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Rote Work in early teaching of history,


Russell, William F., Early Methods of Teaching History in Secondary Schools, 14-19, 44-52; historical textbooks published before 1861, 122-125. See also index to Vol. V; Problem Method in the Teaching of History, His 156.

lacret, J. H., "Bourbon and Vasa," reviewed, 87.

anford, Albert H., review of Beard's "Readings in American Government and Politics," 89; review of Hill's "The Teaching of Civics," 127; review of Johnson's "Captain John Smith," 300; review of Mace's "Method in History," 330.

chilling, D. C., review of West's "The Modern World," 331.

chmidt, Louis B., The Activities of the State Historical Society of Iowa, 75


choolbooks of Our Ancestors, 243-248. cott, Jonathan F., "Historical Essays on Apprenticeship and Vocational Education," reviewed, 126.

Greek History," 158; review of Icely's "English History, 1715-1815," 159; source readings on Texas history, 296. South California Social Science Association, 155.

Southern California, University of, summer school courses, 149. Standards for Judging History Instruction, 235-241; methods of testing efficiency, 241-242.

"State: I History and Development,"
Stearns, Wallace N., Canadian History
by F. Oppenheimer, reviewed, 26.
Next, 294.

Stout, John E., "The High School," re-
Stowell, Ellery C., "Diplomacy of the
viewed, 226.
War of 1914," reviewed, 332.
Stratford-on-Avon Conference, 156.
Summer School of the South, courses in,


Summer Schools, History in, 1915, 147


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for Grade, Minimum of, 325-328. Syllabus, use of, 33; in European history, by A. H. Lybyer, 192; method of using, in high school, 219220; proposed in Virginia, 333. Tariff, Protective, arguments for, 333. "Taxation under John and Henry III, Studies in," by S. K. Mitchell, reviewed, 301.

Violette, E. M., Wanted-A New Order of Reference Books in History, 261263.

Virginia History Teachers, 333.
Virginia, University of, summer school
courses, 149.

Vitalizing the History Work, by R. D.
Chadwick, 112-121.
Vocational Education, essays on, re-
viewed, 126.

econdary Schools, Economics in, 26. econdary Schools, History in, teaching of Roman History, 3-12, 53,58; early methods of teaching, 14-19, 44-52; definition of field of history in, 23, 92, 193, 127; contemporary history in, 8285; unity and continuity in high school history courses, 140-144; problem method, 156; programs of, 173178; social sciences in, 212-215; word study in, 220-221; standards of judging, 235-241; methods of attaining efficiency, 241-242; American history in, 249-256, 281-286; relation of high school history to college history, 272277; political parties and leaders, course in, 312-315; course of study in Berkeley, Cal., 328-330. ellery, G. C., review of J. D. Rogers' Texas History Teacher's Bulletin, 24, "Outlines of Modern Europe," 190;


Teachers of History, training of, report of committee upon, 150-152; certification of, ibid.; training of, 275-276. Teaching of History, course in, 224; Teaching of History," by H. Johnson, reviewed, 265; in the Elementary School, 290-293. See Methods; Secondary Schools; Colleges.

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Tennessee History Teachers' Associa

tion, meeting of, 156.

156, 296.

courses, 149.

Walsh, Correa M., "Political Science of

Wanted A New Order of Reference John Adams," reviewed, 266.

historical, published before 1861, 122125; total sales of, in U. S., 223; criticism of, 261-263.

Books in History, 261-263. War, European, possible terms of peace, 12; the war and future of civilization, 13; short bibliography mentioned, 23; college course upon, 23; magazine articles upon, see Periodical Literature; effect upon history teaching in England, 60; German literature upon, 6263; teaching the war, 67-70; the war in English schools, 73; attitude of The History Teacher's Magazine toward, 74-75; the war in German schools, 81; and the Magazine, 121; history teachers and the war, 154; literature upon, 228; supplementary bibliography referred to, 311; Stowell's Diplomacy of, 332; influence upon French schools, 333; economic causes of, 333; effect upon history teachers' papers, 323. "War of 1812, Diplomacy of," by F. A. Updyke, reviewed, 330.

review of Allen's "Age of Erasmus," Texas, University of, summer school eybolt, Robert F., review of Scott's Textbooks, early methods in use of, 15; Historical Essays on Apprenticeship and Vocational Education," 126. seymour, Charles, Recent Aspects of British Electoral Reform, 70-73. heap, Harriet, The Working Museum of History Again, 184. heppard, William R., "Latin America," reviewed, 189. hong, A. C., review of J. E. Stout's Tomlinson, Everett E.,

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Thallon, Ida C., "Readings in Greek History," reviewed, 158.

Thompson, James Westfall, Value, Content, and Method in Medieval History, 20-23.

"Places Young Americans Want to Know," reviewed, 332.

Trimble, William J., The Agrarian History of the United States as a Subject for Research, 135-137.

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Wells, H. G., "Social Forces in England and America," reviewed, 190.

West, the teaching of government in, 4044. "The Modern World,"

West, Willis M., reviewed, 331. Westermann, William L., review of Bouchier's "Life and Letters in Roman Africa," 59; review of Mierow's edition of Jordan's Gothic History, 190; The Municipal System of the Roman State, 103-110. West Virginia University, school courses. 149. White, Joseph A., History Teaching in England and the Great War, 60-61. Wilgus, James A., Teaching of History in the Elementary School, 290-293. 66 Thomas Jefferson,"

Smith, Captain John," by R. Johnson, Tuell, Harriet E., High School and Col- Williams, John S.,

reviewed, 300.

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Smith, Charles A., review of Mitchell's Tyler, M. W., Last Twelve Years of Brit- Williams, Mary W., editor of depart

"Studies in Taxation," 301.

mith, Theodore C., "The Wars between

England and America," reviewed, 59.

ish Diplomacy, 180-181.

"Union and Democracy," by A. John

son, reviewed, 331.

ment of Periodical Literature, 24, 62, 94, 128, 160, 187; A Fragment of the Passing Frontier, 33-37.

Social Forces in England and Amer- Unity and Continuity in High School Williams, Oscar W., expert in consulta

ica." by H. G. Wells, reviewed, 190.

History Courses, 140-144.

Social Sciences in the High School, 212- Updyke, F. A., "Diplomacy of the War


fociology, in high school, 214-215.

Source Books, review of Beard's "Read

ings in American Government and

Politics," 89; review

of 1812," reviewed, 330.

tion work in history, 91; Standards for Judging History Instruction, 235241.

Usher, Roland G., The War and the Fu- Wisconsin, University of, summer school

ture of Civilization, 13.

of Webster's Values, Educational, in history, 154,

"Readings in Ancient History," 90;

review of Thallon's

155, 156, 157, 167-178, 187.

"Readings in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, 323.

courses, 150.

Woodburn, James A., Political Parties

and Party Leaders, 312-315. Word Study in History Teaching, 220222.

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Volume VII. Number 1.


$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

The Nature and Method of History'


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"It were far better, as things now stand," says Professor Dicey in his brilliant book on The Law of the Constitution," "to be charged with heresy than les to fall under the suspicion of lacking historicalmindedness." The high popular appreciation of the subject which is implied in this saying is flatterB ing to the professional historian, but doubts intrude. Our colleagues love to cite to us on occasion that dictum of Sainte Beuve that "History is in great part a set of fables which people have agreed to believe in;" and we are regaled also with the story of the great Whig leader who, when retired from politics, A called for something to read-" anything but history," said he, " for history must be false.' Lack of historical-mindedness may be an intellectual crime, but a true appreciation of the nature of history and of its OP methods-still more, a constant and correct application of these in the discussion of problems of current politics-is the rarest of virtues, and one not always displayed by professional historians themselves. discussion, therefore, of the nature of this subject, and the materials and processes of the historical student, may not be altogether impertinent. Let it be understood at the outset, however, that I have little to offer you of my own. This whole paper may be described as merely a rehash of principles laid down in the well-known manuals of Bernheim, of Langlois and Seignobos, and of other writers on historical methodology.

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First, then, as to the nature of history. Here, I hink, is the great stumbling-block, not only for the aity, but for the old-fashioned historians as well. With due humility I would assert that all the definiions which make history a record or narrative Of events are fundamentally wrong. They direct attention not to the content but to the vehicle of the subject; to the outer husk and not to the inner meat. This, I contend, is by no means an unessential mat5 (pter, for it colors the whole point of view. The decision of this point determines whether history is to be accounted a branch of literature or a science; whether artistry of presentation or the veracity of The facts presented is to be reckoned the main thing. O capable a historian as Mr. Rhodes has shown himelf to be in his "History of the United States from 850," errs on this point when he comes to set down

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1 Paper read at the Gary Conference on History Teachng in the Secondary Schools, February 26, 27, 1915. Rerinted from Indiana University Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 10 September, 1915), pp. 44-54.

the qualities which make the great historian; and with him err the late Charles Francis Adams, president of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a host of lesser lights. In their view Herodotus, Thucydides, and Tacitus are still the unsurpassed masters, because of the charm of their presentation and the vigor of their style. Despite the vast increase of historical knowledge-despite the sharpening of the historian's tools, the perfecting of his methods, and the enormously greater skill displayed in critical processes the modern historian is held less worthy than the ancient, on the ground of inferiority in the art of presenting his subject. I confess that, to me, this view seems most absurd. The zoologist of today does not value Pliny or Buffon above modern writers on account of a possibly greater charm of style; nor are Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville esteemed better guides than more recent travelers to the geography of Asia, because of the naive charm of their narratives. History is a body of knowledge,. and literary considerations have the same weight, and no greater, in estimating the value of works dealing with it as is accorded to those relating to mathematics, astronomy, and the other sciences.

No one

Pray, however, do not misunderstand me. will condemn more readily than I the slovenly writer who, through carelessness, pedantic affectation, or ignorance of his mother tongue produces an unreadable book, no matter with what field of knowledge it is concerned. Perhaps more than on most subjects, works on history, because of their concern with the facts of man's life in society, can and ought to be made easily and pleasantly readable, not only for the scholar, but for the general public also. And this union of accurate scholarship with artistic skill of presentation is by no means unknown among historians. Parkman possessed in a high degree both qualities; Dean Milman and John Richard Green are cases in point; and Macaulay, though at times biased by political prejudices, and inaccurate from too much dependence on his truly marvelous memory, was a shining example of the combination of vast historical erudition with a captivating style. The point which I wish to make is merely this: that style can save no man, and (in the words of Professor Masson, the author of the monumental life of Milton), "History without accuracy is a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal." It is for this reason that Hume, Rollin, and Ridpath are numbered among the historically damned; that Froude, Thierry, and Fiske wander in the limbo of the uncondemned yet unredeemed; and

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