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BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM F. RUSSELL, GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS, NASHVILLE, TENN. B. Teaching Devices and Objective Aids.

1. TEACHING DEVICES.

Special means of facilitating work were discovered and introduced in the early years of the teaching of history in this country. Many of the most successful devices practiced to-day were used during the first part of the nineteenth century.

(a) Review Questions.

Utica Academy reported in 1835 as follows:

"From the above imperfect outlines the Regents will appreciate the motives of the trustees, believing, as they do, that the primary principle of a sound and useful education is the unfolding of the faculties of the mind and the formation of habits-in insisting upon teacher's requiring of the pupils the most rigid exactness in their studies-compelling them to examine and re-examine, to review again and again their lessons, till they become perfectly familiar." 60

Faculty psychology and formal discipline required severe work on the part of the pupil. Thoroughness and care were demanded. As a consequence, frequent examinations and reviews became the order of the day. Schenectady Academy reports in 1836 that:

"The classes in . . . history . . . are taken through the book, reviewing the same several times in one term, which course renders them capable of passing a good examination at the close of the term in every part of the work studied." 61

Delaware Literary Institute said in 1844:

"In history, the important events, as well as dates, are required to be thoroughly understood and explained. An examination of the lesson recited the day before is included in every recitation; then a weekly examination of all the preceding week is recited." 62

Fulton Academy in 1844 reported as follows: "All students have daily reviewed the lessons of the pre

17Last American Frontier, 2-3.

60 New York, op. cit., 1835, pp. 63-4.

61 New York, op. cit., 1836, p. 59.

62 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 138.

ceding day. Ali students have been reviewed weekly in the lessons of the previous week.” 63

When the subject was new, and teachers poorly trained, when rigid and laborious reviewing was the order of the day, sets of questions and topics especially designed for review were in demand. Union Hall reported upon the subject as follows:

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Question books are generally used in this institution, when good ones can be obtained. They are supposed to economize time, and direct the student's attention to the more essential portions of his lesson. Nothing but an enlightened experience can render the labor of forming extempore questions from text-books thorough and successful. That the student may not run over the responses to his questions by rote, it is intended that he shall be again questioned on the answers he may give. The subjectmatter of the recitation should be broken up into analogies; so that while the questions lead the student to learn his lesson in detail, the teacher may enable him to conceive of it as a whole." 64

The text-books were quick to see the advantage of this. Among the books, including questions for review, are:

Adams, "An Abridgement of the History of New England," 1799.

Blake, “A Text-book in Geography and Chronology,” 1814.
Citizen of Mass., "History of the United States," 1821.
Goodrich, "History of the United States," 1822.
Worcester, "An Epitome of History," 1828.
Hildreth, "A View of the United States," 1831.
Webster, "History of the United States," 1835.

For illustration, the following questions upon the voyages of Columbus are cited:

(1) Relate the circumstances of Columbus' voyage. 05 (2) What remarkable discoveries were made generally about this time, and in this reign, and by whom? What were their effects on Europe?

When was North America discovered, and by

whom? 60

18Changing America, 144.

03 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 149.

64 New York, op. cit., 1836, p. 54.

05 Citizen of Massachusetts, op. cit., p. 251.

06 Butler, op. cit., p. 201.

T

(3) What two conquests occurred in America?

Birthplace of Columbus?

To whom did he appeal for aid?

By whom patronized?

Describe his first voyage.

And his second-and third.

What gave the name of America? 67

(4) What is the extent of this period and for what is it distinguished?

Section 1. Who made the early discoveries on the continent of America? Who took the lead? Who was Christopher Columbus? Under whose patronage did he sail? In what year? What place did he first discover? Relate the most remarkable circumstances of his voyage. Give an account of Americus Vespucius.

2. What were the first discoveries made under English patronage? When? By whom?

3. What is said of the early discoveries of the French in America?

4. What is said of Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition to America in 1584? Whence had Virginia its name?

5. When and by whom was Cape Cod discovered?

NOTES.

6. What was the state of the country on the arrival of the first settlers?

7. By whom was the country inhabited? What was their number? Physical character? General character? What can you say of their literature, arts and manufactures, agriculture, skill in medicine, employments, amusements, dress, habitations, domestic utensils, food, money, society, war, government, religious notions, marriage, treatment of females, rites of burial, origin? 68

Such questions were generally placed at the ends of chapters, or as appendices in the back of the book. Occasionally questions were inserted as footnotes. Question books, adapted to popular texts, were published, eighteen such books being included in the list in the appendix.

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(1) From Emma Willard, "History of the United States," p. 311.

CATALOGUE OF PROMINENT MEN WHO DIED DURING THE PERIOD EXTENDING FROM 1789 TO 1803.

1789. ETHAN ALLEN, a brigadier-general in the American army.

JOHN LEDYARD, an enterprising traveler.
JOHN MORGAN, M.D., F.R.S., a learned physician.

1790. JOSEPH BELLAMY, D.D., a learned divine, author of a treatise entitled, "True Religion Delineated." JAMES BOWDOIN, LL.D., a distinguished philosopher and statesman, and first president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

DAVID BREARLY, distinguished as a lawyer and a

statesman.

6 Anon., "Questions Adapted to the Study of Tytler's Elements," p. 125.

es Goodrich, op. cit., p. 1 (of questions).

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, LL.D., F.R.S., a celebrated philosopher and statesman.

WILLIAM LIVINGSTON, author of a

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poem called

Philosophical Solitude," and miscellaneous pieces in prose and verse.

ISRAEL PUTNAM, a major-general in the American army.

(2) From Emma Willard, op. cit., p. xxxiv.

1789. April 30. Washington inaugurated first President of the United States.

The President visits New England.

North Carolina accedes to the Constitution.

1790. Mr. Hamilton's system of funding the national debt adopted.

Rhode Island accedes to the Constitution.
Aug. 7. Treaty with the Creek Indians.

Sept. 30. General Harner defeated by the Indians.
Tennessee erected into a Territory.

1791. Duties laid on spirits distilled within the United States.

A national bank is established.

Vermont admitted to the Union.

Nov. 4. General St. Clair defeated by the Indians.

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1781.

The Spanish fleet defeated by Admiral Rodney, January 16.

Charleston surrendered to the British, May 12.

A dreadful insurrection in London, and riots in many other places of the kingdom.

A great number of British ships taken by the combined fleets of France and Spain.

Lord Cornwallis defeats the Americans at Camden.
A dreadful hurricane in the Leeward Islands, Octo-
ber 9.

An extraordinary storm of wind in England.
War declared against the Dutch, December 20.
A terrible engagement between the Dutch and
British fleets near the Dogger Bank, August 5.
Lord Cornwallis and his army surrender to the united
forces of France and America, October 18.

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With this as a foundation, the topical outline in the broader sense was gradually built up. The process was very slow, however. In Newburgh Academy, in 1839, the following method was reported: History is taught perhaps in our own way. A set of topics is made out by the principal for a single lesson, and an outline map of the geography embraced in the subject is drawn. These are copied by the pupils, maps and all. The principal then goes over the topics with familiar remarks and explanations, pointing, when necessary, to the outline maps and endeavoring to bring the subject vividly before his youthful auditors. The marked attention, and sometimes the starting tear and heaving bosom testify to his success. The pupils then study the topics from their

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Seven per cent. of all the books included in the list (see Appendix E), published between 1800 and 1860, included geography in the title as well. There was close connection between geography and history. It is thus natural that the use of maps and geographical material should early have become common in the teaching of history in the secondary schools. Thus, for instance, Morse and Parish, in "A Compendious History of New England, 1809," included a good map of New England. Other early histories, such as Hildreth, etc., also included maps. Butler's "A Catechetical Compend of General History, lished in 1818, instructs teachers as follows:

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"It may be taught either by reading it classically, or by studying it upon small school maps, such as Cummings and Hilliards or Willetts or Adams, in the manner of studying geography, etc., etc.” 74

Emma Willard, in her "History of the Republic of America," says:

"This work is designed for pupils who are already in a measure acquainted with geography, particularly with the use of maps. My own pupils who will be put to study it, will be able to draw without a model, but merely from recollection, maps of the principal countries of the world, particularly of the United States." 75

The New York academies made a considerable use of maps. For instance, Newburgh Academy reported

in 1839:

...

As an

"A set of topics is set out by the principal for a single lesson, and an outline map of the geography embraced in the subject is drawn. These are copied by the pupils, maps and all. The principal then goes over the topics with familiar remarks and explanations, pointing, when necessary, to the outline maps, and endeavoring to bring the subject vividly before his youthful auditors. example of the maps, the first one upon the history of the United States is an outline of the western coast of Europe, the Straits of Gibraltar, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Eastern Coast of America. The second is a map of the coast of the United States, with here and there a settlement, the rest an unbroken wilderness. The third is a map of the colonies, etc." 76

73 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 146.

74 Butler, op. cit., preface.

75 E. Willard, "History of the Republic of America," p. 5. 78 New York, op. cit., 1839, p. 107.

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Amenia Seminary reported in 1837: extensive use has been made of the blackboard in almost all recitations. >>78

Lowville Academy in 1837 said: "The teachers avail themselves of blackboards and apparatus in communicating instruction.

"79

Utica Academy generalizes as follows:

"For the purpose of discriminating and comprehending, everything must, if possible, be presented to the eye. Every subject which admits this mode of illustration is subjected to exercise on the blackboard." so

Similar expressions of confidence are found among others in Kinderhook Academy,81 Genesee Wesleyan Academy,82 Auburn Academy,83 Delaware Academy,8+ Troy Female Seminary,85 Syracuse Academy,86 Lansinberg, Delaware Literary Institute,ss Gouveneur Wesleyan,80 Clinton Seminary,"0 and Stillwater Academy.91

(c) Charts.

Rather extensive tabulation of historical data was not uncommon in the early days of history teaching in this country. Maps, we have seen, were also often used. Blackboards were at hand upon which to work. It is not unnatural, therefore, that a torial representation of historical phenomena should have been used as an aid in the teaching of the subject. Worcester's "Elements of History," published in 1818, includes an elaborate chart, extending from 800 B. C. to 1818 A. D., decorated in many colors,

New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 151. 78 New York, op. cit., 1837, p. 78. 79 New York, op. cit., 1837, p. 93. 80 New York, op. cit., 1838, p. 97. 81 New York, op. cit., 1838, p. 85. 82 New York, op. cit., 1838, p. 98. 53 New York, op. cit., 1838, p. 99. 84 New York, op. cit., 1839, p. 108. 85 New York, op. cit., 1839, p. 114. 86 New York, op. cit., 1839, p. 129. 87 New York, op. cit., 1840, p. 191. P. 90.

ss New York, op. cit., 1841, 89 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 143. 90 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 149.

91 New York, op. cit., 1846, p. 146.

"to facilitate history study." Its value lay in the possibilities of cross section and longitudinal study, for perspective.

This form of objective aid has been popular from that day to this. Elaborate, indeed, have been some of the charts in use. Elizabeth Peabody, in her "Chronological History of the United States (New York, 1856), shows this tendency in the extreme. The chart is very elaborate. Each century is represented as a large square, sub-divided into 100 smaller squares, with heavy lines marking off the quarter centuries. That the pupil may center his attention upon matters of importance, small blocks are entered in the year squares, corresponding to the occurrence of such an event. These blocks vary as to color and position, according to country and type of event. For instance:

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The instructions which tell the story are: "When colors slant into each other, the nations concur in events. When several disconnected events happen in one square they are painted parallelograms. Epochal events fill the whole square to the neglect of sub-divisions.

"You will become acquainted with this symbolization by learning how each event is represented; and as you learn all about the events, in the chapters that describe their relation in the narrative, you will find that the picture will become fixed in your memory. It is easier to remember the relative locality of the representation than to remember the figures of the dates; while if you understand the plan, any locality can be turned into the figures, by a moment's thought, whenever you need them. All dates are not represented; but if you have the dates here represented perfectly by heart, events are so connected in the narrative of history that you can easily place any one, by the exercise of your imaginative memory, in its locality, and see its general chronological relation." (10-11.)

Such a device would in all probability defeat its own ends. It is merely cited as an illustration of a tendency, powerful in its influence.

C. The Progress of History Methods as Shown in Six Editions of C. A. Goodrich's "History of the United States."

It has been shown that in early times the methods were simple and crude, that modifications were sug

gested to rote work, that catechetical methods were introduced, that teaching devices and objective aids were discovered. The exact effect of such innovations upon class-room procedure has not been determined. There are not sufficient data at hand.

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There is, however, a means at our disposal, by which in a small way may be secured a consecutive view of the progress in methods as carried out in practice. We may study the changes made in various editions of the same book, realizing that since class-room methods follow the text, we are more closely approximating a knowledge of actual practice. C. A. Goodrich's History of the United States was the most popular history text-book of its day. Its total sales are estimated at over 500,000 copies in fifty years. If, then, the growth and improvement in methods and suggestions be closely watched in the following six editions, we shall be able to see the growth from 1822 to 1867. The editions at hand are:

(1) Goodrich, C. A. "History of the United States." Hartford, 1824.

(2) Goodrich, C. A. "A History of the United States of America on a Plan Adapted to the Capacities of Youths and Designed to Aid the Memory by Systematic Arrangement and Interesting Associations." 35th edition. Boston, 1852.

(3) Goodrich, C. A. "A History of the United States of America from the Discovery of the Continent by Christopher Columbus to the Present Time." Hartford, 1833. (4) Goodrich, C. A. (Same as 2.) 55th edition. Claremont, N. H., 1834.

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The second edition (1829) was intended for school use. Its suggestions to teachers have already been. mentioned. Memoriter work was demanded. The book was to be "learned" over and over again. The innovation in the edition is a set of review questions" placed in the back of the book, with the more important questions put in italics. The pupil was not, therefore, called upon to use his own judgment. Our third edition (1833) improves upon the first in a small way. Several illustrations are added and a 'chronological list" is placed in the appendix. This includes all the officers of the first six administrations.

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The fourth edition (1834), being of the same period, makes no advance. There are a few illustrations, and the review questions are omitted.

The fifth edition, eighteen years later (1852). shows many improvements. There are seventy-five pages of review questions in the back of the book,

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indicating a rapidly growing popularity in this particular. The facts are still, however, to be firmly riveted in the memory." There is an index of topics, for the guidance of teacher and pupil. Six maps are included. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States are placed in the appendix. Between 1834 and 1853 a great improvement is evident.

The sixth edition, coming in 1867, represents the text book maker's view of the development of history teaching to that date. Large and small type are used as guides to study. The review questions are placed as foot notes on each page. A list of important events, chronologically arranged, follows each chapter. The list of administrative officers, found in number three, is continued to the time of Lincoln. The Constitution and the Declaration of Independence are in the appendix. There is also a table of the states of the union, and a pronouncing index. Maps are numerous throughout the book.

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The most important new feature is a chapter in the appendix written by A. P. Stone, entitled Hints on the Method of Teaching History." He advises diversity in the assignment, the use of collateral readings and topical outlines. He warns against the too frequent use of printed questions. He advises the pupil to read over the lesson one or more times to grasp the general scope of it.

"After which the different portions should be learned so thoroughly that he can give a full or concerted account of it, as a whole or by topic, with but few questions or hints from the teacher."

He advises reference to maps and to biographies. The teacher's questions should make the pupil think. Review should only come when needed, and should be for the purpose of grouping and generalization. So far had methods progressed by the time of the Civil War.

(D.) Exceptional Cases of Early Methods Judged in the Light of Modern Standards.

The secondary school is the institution designed for the training of our leaders. The curriculum followed and the methods used should be under the domination of such an aim. Perhaps the most important quality which marks off the leader from the led, is the ability to do one's own thinking, to approach a new situation from one's own point of view, to analyze and solve without delay, the problem which is always confronting one. The achievement of correct habits of thought, as the work of the secondary school, was appreciated, as we have seen in the previous chapter, from the first. It was a natural

expression in terms of formal discipline and faculty psychology. There were, however, individuals who appreciated from a common sense point of view the real significance of the problem. This is a good statement of the case:

Now no one will deny the superiority of correct mental habits, to a bare accumulation of isolated facts. In whatever pursuit the pupil may engage in after life, he will

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