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minerials it is the same way with the othe company. These companys are irging the mexican to fight and United States has taking the imbargo of the guns and aminition so the can get all the guns and aminition they wont. I think Rock Fellow is the company in United States that is pushing it along. I have notice, that the mexican has been killing the americans and United States has not done much.

2. That the United States should intervene in concert with the other European powers. If U. S. would send troops down to Mexico and stop them some of the European powers might interfere and say let them scrape it out or say we have no right to interfere.

United States should find out what the other European think about it. They could decide upon a diffrent thing and then do it and it will suit all other naition Because it should be stop

I might add, by way of extenuation, that this boy is only a second-year pupil trying to take Civics with fourth-year pupils. He is a hard worker, and may learn the art of expression in another two years.

Considering these papers as a whole, we have the rather anomalous condition that along with scanty and inexact knowledge as to the facts of the situation, there exists unquestionable power to reason, and to draw conclusions that are not very dissimilar to those held by well-informed students of the situation. Evidently the writers are making good use of the little knowledge that they do possess; the question at once arises as to what they could do in the way of arriving at sound conclusions, if they were better informed. It occurred to me, after studying the results of the above test, to wonder what the other high schools were doing toward the solution of this problem. I accordingly prepared the following question


1. Do you attempt, in any of your courses in History, to give any instruction in current events?

2. If so, will you indicate briefly how the work is carried on (amount of time devoted to it, periodicals used, method of presentation before class, etc.)?

3. If not, will you state whether it is from lack of time, or because you believe such work should not enter into the course?

4. If the latter, will you state your reasons for so believing?

A copy of this was mailed to each of 40 high schools in the State of Washington, having an enrollment last year of 100 or more pupils each. Replies were received from 29. The results may be briefly summarized as follows:

Twenty-six out of the twenty-nine schools replying are teaching current events in some form.

Of the three which are not, two give lack of time as the only reason—the other assigns no reason at all. As to the amount of time devoted to the work: Twelve give it one period weekly. Three one period every two weeks. One one period every three weeks.

One gives ten minutes daily.

Five do not set aside a fixed amount.

As to the classes in which it is taught:

Eight report that the work is carried on in all history classes.

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3. The pupils are left free to bring in their own material.

In addition to the report and the recitation, two schools use the debate, and in two the subject is presented by the teacher and discussed by the class. The first method, that of assignment of special topics, seems to the teachers reporting to be the best, as it prevents shirking, but needs to be supplemented by the other methods in order to secure variety and interest. One teacher prefers to point out the articles to be read and call for outlines.

Some of the writers go into considerable detail as to their methods, and I am therefore able to select a few specimens, that impress me as presenting particularly effective work.

1. In a Civics class, clippings are brought in by each pupil on matters that relate to government— special attention is paid to the proceedings of Congress. In English history, the clippings relate to the proceedings in Parliament; in ancient history, to present-day conditions in the countries under dis


2. In another school, current events are studied in clubs that meet every two weeks, with student officers in charge.

3. In another school, one-third of the class are asked to follow the daily papers with special reference to State news, another one-third general United States news, and the other third world news. The same pupils are not assigned to the same news field daring successive weeks.

4. In another class, each pupil takes the "Literary Digest," and is expected to read a minimum of four articles weekly-60 per cent. read more. The opening article is always required, and the other three are to be chosen each from a separate department of

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the paper.

The greatest number of reports is on science and invention—a significant fact.

5. In one of the smaller high schools, one hour weekly is devoted to the subject in the general assembly, in which each pupil must participate.

6. In another school, the entire class is required to be prepared on leading topics, but a committee of three is appointed to be specially well prepared on the events of the week. The topics are prepared under four heads: (1) Local, (2) State, (3) national, (4) miscellaneous. These heads are written on the board and the various topics inserted at their proper places.

There is a general agreement as to the value of the work. One teacher says: If we want the pupil to

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take interest in the social sciences we must continually connect up with present-day problems. In this way the pupil will do more of the book-work than if we just give him book matter."

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Another says: If it is the duty of the high school to turn out its graduates fitted to be good citizens, then a study of their relations to current happenings is of first importance, and some of the past history should be sacrificed if necessary in order to study current events."

"We believe in such work most emphatically," says another teacher.

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"Many of my pupils," says another, are very much interested and are well posted, while others get but little; still I feel that if the latter get only the habit of reading the newspapers, the time has been well spent "-which I would venture to amend by adding, If they read it with some definite purpose, and not as a stimulus to the lower instincts." One teacher says of the work: It must be handled very carefully if it is to be of value -a caution that any of us who have undertaken this kind of work will appreciate. Another says: "Personally I find that the average high school student cannot be trusted to form his conclusions unaided. This wise teacher will give his students impartial and unbiased direction, and then leave them to form their own conclusions." Another objects to having the work at stated periods, because it would become work rather than variety."

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I have quoted sufficiently to show the general tendency. Perhaps if the eleven schools that failed to reply could be heard from, a discordant note might be struck; but we have no right to conclude that the failure to answer indicates an unfriendly attitude toward the teaching of current events, but rather that the questionnaire habit sometimes becomes a burden to the already overworked teacher.

The only serious objection that has been offered is lack of time. In regard to this, one of my correspondents asserts very positively, "Lack of time is no excuse. A teacher that just teaches the book is a dead one, and there should be an administrative funeral." While I might not advocate such extreme measures, it is certainly plain from the foregoing analysis of the replies that the progressive teachers of history are finding time for this work, and at the same time are completing the required amount in their


text-books. One teacher says, We are not, however, able to do the note-book work of maps and research that we did before we took the one day a week for current events." But right here it might be appropriate to stop and ask if a great deal of the notebook work might not be dispensed with, if it has not been in danger of becoming a fetish with some teachers, and if it has not sometimes degenerated into a perfunctory exercise with all its attendant evils of copying and carelessness. The proper place for a student's historical knowledge is in his head rather than his note-book; yet we have all observed that a well-filled note-book may coexist with the most appalling lack of actual usable information or power to think. No progressive teacher should ever be hampered in his attempt to make history more vital to his pupils, by the chains of note-book requirement that may be hung about him by the course of study. Routine has spelt ruin for more than one promising spirit who might otherwise have been a source of light and life in our profession.

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That vexing question so often propounded by the doubting Thomases among our pupils, What good is history going to do us anyway?" will perhaps be eliminated by the introduction of current events into our history program. The pupil who begins to study what is going on around him finds that most of it is intelligible in the light of what has gone before, and will realize for himself that only by the study of the past can we understand the present. Most of us could without appreciable injury introduce more of the inductive method into our teaching of history. We begin at the wrong end, and take too long in getting from the remote past down to the living present of which the pupil himself is an active part. Most of us have experienced the sudden vitalizing of historical facts that has come to us when we have stood on a battlefield or before a great historic monument; but we too often treat our pupils as if the mere text-book could be trusted to arouse the same absorbing interest.


But I am venturing again into the forbidden realm of abstract discussion, whereas my original purpose was simply to present a few facts and let them speak for themselves, or be interpreted by those who may feel inclined to discuss this very desultory paper. more thorough and extensive study of what has been done along this line is urgently needed, and might well be entered upon by some one more competent than the present speaker. I am convinced that the results of such an inquiry would be most helpful to every teacher who is sincerely trying to answer that provocative question, "What is the use of studying history anyway?'


[Read before History Section of Inland Empire Teachers' Association, Spokane, April 16, 1914.]

1 List of high schools reporting: Clarkston, Kennewick, Aberdeen, Hoquiam, Vancouver, Dayton, Pomeroy, Fort Townsend, Kent, Bremerton, Ellensburg, Chehalis, Puyallup, Mt. Vernon, Sedro-Woolley, Arlington, Snohomish, Colville, Olympia, Walla Walla, Palouse, N. Yakima, Seattle, Ballard, W. Seattle, Broadway, Franklin, Queen Anne, Spokane, Lewis and Clark, North Central.



In response to requests from principals of high schools and others, the Bureau of Education, with the assistance of the Pan-American Union, has prepared the following. Akers, Charles Edmund. A history of South America, 18541904. With an additional chapter bringing the history to the present day. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1912. XXVIII, 716 pp. 8°. Price, $6.00. Barrett, John. Panama Canal: What It Is, What It Means. Washington, D. C.: Pan-American Union, 1913-14. 120 pp. Maps. Illustrated. 8°. Price, $1.00. Barrett, John. The Pan-American Union: Peace, Friendship, Commerce. Washington, D. C.: Pan-American Union, 1911. 249 pp. Illus. 8°. Price, 50 cents. (A description of each country and of the organization of the Pan-American Union.)

Blakeslee, George H. Latin America. Clark University addresses, November, 1913. Edited by George H. Blakeslee. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co., 1914. 388 pp. 8°. (A collection of addresses on present-day problems.) Price, about $2.50.

Bonsal, Stephen. The American Mediterranean. New York: Moffat, Yard & Co., 1912. IX, 488 pp. Illus. Map.

8°. Price, $3.00. (Description and history of the Caribbean countries.)

Boyce, W. D. Illustrated South America. A Chicago publisher's travels and investigations in the Republics of South America, with 500 photographs of people and scenes from the Isthmus of Panama to the Straits of Magellan. Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co., 1912. XV, 638 pp. 8°. Price, $2.50.

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. South American fights and fighters and other tales of adventure. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1910. X, 342 pp. Illus. 8°. Price, $1.50. (Stories of an historical character interestingly written for young folks.)

Bryce, James. South America.

Observations and impressions. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1912. XXIV, 611 pp. Maps. 8°. Price, $2.50. (Devoted to history and description of the South American Republics.)

Calderon, F. Garcia. Latin America. Its rise and progress. Translated (from the Spanish) by Bernard Miall. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. 406 pp. Illus. Maps. Price, $3.00. (A history of the political development.)

Clemenceau, Georges. South America To-day. A study of conditions, social, political and commercial in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911. XXII, 434 p. Price, $2.00. Church, George Earl. Aborigines of South America. Edited by Clements R. Markham. London: Chapman & Hall, 1912. XXIV, 314 pp. Map. 8°. Price, about $3.00. (The story of the native races.)

Currier, Charles Warren. Lands of the Southern Cross. A visit to South America. Washington, 1911. 401 pp. Illus. 8°. Price, $2.50. (A good travelogue of South America.)

Dawson, Thomas C. The South American Republics. In two parts. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903. 2 vols. (Price for both, $2.95.) (Part of "The Story of the Nations" series, and considered one of the best general histories of South America in English.)

Enock, C. Reginald. The Secret of the Pacific. A discussion of the origin of the early civilizations of America, the Toltecs, Aztecs, Mayas, Incas and their predecessors; and of the possibilities of Asiatic influence thereon. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. 359 pp. 8°. Illus. Price, $3.50.

Enock, C. Reginald. The Republics of Central and South America. Their resources, industries, sociology and future. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. 521 pp. Illus. Maps. 8°. Price, $3.00. Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Mexico. Being a popu lar history of the Mexican people from the earliest primitive civilization to the present time. New York: The Bancroft Co., 1914. VII, 581 pp. Maps. Illus. 8°. Price, $2.00.


Hrdlicka, Ales. Early Man in South America. By Ales Hrdlicka in collaboration with W. H. Holmes, Bailey Willis, Fred. Eugene Wright and Clarence N. Fenner. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1912. XV, 405 pp. Illus. 8°. (Being Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology.") Keane, A. H. Stanford's compendium of geography and travel. Central and South America, by A. H. Keane, edited by Clements R. Markham. London: Edward Stanford, 1909. 2 volumes. Maps. Illus. Price, about $10.00. (A chapter on each country, giving history, geography, description, economic conditions and resources.)

Peck, Annie S. The South American Tour. New York: George H. Doran Co., 1913. X, 398 pp. Illus. Map. 8°. Price, $2.50. (An account of the industries, manufactures and interesting features of each country.) Porter, Robert P. The Ten Republics. An introduction to the South American series in Porter's Progress of Nations. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1911. X, 292 pp. Maps. 8°. Price, 25 cents. (History and description of each country.) Pan-American Union. Descriptive data. Annual. (Being a collection of pamphlets, one for each country, published as separates under the direction of Mr. John Barrett, Director General of the Pan-American Union, Washington, D. C. Contain the latest commercial and general information obtainable.) Gratis.

Koebel, W. H. South America. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1913. X, 598 pp. Illus. 8°. Price, $2.00. (A history, being part of "The Making of the Nations" series.)

Reyes, Rafael. The Two Americas. Translated from the Spanish with added notes by Leopold Grahame. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co, 1914. XXXII, 324 pp. Illus. 8°. Price, $2.50. (General Reyes was formerly President of the Republic of Columbia, and gives his impressions of present-day South America as gathered during a trip made about 1912.)

Shepherd, William R. Latin America. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1914. VII, 9-256 pp. Map. 12°. Price, 50 cents. A brief study of Latin American conditions both political and economical.)

Van Dyke, Harry Weston. Through South America. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1912. XXIV, 446 pp. Map. Illus. 8°. Price, $2.00. (A history and travelogue.) Verrill, A. Hyatt. Porto Rico, past and present, and San Domingo of to-day (with a chapter on Haiti). New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1914. XXI, 358 pp. Illus. Maps. 8°. Price, $1.50. (History, people and customs.)

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DAVIS, M. O. Outlines of European History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. Pp. 146. 90 cents.

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A two-page introductory chapter describes the features of the geography of Europe which have had most relation to its history. Then follows a chapter on Europe in Ancient Times," which sketches civilization's development to about 700. The remaining nineteen brief chapters cover the last twelve centuries, not in chronicle fashion, but through ""The Growth of selected topics, as "Popes and Emperors," France," The Formation of Spain," "The Crusades," etc., and thus perform their task of extreme condensation. In many respects this task has been very skilfully performed, but its difficulties and dangers may be illustrated by the author's statement that Luther's followers "took the name of Protestant because they protested against the authority of the Pope." Although the English publishers announce the book as designed for schools and for the general student, there seems no place for it in our schools, as it is not elementary enough for the grades and is too condensed for the high school. For the general reader the narrative is a good epitome, and its serviceableness is extended by the sixteen first-rate illustrations and thirteen excellent folder maps.

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Most of our English cousins who write text-books on history seem to cherish as their ideal a work which treats entirely, or almost entirely, of military, diplomatic, dynastic and political events. Social, industrial and economic matters are usually omitted entirely, or, if treated at all, come in as mere incident. Attention is confined to king, statesman, diplomat, naval or military commander, while the lives and activities of peasant, artisan and merchant are unnoticed, or, at best, receive the most cursory treatment. The text under consideration is, in the main, true to type.

Events of the century covered in this work are grouped primarily around two topics-the Thirty Years' War and the personal ascendancy of Louis XIV. After a preliminary survey of political conditions in Europe at the opening of the seventeenth century, the author discusses the causes, the conduct and the results of the Thirty Years' War with clarity and fulness. He next reviews the years intervening between the Treaty of Westphalia and the commencement of the personal rule of Louis XIV marked by the outbreak of the Fronde, the Franco-Spanish war, and the events in northern Europe, culminating in the general war of 1655 to 1661. The various successive aggressions of the Grand Monarch in the West and the Ottoman Turks in the East, the intimate relation between the two movements, and the devastating wars which ensued are then ably described. The work is concluded with a well-balanced account of the meteoric career of the Swedish king Charles XII, the ambitions and policies of Peter the Great, and the collapse of Sweden as a European power.

The peculiar merit of this text lies in the fact that it is a history of Europe during the period treated, not a mosaic of the histories of various European countries, as is so often the case with texts dealing with European his

tory. With rare skill the author eliminates or subordinates all that is of merely local importance, and directs his attention always to the international aspect and significance of the subject under discussion. This is especially marked in his treatment of the assassination of Henry IV, the course of James I, the policy of Richelieu, the uprising of the Fronde, the Turkish wars, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the English Revolution of 1688, and the career of Charles XII of Sweden. As a result, we have an exceptionally well-balanced account of a complex and intricate period viewed constantly from the standpoint of Europe as a whole. The successful accomplishment of so difficult an undertaking deserves high commendation.

The volume contains excellent genealogical tables, plans of the three most important battles, seven mediocre maps in black and white, and a list of the best books on the period. While not well suited for general high school use, teachers will find that the work well justifies careful study. Under the limitations suggested in the opening paragraph of this review, Professor Sacret's volume should prove an excellent college text. HOWARD C. HILL.

State Normal School, Milwaukee.

HUNT, GAILLARD. The Department of State of the United States: Its History and Functions. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1914. Pp. 459. $2.25, net.

The present volume suggests at once a comparison with two other works that have recently appeared upon a related subject "The President's Cabinet," by H. B. Learned, and "A History of the President's Cabinet," by Mary L. Hinsdale. But both of these works, as their titles indicate, deal with the cabinet as a whole, and have little in common with the present volume which, in the words of the author, "is the only historical study of one of the Executive Departments that has thus far appeared." Nor can the scope and purpose of the work be better set forth than by continuing the above quotation from the preface: "My object has been to show the formation and development of the Department of State and what its chief duties are and have been." And it may be stated at the outset that he has attained the object of his purpose and has done so in a manner that leaves nothing to be desired, for it is a most excellent work, written, one cannot but feel, not only from first-hand sources, but also from inside information. The author's long years of service in the various branches of the department and his experience as an editor and historical investigator are apparent on every page. Beginning his account with 1774, he shows how the first committee for foreign affairs under the Continental Congress was organized, how it developed into the present Department of State, how other departments branched off from it, what functions it exercised and how it exercised them. Quoting at length from laws, circulars, orders and regulations, he skilfully weaves these quotations into an interesting and connected narrative, which he carries up to the present time. And this method is applied to every phase of the subject to its general history, to the sub-divisions of the Department, to the relations of the Secretary to the Seal, commissions, appointments, laws, diplomatic and consular service, passports, extradition. It is, however, in no sense a diplomatic history of the United States, nor is it intended as such, but every detail, including salaries of subordinates and minor items of expense, necessary to an understanding of the machine of which the foreign service is a part, and whose movements the Secretary of State directs, seems to be included in this admirable work. The chief sources are the archives. circulars and publications of the

Department of State; and the footnotes indicate that extensive use has been made of manuscripts, the contents of which are for the first time published. One may safely say that it is the final word on the subject covered. College and university teachers giving courses in diplomacy and national administration will find it a valuable aid; and the complete index renders it useful as a hand-book of the State Department. KARL F. GEISER.

Oberlin College.

GIDE, CHARLES. Principles of Political Economy. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., 1914. Pp. 776. $2.00.

The third edition of Professor Gide's "Political Economy "has not only been rewritten, in part, and brought to date, but the following chapters and sub-chapters have been added: Industrial Co-operative Association, The Destitute, Profit Sharing, Urban Property and The Emigration of Capital.

It is in the emphasis of associated economic activity that the reader finds a point of departure from the typical American text. Colonization, industrial co-operation, profit sharing, agricultural associations, poor relief, organizations for expenditures and savings are given place in the economic structure. Undoubtedly the American student is sadly deficient in power to co-ordinate his economic knowledge, and this inability accentuates our disposition for economics. Professor Gide writes for the general reader and for the university man, more than for the specialist. He will not dissociate Social and Political Economy, and in this attitude one finds explanation for the great helpfulness of the book in economic and social interdependence.


Another consideration of importance is the author's development of theory, comparatively as well as analytically. In the broader aspect of economic theory, the excellent sub-chapters on the various economic schools distinguished according to their method and to their solution, and also the chapter on socialistic methods of distribution, establish an historical basis for the general student of political economy. Professor Gide remarks that it is not merely in method that economists differ, but in their social policy. Other sciences scarcely more than a generation old have built up a body of principles sufficiently strong to secure their adherents. In method, greater unanimity may be reasonably expected, but in solutions proposed there are as many schools as philosophers. This is a sign of weakness, "but these differences cannot cease until the moral, political and social unity of the human race is realized." In the more intensive study of economic theory, as in value, the author presents a brief but helpful comparison of the labor and final utility theories. This same method is applied to the laws of wages and to interest.

The American student will be disappointed to find the three great problems of his economic activity, combinations, transportation and taxation, briefly considered.


Leland Stanford, Jr., University, California.

GIBBONS, HERBERT ADAMS. The New Map of Europe. New York: The Century Co., 1914. Pp. ix, 412. $2.00 net. In the recent flood of articles and books dealing with the present war, it is difficult for the average reader to distinguish what is worth while. Many of them are hurried and superficial compilations, and still more are very partisan in tone. The latter is true of very many prepared by trained European writers. The author of the present book is an American who has been for several years professor of history at Robert College, Constantinople. While there he

has evidently traveled much, made varied personal acquaintances, and read and thought deeply about the complicated problems of international politics. His book is, therefore, neither superficial nor partisan.

Its title might perhaps have been better chosen, for it is not a prophecy, but a very clear and interesting explanation of the tangled issues underlying the present struggle. The author starts with the Alsace-Lorraine question, and then goes on to explain the objects of German world policy and the intense race pride that underlies it. He believes the German people are heartily in favor of the Pan-Germanist expansion policy. The next three chapters are devoted to the German expansion plans in Asia Minor, Morocco and Persia, and recent events in each of these regions. Then the Polish question and Italian ambitions along the Northern Adriatic receive brief treatment. The remaining two-thirds of the book are devoted to the various aspects of the Near Eastern Question, which the author regards as the vital issue in the present war. It will be noticed that he pays rather slight attention to the commercial and maritime rivalry of England and Germany. In his interesting chapter on “Austria-Hungary and Her South Slavs," Mr. Gibbons clearly shows what determined Austrian policies in Bosnia and how these inevitably led to constant unrest. The same admirable lucidity appears in successive chapters on the Macedonian question, the Young Turk movement, and the problem of Crete. The author believes the war between Italy and Turkey set the example for the Balkan allies, and led directly on to the Balkan wars of 1912-1913. Hence he devotes much space to these events and the settlements that closed the struggles.

Only the last two chapters of the book are given to the events which led directly to the present war. Mr. Gibbons believes that Germany and Austria had determined on the extinction of Servia right after the Servian victories of the first Balkan War. Events and conditions this past summer seemed to them to be very favorable, and so they decided to provoke the war that they might fight under these propitious circumstances rather than delay the struggle they regarded as inevitable. This conclusion may not meet with the approval of every reader; but, if he be openminded, it will not prevent him from getting great benefit from the book as a whole. Its lucidity and its readable style make it very attractive. In the opinion of the reviewer, it is one of the best brief surveys of recent international politics in Europe which is now available in English. CLARENCE PERKINS.

Ohio State University.

PERRIS, GEORGE HERBERT. The Industrial History of Modern England. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1914. Pp. xix, 603. $2.00.

As stated by the author, "The purpose of this volume is to outline the facts and to interpret the spirit of the economic history of Great Britain in the last hundred and fifty years. The writer believed it to be a useful task to focus within such limits as these a narrative of the social transformation through which the mother-country of industrialism has passed since the invention of the steam engine; and, from this, he was led on to an attempt to characterize the period, and the main current of thought which the play of economic forces has provoked." In carrying out this design he has sifted a large mass of the steadily accumulating material which presents itself to the investigator of such a field, some idea of which is given in the ten pages of selected bibliography which accompany the treatise. The result appears in these solid pages of carefully selected details and well digested conclusions.

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