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never fail to meet with the requisite number of subjects to demand the constant action of his intellectual powers. He phenomena of nature; in the matters of business; facts, in numerable; facts in his individual history; in the history of nations; in the action of government and laws; in the phenomena of nature; in the matters of business; facts, in short, at every step, of the origin and nature of which books furnish no explanation, but which he must constantly analyze, solve and demonstrate for himself. . . The great object to be acquired is correct habits of thought. Everything should be directed to the accomplishment of this great end." 93

Riga Academy in 1850 reported as follows:

"To teach how to think is or should be the principal object of the whole course of discipline of the school room. Every mind is full of thoughts, and he who has these under perfect control, so that they will go and come at his bidding, is the educated man. Practice will accomplish this, and practice should be the practice of the school." 94

The pursuit of such an aim for the faculty psychologist meant severe application and zealous preparation upon almost any subject matter and in almost any way, so long as it remained difficult. According to the modern logic, based upon the new psychology, training for correct habits of thought rests upon an entirely new basis. Thinking comes in answer to a problem, a felt want. The thinker must feel the value of the solution, or he will not bother himself about it. Organization of material for solution is needed, and the individual must have the right to approacn the situation in his own way. As a consequence, from this point of view these elements must be provided for in the class room, if the instruction is actually to train for correct habits of thought.

Faculty psychology and formal discipline were no barriers to some of the teachers in the early days. Common sense and intuition helped individuals to provide better teaching; and even when judged by modern day standards, some of the instruction in history would stand the test.

It will be interesting to note, therefore, the extent to which a few individuals appreciated in early days the standards laid down by modern psychology, logic, and sociology.

Provision for Motive on the Part of the Pupils.

Motive was provided for the pupil, but often of a negative sort. The scholar did his work, and the birch rod spurred him on. He was compelled to do his task, whether or not. Utica Academy reported in


"Habitual idleness must never be tolerated by the teachers of our academy. The students must be taught that industry is a duty. The incorrigibly idle are separated from the regular classes, and degraded into classes by themselves, and subjected to punishment at the discretion of the teachers. Their situation here soon becomes so uncomfortable that they are usually removed by parents to places more congenial to their habits." 95

93 New York, op. cit., 1841, p. 105. 94 New York, op. cit., 1850, p. 198. 95 New York, op. cit., 1835, p. 62.

"The government of the students is rigid, but not severe. One general rule is sufficient to guide the students at all times, and on all occasions, viz.: Every scholar must do his duty.' When other means fail to produce obedience, corporal punishments are inflicted at the discretion of the teachers; generally, however, with information to the parents of the character and circumstances that call for severity." 96

Other types of fear and reward were used. Troy Female Seminary represented a type:

"The method to accomplish this result (not easily attained) is, we consider, the fixing in the mind of the pupil at the commencement of a term, a certain expectation of a public and thorough examination at the close. . .


Utica Academy was one of a group to offer another type of motive.

"As a reward for particular excellence in studies or in deportment, by complying with specific regulations or directions, any student is entitled once a week to a letter of recommendation, recommending him to his parent or friend for such reward as he shall think proper to bestow." 98

Occasionally, however, a far-seeing man intuitively realized the need of proper provision for motive. The principal of Livingston County High School, an educational progressive of his day spoke as follows:

"The pupil is always pleased with ascertaining for himself everything submitted to his investigation. Who has not witnessed the joy gleaming on the countenance of the child when success has crowned its own unaided efforts? And this natural principle, the only true and proper basis of school discipline, is commonly stifled in our early youth. We then resort to the ferule; and to the worst of all influences, emulation; to supply the deficiency, to remedy the evil, we ourselves have created. True, the scholar often requires guidance, but never to be led blindfolded. He 'looks for a guide, not a governor.' Is the pupil encouraged to walk boldly forward, or is he driven into the darkness before him, to stumble at every obstacle which another's hand has not removed, or to be frightened at phantoms." 99

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The common system has been aptly termed 'the railroad system of knowledge, a rapid passage to the journey's end, but nothing seen by the way.' Often he has witnessed the highest mental gratification exhibited by the pupil, when the latter has of himself obtained the correct solution of a question in history or science. And to that youthful mind, it necessarily partook of all the pleasures of an important discovery, a discovery, too, which never will be forgotten.'" 99

This belief that thought comes in answer to a problem, a problem appreciated by the pupil, while

96 New York, op. cit., 1835, p. 62. 97 New York, op. cit., 1838, p. 88.

os New York, op. cit., 1836, p. 66.

99 New York, op. cit., 1841, pp. 105-6.

rare in practice among schoolmen, was not entirely unheard of. That it was consciously held is improbable. That the principle (quoted above) was verging on modern theory, however, cannot be far from true. Consideration of Values on the Part of the Pupils.

In no one place was there a complete appreciation of the importance of the pupil weighing the worth of the subject matter for himself, as a phase of good mental work. There was, however, a gradually growing feeling on the part of educators that all subjects were not of equal worth, that the mental training receivable varied with different studies, and that practical utility was a consideration well worthy of note. Concomitant with the growth of this feeling, was the gradual and never complete transference of this idea to the pupil himself.

Benjamin Franklin in his famous "chapeau bras" passage, argued for the need of practical utility in subject matter. Gideon Hawley, Secretary of the New York Board of Regents, in the passage quoted above, had the same opinion. The principal of Kinderhook Academy in 1841 said:

"We are fully persuaded that too small a portion of time has been given to subjects of practical utility; for instance, many teachers expend much time on 'Heathen Mythology' and very little on the 'Constitution of the United States.' Too much time is often given to ancient history, compared with that allotted to the history of our own times." 100

The principal of Dutchess County Academy in

1844 wrote:

"It is better, in my opinion, for a lad to know something about the laws and constitution of his own State than about the stars, which will do as they like for us; but by knowing the laws we can better control others and ourselves." 101

The question of relative value was a puzzle to the progressive schoolmen of the day. As an illustration, see the remarks of the principal of Livingston County High School in 1840:

"The distinction between the most and least practical subjects of study is one which is not clearly understood. Without pretending to any superior discrimination upon this point, it is confidently believed that the great mistake generally made upon this subject, results from looking to what MAY BE, rather than to what is, of daily application. The parent directs the teacher to confine his child to the most practical studies. Is the pupil taught intellectual philosophy, political economy, rhetoric and kindred subjects? The parent complains of a disregard on the teacher's part of the request originally made. It is said that the child should have been drilled in mathematics. The advantages resulting from the latter studies are by no means unappreciated; but is the knowledge derived from them of such frequent, constant application, as that obtained from the former class of studies? The great principles of mental philosophy, political economy, and ethics, are of never ceasing application. Their practical utility may be ascertained by listening for only a few minutes to the conversation of intelligent men, upon any question of

100 New York, op. cit., 1841, p. 81. 101 New York, op. cit., 1844, p. 137.

importance to the community. These studies which have been generally regarded as merely speculative or theoreti☺! cal, which in truth are far more practical than those judged to be such by most men." 102

Horace Mann was alive to the same problem. After making the survey of secondary education in Massachusetts in 1843 (quoted above), he says:


'Can any satisfactory ground be assigned why algebraa branch which not one man in a thousand ever had the occasion to use in the business of life-should be studied by more than twenty-three hundred pupils, and book-keeping, which every man, even the day laborer, should understand, should be attended to by only a little more than half that number? Among farmers and road-makers, why should geometry take precedence of surveying, and among seekers after intellectual and moral truth, why should rhetoric have double the followers of logic?" 103

It is evident that among occasional educators the problem of relative worth was beginning to have weight. The problem, when considered, however, pertained only to the administrator, the maker of the curriculum. The further step, that the pupil should see the worth was almost never taken.

Whitesboro Academy in 1836 said:

"We aim at securing an interest in study by inspiring the pupil with a sense of the value and importance of knowledge." 104

These are probably only words, words that sound meaningful to the modern ear, but which denote but little for the past.

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Kinderhook Academy in 1839 said:

'It is our aim to direct our pupils to those subjects which are of the greatest practical utility, and to lay the foundation broad and deep for a solid education. With this idea we have devoted a portion of each week to some subject connected with the general principles of government, or to a consideration of the constitution of the United States, or the structure of our own state government." 106

Black River Literary and Religious Institute reported as follows in 1841:

The prominent events affecting the welfare of nations and the cause of philanthropy, are presented once a week, so that in their secluded situation we can give our students a glance at things of moment in the wide world about them. We are not much enamoured with the old system of dry application to scholastic text-books, altogether unenlivened by the mention of incidents or interests in real life, domestic, social or national. One object is to train our pupils for the great business of life by incorporating moral, religious and economic culture with scientific and literary; and we

102 New York, op. cit., 1840, pp. 101-2.

103 Massachusetts, "Annual Report of the Board of Education," 1843, p. 56.

104 New York, op. cit., 1837, p. 97. 105 New York, op. cit., 1840, p. 94.

100 New York, op. cit., 1839, p. 109.

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believe that in attending to the former we aid the student to make greater proficiency in the latter. We show him the uses of knowledge; and the responsibilities that are about to encircle him in his progressive march of improvement and growing capabilities of action." 107

The principal of Livingston County High School approached more nearly than anyone else the modern point of view. He said:

"The scholar is a reasoning being; and nothing but satisfactory proofs in science or art ought to satisfy him. His duty in life is that of a LEADER, not a blind follower. He is to be one of the RULERS of his country, not the DUPE of other men's arts. How has he qualified himself for his vocation when his whole youth has been spent in LEARNING TO BE LED? Authority and testimony have their appropriate sphere of action. They are not, however, to usurp universal dominion. That young man who leaves the school-room with a well-fixed habit of examining for himself, of never acting but from a pure conviction of the justice and truth of his course, is the only one that can be called educated. No matter, comparatively, if his store of facts be limited, he has within himself a power above all naked facts-a power to look through the form of things, into the principles which underlie and give value to them." 108

Since almost no results have persisted, provision for pupil motive could not have influenced the teaching profession to any great degree.

Attention to Organization on the Part of the Pupils.

The attention to organization, common at the time, has been shown under "review questions treated above. The evil of poor organization was often realized. As an illustration see the report of Union Hall Academy in 1836 saying that the pupil might be

a master of a great and undigested mass of facts, and yet he may not be able to avail himself of these facts from an ignorance of their relation and dependency." 109

Whitesboro Academy said in 1837:

"Sound judgment depends upon attention to all relations, the more minute as well as the more obvious, and a proper estimate of those relations." 110

Considerable effort was made in many places to secure organization through the centering of the pupils' attention upon relative importance of feature of a topic. For instance, many pupils were required to hand in "the most important questions which they can originate by a critical review and study of the chapter. Jefferson Academy in using the same method (quoted above) said that "a comparative estimate of scholarship will be made by a comparative estimate of the importance of the questions brought forward."

The importance of organization as a means for the training of memory and for exhibition purposes upon examination was realized and to an extent carried out in school practice. Organization as a factor in good mental work was not realized, and its values came as a by-product, if at all.

107 New York, op. cit., 1841, p. 98.
108 New York, op. cit., 1841, pp. 106-7.

109 New York, op. cit., 1836, p. 54.

110 New York, op. cit., 1837, p. 97.

Provision for Initiative on the Part of the Pupils.

According to the newer logic, provision for the pupil to speak his own mind, to think his own thoughts, to put forward his own little opinion for the consideration of his fellows, is a necessary part of good mental work. If, therefore, the school is to train leaders, individuals who are to think for themselves, some place must be given to this sort of initiative.


Undoubtedly it was at this place that the schools of eighty years ago were at their weakest. Amenia teacher was master, the pupil the slave. Seminary reports with pride upon the following provision:

"The classes have usually spent at least one hour each day in the recitation room with their teacher. Most of the students have not had less than three daily recitations. While in the recitation room they have been desired to state freely, either during the time of recitation or immediately after, any difficulties or new ideas which have been suggested in connection with the subject under consideration. In some cases very animated debates upon doubtful points have been allowed." 111

The principal of Livingston County High School saw the situation as follows:

"He (the pupil) sits listlessly by, waiting to receive passively whatever is prepared by his teacher, fearful often to express in language the little discoveries burning in him for utterance. Day after day he goes through a dry and uninteresting repetition of what his author has written, whilst, it may be, not one principle is understood, or whilst he is even convinced of the falsity of the doctrines taught. Still he must be driven forward on his desert route, and recreant, indeed, must he be to his own nature, if no little driving be not requisite. If it be the object of our school system to make machines instead of scholars, the true course has been adopted. The pupil has been taught to be acted upon-never to act; to be the object movednever the mover. And when his education is completed' he goes into the world, fitted to become the credulous dupe of any artful schemer. He has never learned the great duty of self-reliance." 112

Constructively, this educator makes a plea for initiative in the schools. He says:

"It will be asked, would you encourage the pupil to dissent from the author studied? YES; most assuredly, whenever the author is wrong. He should never blindly adopt the views of either author or instructor. If neither of them can give a satisfactory reason for his views, he ought not to be believed. If his statement is not accredited, the fault is his own, not the scholar's. He is not fit for his

avocation; let him go learn before he thinks of teaching. The scholar is a reasoning being; and nothing but satisfactory proofs in science or art ought to satisfy him." 113 Initiative did exist at times.

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many similarities to present day practice. The text book was the chief source of information; memorization, especially of the "more important facts and dates" was required, although opposition was arising; catechetical methods were being introduced. Maps, blackboards and charts were in general use; and review questions were popular. Topical outlines were in their infancy. Almost no illustration of the source method was found.

Certain exceptional cases of good teaching were found. Individuals had approached the modern point of view, despite the faculty psychology and formal discipline. It seems probable that as long as there

was no social tradition behind historical study, and as long as pupils paid tuition according to the courses taken, practical utility was emphasized.

The material deals almost exclusively with New York State. History had achieved equal popularity in Massachusetts, and was beginning to be adopted in other states of the union. Teachers learn by imitation. The principal and the superintendent adopt innovations as a rule only after success has elsewhere been achieved. The experience of the teachers in the secondary schools of New York, therefore, must have had profound influence upon the teaching of history in the other states of the union.

Community Civics-What It Means

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A broadened and simplified conception of the meaning of citizenship largely controls the new "civics. It is the conception implied when one says that "A. is a good citizen," which ordinarily means that A. is a serviceable member of the community in which he lives. Training for citizenship would mean, then, training for efficient membership in the community. The type of civic training developing from this idea is frequently called community civics.

The aim of community civics is to help the child to "know his community "--not merely a lot of facts about his community, but the meaning of his community life, what it does for him and how it does it, what the community has a right to expect from him and how he may fulfill his obligation, meanwhile cultivating in him the essential qualities and habits of good citizenship.

Community civics by no means minimizes the importance of government. It describes and emphasizes government at every step as the chief means by which the citizens of a community cooperate. It seeks to give a perspective to government that the older civil government did not give. It approaches the mechanism of government through its relations to the immediate interests of the citizen.


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Community civics does not mean local civics merely. There is some confusion about this. Some seem to fear that community civics will displace an adequate consideration of the national and state governments. Sometimes there is talk about community civics in one grade and national civics in another. This is a misapprehension of the significance of the term.

It is true that community civics lays emphasis upon the local community because (1) it is the community with which every citizen, especially the child, comes into most intimate relations, and which is always in the foreground of experience; (2) it is easier for the child (as for any citizen) to realize his membership in the local community, to feel a sense of personal responsibility for it, to enter into actual cooperation with it, than is the case with the national community.

But our nation and our state are communities, as well as our city or village, and the child is a citizen of the larger as of the smaller community. The significance of the term "community civics" does not lie in its geographical implications, but in its implication of community relations, of a community of interests, of community cooperation through government, and so on. It is possible even to study one's own town without having the point of view

or the spirit of community civics. It is a question of point of view and of attitude. And "community civics " applies this point of view and this attitude to the study of the national community as well as to the study of the local community.

An eighth grade class was approaching a study of the health protective work of the community. The preliminary discussion brought vividly into the foreground what it meant to each one to have good health. By natural steps it was brought out that when people live together in communities certain dangers to health arise; that each is dependent upon others for his safety from disease; that if everyone is to be safe there must be cooperation. The children discussed and illustrated dangers to health in their own community; they showed how the family cooperated for the health of each member; they discussed the relation of the school to health, in its arrangements, its care and its activity; they were convinced that each pupil in school had some responsibility for the health of the entire school: they brought in illustrations of neighborhood cooperation in the interest of neighborhood health; and they finally reached the idea that the entire city community must cooperate if the health of any one citizen were to be safe. and that one of the chief purposes of the city government is to afford a means for such cooperation. Then followed some description of how the government does this, and in an enumeration of the things that the board of health does, one child said that "it passes pure food laws." Another objected, "No; the national government makes the pure food laws." At once the discussion broadened to the question why the national government acts in this particular matter instead of the local government, and the relation of the great packing houses to the common health interests of the entire nation was disclosed. Other aspects of the activity of the national government for health protection were discussed, and also the sphere of the state government in the same relation.

Before the series of discussions on the community health protective activities was concluded, every child in the class had a view of the local community cooperating through the agency of its government, the state community through its government, the national community through its gov ernment-all in the interest of the health of the child as of every other citizen. It was all community civics. Incidentally, it effectually eliminated the problem of which should be studied first-local, state or national government. They were all studied together in their relations to each other and in their relations to the function of protecting the health of the citizen.




The Military Organization of the Roman Empire


The Teaching of Roman History. VI.

INVESTIGATION AND LITERATURE. -The Roman military system is an attractive field for study and scholarly research by reason of its fundamental historical importance and the great variety of interesting material available for investigation. The original sources of information are either documentary, as references in classical literature, inscriptions, legal writings, and papyri, or archaeological, as remains of camps and frontier works, ancient weapons and armor, and ships, and possibly even mural paintings. The progress of the exploration of Roman fortifications, especially along the frontier of the ancient empire, is followed by scholars with intense interest. This work is carried on with special thoroughness in Germany, where the results are recorded in a monumental publication, edited by von Sarwey and Hettner, Der obergermanisch raetische Limes des Römerreiches, Heidelberg (1895- ). Important, although less systematic, investigations are being carried on in Scotland, England, Austria and elsewhere. The general features of the Roman military organization have been determined, but the material at hand is still far from exhausted for matters of detail, and valuable contributions can still be made wherever the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, or collection of Latin inscriptions, and the texts of Latin and Greek authors are at hand.



At the time of the Second Punic War it had been
necessary to maintain armies constantly in the field
for many years, and after the termination of the great
struggle large garrisons had to be kept in the new
provinces beyond the seas.
provinces beyond the seas. The traditional system of
universal service required that the military burden be
apportioned equably. But the geographical and other
conditions that now prevailed made it very difficult
to release the soldiers frequently by substituting fresh
recruits. Circumstances gave rise inevitably to the
custom of retaining in the field a comparatively small
fraction of the entire body of citizens for a long
period and thereby relieving the others altogether
from military service. In this way, while the theory
still prevailed that the army was identical with the
whole body of citizens, excepting the poorest, a de
facto standing army of really professional soldiers
came into existence. No single factor in the life of the
Roman community was more potent in bringing about
the convulsions in which the republic perished than
this fundamental transformation in the nature of mili-
tary service. Marius puts an end to an anomalous
situation by enrolling volunteers from the poorest
class instead of levying recruits on the basis of the
census lists. The volunteers were eager to enter the
army to secure the material prizes. They had no
other interests to distract their zeal. Their attitude
Universal obligation to
military service was not formally abolished, but
henceforth the legions were usually made up of volun-
teers. The long term of service enabled the soldiers
to attain a very much higher degree of military
efficiency; but, unfortunately, henceforward the de-
votion of the armies belonged to their generals, and
not to the commonwealth. During the distracted
period of civil contentions, military arrangements were
frequently altered to suit the ever shifting circum-
The legislation of Augustus reduced them
to a definite system, which was later modified in im-
portant respects by Hadrian and Septimius Severus,
and finally by Diocletian and Constantine.

The best general treatment of the Roman military system is by Marquardt, in Marquardt and Mommsen, Handbuch der römischen Altertümer, Leipzig, 1884, vol. 5, pages 319-611. Valuable material will be found in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des Antiquités grecques et romaines, Paris, 1873—, especially in the article legio; also in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, Stuttgart, 1894, in the articles ala and cohors. The article on the Roman Army and Navy in Sandys, A Companion to Latin Studies, Cambridge, 1910, may be recommended as a comprehensive treatment in English, and Harry Pratt Judson, Caesar's Army, Boston, 1888, 1902, Ginn & Co., is a useful aid to the study of a limited period.

CIVIC MILITIA AND STANDING ARMY.-Throughout the greater part of the republican period of Roman history the armed forces were a civic militia.

The army consisted in theory of the whole body of citizens whose resources were sufficient for providing the necessary equipment. In practice, however, only so many were summoned under arms at the annual enrollment as were required for the operations at hand, and these were dismissed as soon as the campaign was completed. But under the empire the standing army, composed of professional soldiers, was the essential basis of the military organization. tween these two systems there was a transition stage.



that of mercenaries.


We shall consider especially the organization of the Early and Late Empire were fundamentally different. Empire, noting at the outset that the systems of the For the Early Empire we may conveniently direct our attention in succession to (1) the Classes of Troops and their Territorial Distribution, (2) the Recruiting Districts and Professor Seeck's Theory regarding the social effects of the Roman method of enlisting soldiers, and (3) the Officers.



1. CLASSES OF TROOPS AND THEIR TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION. The military establishment of the Empire was composed of the following classes of

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