

Edmunds, Albert J. History simplified. Phila.: Innes and Sons. 70 pp. 25 cents.

Getty, Alice. The gods of Northern Buddhism.

N. Y.:

Oxford Univ. 196 pp. (3 pp. bibl.). $19.25 net. Mullowney, John J. A revelation of the Chinese revolution. N. Y. and Chicago: Revell. 142 pp. 75 cents net. "Red papers " of Mexico; an expose of the great Cientifico conspiracy to eliminate Carranza. N. Y.: Mex. Bureau of Inf., 334 Whitehall Bldg. 15 pp.


Adams, John Quincy. The writings of J. Q. Adams. Ed. by Worthington C. Ford. Vol. 4, 1811-1813. N. Y.: Macmillan. 541 pp. $3.50 net.

Dodd, Ephraim S. Diary of Ephraim S. Dodd. [Co. D., Texas Rangers.] 1862-1864. Austin, Tex.: Tex. State Library. 32 pp.

Steiner, Bernard C. Life of Reverdy Johnson. Balto.: Norman, Remington Co. 284 pp. $2.50.

Johnson, Byron B. Abraham Lincoln and Boston Corbett. Waltham, Mass.: [The author]. 71 pp. $1.00. Marshall, John. The political and economic doctrines of John Marshall . . and also his letters, speeches [etc.]. N. Y.: Neale Pub. Co. 369 pp. (13 pp. bibl.). $3.00. Hudson; William H. The man Napoleon. N. Y.: Crowell. 242 pp. $1.50 net.

Whipple, Wayne, compiler and ed. The story-life of Napoleon. N. Y.: Century Co. 606 pp. (5 pp. bibl.). $2.40 net. Parnell, John H. Charles Stewart Parnell; a memoir by his brother. N. Y.: Holt. 312 pp. $3.00 net. Hill, Frederick T. Washington, the man of action. N. Y.: Appleton. 329 pp. $5.00 net.

Washington, George. Washington and the West; being George Washington's diary of September, 1784 [etc.]. Cleveland, O.: A. H. Clark Co. 217 pp. $2.00 net.

Government and Politics.

Chase, Edith F. The Bohemians. N. Y. and Chicago: Revell. 63 pp. 25 cents net.

Cromer, Evelyn Baring, Lord. Political and literary essays. 2d series. N. Y.: Macmillan. 362 pp. $2.00 net. Davis, Horace A. The Judicial veto. Boston: HoughtonMifflin. 148 pp. (6 pp. bibl.). $1.00 net. Matthews, Nathan, Jr. Municipal charters; a discussion of the essentials of a city charter. Cambridge, Mass.: Harv. Univ. 210 pp. $2.00 net.

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I want to tell you how pleased I am with the Sanford History Maps. It is safe to say that there is no one set of maps anywhere that will be found as helpful to the teacher and to the student as this series.

I was rather skeptical as to the value of such a chart in history teaching in the high school, but I find myself using it constantly. It is a ready source of information, it expresses concretely many things that would take long to explain; it affords a basis for map work. The maps on the development of the West, the growth of population, immigration, railways, etc., are especially useful.

I think that no school history room is complete without this series. P. M. MELCHOIR,

Head, History Dept., Girard College,
Philadelphia, Pa.

After a very careful examination and
a thorough test in our history classes
here I have recommended the purchase
of the Sanford American History Maps.
I do not hesitate to say that I consider
them the best maps on the market for
the teaching of American history. You
are at liberty to quote my opinion, as I
think aids of this kind should be found
in every school history room.

Yours very truly,


Head, History Dept., State Normal
School, Winona, Minn.

A. J. NYSTROM & CO., Publishers


Thank you very kindly for submitting the Sanford U. S. History Maps to me.

I have examined all of them carefully, find them very satisfactory indeed, and shall seek to add as many of them as possible to our equipment.

Very truly yours, ROBERT A. MAURER,

......... .......

H. T. M.




Head, Dept. of History, Washington, D. C., High Schools.


623-629 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Ill.


623 S. Wabash Ave. Chicago, Ill.


You may ship on approval 1 complete set of 32 Sanford American History Maps with Teacher's Manual and tripod supporter. If satisfactory we shall keep and pay $24.00 for same. If unsatisfactory we shall return at your expense.


Official Position


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