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writing of letters and diaries or journals. A few days the writer asked a senior class in high school to use what they had talked over about the transformhing results upon the nation of the Second War of Independence," by writing one of the following exercises under date of February 1, 1815: a letter from Henry Clay, a page from the diary of John Quincy Adams, a supposed speech of Calhoun in the House, or an editorial for Niles' "Weekly Register." The value of the exercise may be judged from the following samples:

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oted The direct effects of the late war, viewed economically, in politically, and socially, are of such nature as will be the the foundation of a wonderful era of prosperity in this country.

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Although it seems but a short time since the commissioners of both nations met at Ghent for purposes of peace, the majority of Americans, since that memorable day of December 24, 1814, when the treaty was signed, have had a strong feeling of national consciousness, and have seen with a clear vision that the nation has a future such as no European power can disturb.

England's refusal to stop seizing our sailors on board American vessels and forcing them into her service paved the way for a war, that war in which this country in the end convinced Great Britain that our rights must be respected the same as any other nation's rights.

Our military operations, although far from successful on land, have shown foreign nations that any attempt to

19 establish themselves on the territory of the United States it is likely to meet with effective resistance.

It is true that the war has been a costly one for us. It has cost us thirty thousand lives and a hundred million dollars, but with the strength and confidence of a new government at our command, and under the unfaltering patriotism of American citizens, we have made the way clear for successful commercial and industrial enterprises. We have entered into terms of peace with England. May these terms never again be broken, and may the "Era of Prosperity and Good Feeling" continue unto future generations.


(February 1, 1815.)

There are three things which stand uppermost in my mind that have been accomplished in regard to foreign affairs since the treaty of 1783. These things are: (1) the purchase of Louisiana, (2) the interposition of the Czar in

behalf of our commerce in 1809, and (3) the treaty with Great Britain which was consummated at Ghent about a month ago. Though doubtless many of my countrymen will be disappointed in its provisions, yet I believe this is one of the greatest treaties this country may ever hope to contract. It severs, I firmly believe, all our bonds of custom with England. The treaty of 1783 did not entirely cancel our most intimate relations with the mother country. We yet were dependent upon her, politically, commercially, industrially; we were proud of our lineage in her. England, I believe, has never lost her ambition to control us in our commercial and industrial life. She has regarded us only as a dependent-never as a world power. Constant violation of our rights on her part has shown us that. This semi-independence would seriously retard American progress in time. This war is but a com

pletion of the Revolution. And it is God we must thank for its fortunate outcome, for I fear America should not have fared so well had not her opponent's forces been divided. I anticipate this second independence—this real independence will open a vast field for expansion in many lines in America.

The above lines were penned by a high school girl. Whether she has correctly interpreted the spirit of the classic diarist of the second era of American independence I leave to my hearers to judge. Let us turn to a letter written by a boy in the same class.

A LETTER FROM HENRY CLAY TO JOHN C. CALHOUN. Ghent, The Netherlands, February 1, 1815.

John C. Calhoun, M.C.,

Washington, D. C., U. S. A.

Dear Sir: By the time this epistle reaches you the treaty, which our commission, after much delay, succeeded in wresting from the British commissioners, will perhaps have been ratified or rejected by the Senate. I trust the former will be the case.

Although the treaty does not provide for the abolition of those outrages by which we were driven to war, yet the respect for our nation, which the memory of our victorious commands will enhance, will doubtless prevent their repetition. The Orders in Council have been repealed and I am confident that with Napoleon's downfall, which must come shortly, interference with our trade and impressment of our seamen will cease.

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As desirable as were war and honor three years ago, much more to be desired to-day is peace, if it can be obtained without dishonor. Recent reports from the various States, telling of the distress due to our blockaded ports and interrupted commerce, have so alarmed the commission that even I, whom Randolph called a war hawk," am willing to accept a treaty which guarantees peace alone. I sincerely hope that you have not or will not use your influence to defeat its ratification or to embarrass its drafters. Mr. Adams has returned to Russia to resume his post. The remainder of the commission, Messrs. Bayard, Gallatin, Russell, and myself, are awaiting word of the Senate's action before returning home.

Your fellow-countryman,


So much for applications of history in imaginary situations. Applications to real historical conditions may be made by means of the written thesis. A fairly definite and not too difficult or complex problem is stated. The student sets to work in a spirit of inquiry. If in an advanced class, he should find most of his materials, place an estimate upon their value, and arrange the facts in logical sequence in support of his thesis. Questions such as the following are appropriate: Were William of Normandy's claims to the throne of England valid? Was the Norman Conquest a good thing or a bad thing for England? Had Frederick I or the Italian communes the better right in their struggles? What connection was there between the rise of universities and the spread of heresy in the twelfth and the thirteenth centuries? Was Cromwell an ambitious usurper or a sincere patriot? Was Jackson justified in his distrust of the Bank?

Such questions require the marshaling of evidence, the balancing of opinion, and a final decision. In all these processes there is both opportunity and necessity of putting to the test the knowledge gained in daily class work.

Still another mode of applying what one has learned in history is the use of debate or discussion. Both should be employed in history, however, with some care and discrimination, for not all historical questions are debatable. Questions which the race has settled for all time should not be introduced in debate. Such are the rightfulness of slavery, the inequality of women, the efficacy of religious persecution. Questions which the nation has permanently decided, or which are no longer pertinent, may not be profitably discussed. Such, for example, are the right of nullification or of secession, the right of territorial acquisition, the right to build railroads and canals at Federal expense. But aside from these limitations

on historical debate, there still remains a host of living issues, of controversial matters, which are legitimate material for debate or discussion. The relative validity of claims by pope and council, the merits in the contest between Philip IV and Boniface, the justification of the colonial revolt from England, the justice of the Mexican War, the desirability of maintaining the Monroe Doctrine, are a few of the many such questions for discussion or debate. This form of application is of special usefulness in civics or economics.

Yet another way of applying historical truth is found in the study of current history. The survival in our day of historical issues, institutions and movements are surprisingly numerous. The perennial Monroe Doctrine finds new application and interpretation in almost every international complication relating to the Americas. The question of papal authority in Catholic countries is by no means dead. Disputes growing out of the union of church and state crop out in many civilized countries at the present day. Clashes of colonial rivalry, of commercial interests, of race antagonisms, have come down to us from the days of Rome and Carthage. In the study of history in the making, we have excellent means of applying what has been learned in history classes, and at the same time of illuminating the understanding of contemporary life through history.

Our second important criterion for judging historical instruction is, then, the utilization of historical knowledge. By this token, the history instruction which makes provision for some daily application of what has happened is sound and good. On the other hand, the teaching which is concerned solely with acquisition of knowledge is by the same token weak and poor.

A third element in historical teaching is interpretative power. One of the chief aims in teaching history is training in the analysis of social phenomena. This is sometimes called "historical thinking." What is involved in historical thinking? The habit or power of thinking of social phenomena dynamic ally, i. e., as evolving from early and simple stages

to more complex; of viewing them in historical perspective; that is, in their real relation to the times in which they fall or to the historical movement to which they belong; of analyzing social situations into their simpler elements, revealing their causal forces and resulting influences.

The importance of such training for daily living needs no demonstration. The simple duties of everyday life, the elementary activities of citizenship, require accurate perception of causal forces in human relationships, some sense of historical perspective, and some knowledge of the stages by which the present has come to be what it is.

Interpretative power in historical teaching is & third criterion. The teaching which trains in this power by daily instruction is good. That which ignores or neglects it, and seeks only accumulation of fact, is poor.

A fourth element in history instruction is historical judgment, i. e., judgment based wholly upon tested sources of information.

The value in daily living of this kind of judgment is beyond estimation. Nothing is more common among children and uncultivated persons than the proneness to accept at face value the statements of others, without checking up misinformation, without testing for possible error or intentional falsification. If the statement is one printed in a book, the tend ency is greatly accentuated. Reverence for the printed page is well nigh instinctive in man.

But what is the remedy for all this? The remedy, or better the prophylactic, is some elementary training in historical criticism. Pupils in grammar grades and high schools should be given some exercise in testing the sources of information. They should discover from concrete examples how difficult a matter it is for anyone to tell the absolute truth. They should become familiar with various kinds of error, with the forms of historical bias.

They should,

through the study of original accounts, observe the influence upon men's minds of different forms of prejudice racial, sectional, political, religious, class, what not. They should learn through history study to apply some of the simpler criteria for accuracy and sincerity. In these ways, they may be fortified against error and falsehood.

But how to proceed? One may begin with cases of conflicting testimony in different accounts. Perhaps the most common as well as the simplest is the conflicting report of what has occurred which appears daily in the newspapers. Rival newspapers, or competing news agencies, frequently carry highly contradictory accounts of happenings or opposing interpretations of public policies. Under proper direction, even children may readily discover the errors and point out the reasons for overstatement in one case or suppression of details in another. A familiar case at present is found in the conflicting official reports from the war zone. A brief consideration of modern methods of military censorship and of con

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Our final standard, then, is the use of the historical judgment. The good teacher will make due provision for this training, and the poor one will ignore one of the most important kinds of cultivation which may be claimed for history.

In conclusion, and by way of summary, the standards by which the teacher may judge his or her own work in history will be not only the general teaching standards of motivation, organization, evaluation and initiative, but the more distinctly characteristic standards which we have elaborated, viz., concrete and objective teaching, application of historical truth to social and historical situations, analysis and interpretation of social phenomena, and the use of historical judgment. The writer is convinced that the approximation of these criteria by teachers of history in secondary schools will not only make history a more vital subject for children and youth, but will also be of material aid in making historical teaching one of the most important elements in training and equipment for the practical duties of daily living.1

Methods of Attaining and Testing Efficiency in History Instruction in Secondary School


Sometimes the teacher is inclined to wish that he were dealing with more material things. It would Tbe so much easier to judge the efficiency and results ent of his work. The cobbler can tell by the row of shoes at closing time whether he has accomplished much or little; the farmer at the end of the season can measure his success by the fullness of his barns and granaries, and the merchant by the balance on his books. But for the teacher there is no tangible product by which he may judge, no visible fullness of the brain with well rounded grains of knowledge; in his book-keeping he can strike no exact balance of debit and credit. He is often sowing in the dark, and the soil that promised least, in the end may yield

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the finest fruit.

Within the teaching profession, it is harder to judge of results in some branches than in others. One of the hardest to judge is history. The teacher of mathematics can tell whether his pupil has a comprehension of the past lessons by his capacity to understand the succeeding ones, and the same is true, to a greater or less extent, of Latin, German, physics, and the natural sciences. These are developed on a scientific basis, step upon step. Of literature and history this is not so nearly true. These two are essentially cultural, and culture is hard to measure.

down definite ends to be attained. When this is done the problem is half solved.

I do not claim that the four standards, which I suggest, are the only ones which can be applied to the history teacher, or that they can be applied to the history teacher exclusively. They are general in their nature, and some of them may well be set up as standards to be attained in the teaching of other subjects.

The first question for the history teacher to ask himself is whether his pupils are acquiring a knowledge of how to study and use books. No other teacher has a better chance to develop this valuable ability in his students. Through the wealth of material provided by our school and public libraries he may guide his followers, and show them how to gather what is essential in the quickest and most scientific manner.

At the outset the teacher may give a lecture on this subject, and lay down a few general principles and directions for the use of his pupils. If this werc more generally done, we should not so commonly find students in the upper grades who do not know the use of an index or how to get knowledge from an encyclopedia. If he has periods for supervised

Perhaps the main difficulty in judging our effi- study, the teacher's problem is much simplified, for

ciency is that we do not have in mind a definite re-
sult for which
we are striving. We cannot tell
when we have reached a journey's end without first
having a certain end in view. We cannot judge our
efficiency in teaching any subject without first laying

here he has both a chance to direct his pupils and to judge how well his instructions are being followed.

1 A paper read before the Gary Conference on History Teaching in the Secondary Schools, held under the auspices of the University of Indiana, February 26, 27, 1915.

The most fruitful method of training in the use of books is that of directed collateral reading, both of secondary and of source materials. With beginning classes the assignments should be carefully given by book-title and page, but after an apprenticeship at this kind of work, a gradual transition to topical assignments may be made, and the pupil left to find. the material by means of tables of contents and indices.

Special reports yield excellent results in training

the student to find and assimilate knowledge from different sources. Written themes, which should be frequently required, are in reality but a kind of special report, only here the report is produced in written form. This has a certain advantage in that all the pupils of a class may give the same report, and each one gets the value that in the former case was largely limited to a single individual.

A little supervision of the pupil's study will soon reveal to the teacher the facility with which he is able to use books, as will also the quality and technique of his special report and theme work. Tests on the subject matter of collateral reading should be given at regular intervals, say ten or fifteen minute tests, at least once a week. In these tests questions on the general procedure of investigation, use of books, and bibliographies of topics which have been studied may be introduced.

The second standard to be attained is a spirit of responsibility and independence on the part of the pupil. He should not feel that the teacher is driving him to work, but rather that they are co-workers in the same field. Otherwise the work stops as soon as the pupil goes out from under the direct control of the teacher. But once cause a pupil to feel the thrill of independent discovery or creation and he is a student of your subject forever.

The teacher should not consider his pupils as so many receptacles into which he may ladle the abundance of his knowledge. The lecture method has little use in the high school. On the other hand, the class room should, as far as possible, be made a place for free conversation and exchange of ideas, with a premium on the discovery of something new rather than on an excellent reproduction of the text.

Pupil activity in class should be encouraged, and, if practicable, student class government may be tried. With some classes this has been found very successful, and affords some excellent parliamentary training, besides teaching the pupil to work with a minimum amount of guidance from the teacher.

This feeling of responsibility and independence is a very elusive thing and hard to measure, but the teacher with his class will soon perceive its spirit, as shown by the spontaneous interest, activity, and self control of his pupils.

The third standard which the history teacher should set up for his attainment is the development of a critical attitude on the part of his pupils. The pupil should be taught not to accept blindly the statements of any author, but to compare the evidence and accept that which seems most reasonable.

Collateral reading of parallel texts, special works, and source materials will soon develop this attitude in the average student. Oral reports and theme work, where they compel the student to refer to various authorities, will soon show him that it is unsafe to accept the statements of the secondary writer, and also that it is often very difficult to interpret rightly the facts of the source, even if they should be accepted as correct.

This attitude will soon exhibit itself in recitations, di and particularly in special reports and theme work. In the latter it may be engendered as well as tested by requiring the writer to give references and footnotes, discussing the sources of his information and their reliability.

The fourth and last aim of the teacher should be a permanent increase in the pupil's knowledge and power to apply the same. With all our insistence on method of study and development of character, this must still remain as one of the chief aims of our history teaching.

But even here many of our teachers fail. Their pupils remember the facts long enough to pass the monthly or semester tests, and then blissfully forget them all. I believe that this is principally due to too much insistence on unessential details and lack of co-ordination and systematization of the im portant things. If teachers would only religiously apply a few fundamental rules, I believe that the important facts would, in most cases, be retained for life and become an important part in the working knowledge of the pupil. The first of these rules would be to put special emphasis on important things and subordinate, or entirely omit, unimportant things. The second is an insistence on the clear and interesting presentation and co-ordination of subject matter, and, wherever possible, an application of the same to, or comparison with, present-day situations and conditions. plied, and frequent reviews given in order to fix the If these two simple rules are apfacts and their relations more firmly in mind, the working knowledge of the pupil will gradually and permanently increase.

The pupil's knowledge and power of applying it are easily tested. The method is rone other than that of our old traditional oral quiz or the monthly and semester tests.

As was formerly stated, these make no pretense of being the only legitimate standards for judging the efficiency history teaching or the only means of attaining and testing this efficiency. But the teacher who will set out with these four ends in view, who will teach his pupils the proper use of books, develop in them a spirit of responsibility and independence, as well as a critical attitude toward what they read, and at the same time permanently increase their historical knowledge and power of applying it, will have gone far toward making himself a successful teacher of history.

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or less transparent horn, passed a thong through a The hole in the handle, and hung the completed instrument of learning, the horn-book, about the pupil's neck. Its great virtue was that it could not be lost or soiled or worn; its defect that it was so brief and so hard to read.


ere the




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The substance of it seldom varied. First came a cross, a charm "against the devil that may be in the letters " "-hence the term Christ-cross or crissrow; next two alphabets, one of small letters and one of capitals; then three rows of syllables, those mystic incantations that sounded in every American schoolroom down to very recent timesabebib" and "babebibobu;" and last, "In the Name of the Father" and the Lord's Prayer. And there the child's education usually ended.

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The earliest horn-books-of about 1450-were written in Latin in black-letter. At the time of the Reformation they appeared in English. They were used universally for many years in America as well as in Europe, but finally gave way before cheaper paper and printing and more extensive demands. Shakespeare knew the horn-book. He says in

Richard III:

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Neatly secured from being soiled or torn,
Beneath a pane of thin translucent horn,
A book (to please us at a tender age
Tis called a book, though but a single page)
Presents the prayer the Saviour deigned to teach,
Which children use, and parsons-when they preach.
The horn-book passed; the battledore book throve
battledore was first aptly

in its place. The name

to a battledore. It was merely a stiff cardboard sheet folded once, with a little flap, like a pocketbook. It included alphabets, sometimes illustrated, syllable lists and prayers. The back was often blazoned magnificently in Dutch gilt, an art now lost, and not very generally regretted.

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The horn-book and battledore books held the same place in education that the printer does to-day. The first primers were not children's reading-books, but religious manuals, with creeds and prayers to suit the particular beliefs of the sect that published them. Martin Luther wrote a "Child's Little Primer taining the Lord's Prayer, the Commandments, the Creed and a Catechism. Henry VIII's progress toward Protestantism is marked by the tone of the successive official primers. These devotional manuals were adapted for children's use by the insertion of a page of alphabets and syllables.

Of this sort was "The New England Primer," the first schoolbook written and published in America. Its author, Benjamin Harris, a London Puritan


applied to the horn-book, and lingered on very in- bookseller, was obliged to leave England because of aptly in reference to a device that had no resemblance

his too truculent piety. He landed in Boston in 1687,

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