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The scope of the work is best further indicated by a view of its divisions and sub-divisions. Beginning with a preliminary chapter devoted to the conditions of the latter part of the eighteenth century, Mr. Perris arranges his chapters under the following suggestive titles: 'From the First Census to Peterloo (1801-1820)," "The Lowest Depth (1821-1834)," "The Influence of the Economists," "On the Verge of Revolution (1833-1849)," The World's Workshop (1850-1866)," "The Liberal State (1867-1885)," "The Awakening (1886-1900)," and "The New Age." Of these chapters it is difficult to select any for special comment. Of some it would be said that the topics are not new nor the form of treatment novel; they are the fundamental topics that one counts upon finding in a work of this sort. In the case of others, however, one feels a pleased surprise in the carefully considered treatment of a fresh topic; such, for instance, might be regarded the vivid pictures of the rise of the slums and the terrible conditions of slum life when in full fruitage. Other portions of the book that are new to most readers are those dealing with recent times. Thus under The New Age," he discusses" Population and wealth," "New lamps for old" (by which is meant the " improvement of old and the invention of new processes and trades "), "Agricultural revival," Crusades of the life-savers," and "Unemployment strikes, the minimum wage." Incidentally, we note the stimulus that Germany has been to English industry. Also, upon reading that the South African War caused a eral shaking-up," we may query the result of the war now in progress.

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ASHLEY, WILLIAM JAMES. The Economic Organization of England. An Outline History. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1914. Pp. viii, 213. 90 cents net. This little work by the veteran professor of economic history whose lectures have instructed the youth of three great nations inspires the confidence that must necessarily attend any publication under his name. It consists of a series of lectures delivered at the Colonial Institute of Hamburg in 1912; which, as the author explains, are along the lines of a course which he has been accustomed to deliver at the University of Birmingham. He very modestly claims for them that they may serve to give a general notion of English economic history to those who may be approaching the subject for the first time. However, they do much more than this. They present the clarified views of a ripe scholar upon the great topics under consideration; and as such we cannot afford to neglect them. The treatment of the methods followed in making enclosures with the attendant results, for instance, is particularly satisfying; but there is no need to particularize. There are eight lectures-namely, The English Agrarian System: The Manor as Starting Point," "The Stages of Industrial Evolution: The Gild as Starting Point," "The Beginnings of Modern Farming: The Break-up of the Manor," "The Rise of Foreign Trade: The Advent of Capital and Investment." "Domestic Industry and Tudor Nationalism," “Agricultural Estates and English Self-Government," Industrial Revolution and Freedom of Contract," "Joint Stock and the Evolution of Capitalism."

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BEARD, CHARLES A. Readings in American Government and Politics. New and revised edition. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1913. Pp. xxiii, 638. $1.90.

In this new edition of Professor Beard's useful work, five selections (upon the Oregon presidential primary law, the overthrow of the Speaker and Rules Committee, the recall in Oregon, and the recall of judicial decisions, respectively) take the place of as many others that are of less present interest. And the Constitution is added as an appendix.

Teachers of government and American history who are not acquainted with the volume should know that less than one-fourth of its pages are devoted to extracts that are primarily historical in nature; though many extracts not included in this estimate throw light upon topics in American history. The readings that form the bulk of the volume are well adapted to explain the details of governmental workings upon the topics treated. These topics are of great variety, including the fields of national, State and local government. While some of the extracts are merely formal in character, indicating official processes merely, others reveal the hidden operations of bosses, machines and committees. There are selections from State papers, from reports of committees, from judicial decisions, and from the proceedings of various kinds of conventions. Usually, upon controverted questions both sides are presented. Municipal government is given two chapters.

The selections are brought down to date in such topics as conservation, initiative and referendum, and social and economic legislation. Each extract is introduced by a brief editorial note explaining its purpose and setting.

Better paper and wider margins give the new edition an improved appearance. The index is hardly as full as might be desired. The book is useful as a work of reference in both high schools and colleges, and will constitute an excellent supplementary text in classes of college rank. ALBERT H. SANFORD.

State Normal School, La Crosse, Wis.

WAYLAND, JOHN W. How to Teach American History. A Handbook for Teachers and Students. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1914. Pp. x, 349. $1.25.

This book, written for students in normal schools, has genuine merit, and will prove helpful to every inexperienced teacher of history. There are thirty chapters nearly equal in length and a valuable index. The reference lists are selected with care. In chapter one the author discusses why history should be studied and how it should be studied. Chapters two to five, inclusive, are devoted to a discussion of the following: The meaning of history, subjects closely related to history, important aims in teaching history, and a survey of the historical field.

A description of history work in the grades is found in chapters six, seven and eight. The author outlines a suggestive course of study for the eight grades of the elementary schools, emphasizing American history in all grades and laying especial emphasis on such topics as the following: The story of steam, the story of iron, the story of cotton, great American missionaries, great American educators and great American women. The references for

each grade are grouped under numbers corresponding to the topics in the course of study. Two lists are given for each grade from the fifth to the eighth, inclusive; one for the pupil, the other for the teacher. A summary of aims and methods for the work in the grades is given in chapter

seven.

Other topics treated are: The use of the story, biography, dramatics; the use and abuse of dates; the value of national songs and state songs, of source books and source material, of reviews and notebooks. In the treatment of them the author is at home with his subject-matter, and keeps in mind the mental attitude of the inexperienced teacher. There is nothing vague or indefinite about his conclusions. Concrete illustrations are sufficiently frequent to make the author's meaning clear, and to drive home forcibly the value of the subject under discussion.

Concerning "History in the American Normal School," the author says: "The primary function of a normal school is to give professional training. . . . If it is not the real function of the normal schools to teach subjectmatter, as such, it is their business to send good teachers to the lower schools, and then to demand that those schools do their duty. Only when the preparatory schools do their work thoroughly can the normal schools do their proper work in the time allotted to them. . . . A normal school teacher who is not willing to be watched had better resign. The intelligent student can get theories in books. He needs to observe to see them applied. . . . The normal student must do in order to know. He must tell a story, present oral and written reports, he must quiz the class occasionally, he must choose subjects for lesson plans, adapting the choice to a particular grade. . . . It is what the normal student does rather than what he says or writes that enables the teacher to judge of his degree of teaching power. In such work a normal student has an opportunity to show pedagogical tact and personal force. Such powers are of primary importance in the teacher.

History in our normal schools should be taught in a highly sane and judicial spirit. . . . Enthusiasm is to be kindled to a white heat, but it must be safeguarded by fine self-control and a religious loyalty to truth. If we prize such qualities and powers in the teachers of our youth, we must demand them in the makers of teachers."

In chapter twenty-eight the teacher's lesson plan is discussed. The author says: "To work without a plan is to work without intelligence, and at the sacrifice of economy, efficiency and directness. It would be no more wasteful and absurd for a builder to begin a house without a plan than for a teacher to begin a course or a lesson without a plan." Examples of plans are given for third or fourth grade, for fifth or sixth grade, and for seventh or eighth grade. The first plan is developed by means of a story. The second and third are developed by means of a logical series of questions. The references in each case are specific to chapter and page.

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Much attention is given to what the author terms the mechanics of teaching which includes an inventory of the materials and equipment at the teacher's service. The various ways in which collections can be secured for the museum, the library or the class-room are indicated and illustrated. In the pedagogical chapters dealing with Helping the Pupil to Study," Making and Using History Questions," 'Grading Quiz Papers and Examination Papers," "The Visual Appeal in the Teaching of History' and Devices for Review and Recreation," one feels that the author is writing out of the fullness of a rich personal experience, and knows how to help others to become skilful in that most difficult task-the teaching of history.

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In a brief chapter of only seven pages the author ex

plains what he means by "The Dynamics of History Teaching." After drawing a parallel between a dynamo in the world of matter and in the world of spirit, he says: "Every teacher should be a human dynamo. It matters little what you call this power; the essential thing is for you to have it and to communicate it. Call it, if you please, magnetic personality; call it moral force; call it human interest; call it soul power; call it the gift to inspire; call it unconscious intuition; call it the ability to arouse interest and ambition; but try to get it and try to exert it. . . . That man, or that woman, who speaks a language that the child's soul answers is, after all, the real teacher." He makes clear the distinction between teaching and merely telling, and shows that a teacher ought to aim not merely to teach, but to inspire his students to find for themselves still greater truth.

Some writers on the teaching of history show a knowledge of history, but a lack of pedagogy. Some are familiar with the principles of pedagogy, but they lack that intimate knowledge of the subject-matter of history which enables one to choose apt illustrations. Some understand the principles of pedagogy and have sound scholarship in the historical field, but they have no adequate conception of the impoverished vocabulary or the paucity of language of the inexperienced teacher who is most in need of help. Consequently their books are approved by experienced teachers who really do not need them, but they are useless to others because of the extensive use of technical phraseology. This book is within the comprehension of those for whom it is written.

State Normal School, Trenton, N. J.

SARAH A. DYNES.

WEBSTER, HUTTON. Readings in Ancient History. Boston: Heath & Co., 1913. Pp. 280. $1.00.

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This book is smaller in size and price than similar Readings or "Source Books" that have been published in the last two years. The plan followed is to give a chapter to a single period or personality, and all the selections for that chapter are from one author. The first 25 pages are devoted to the Oriental peoples. The selections for Greek history are excellent. Those from Homer, Herodotus and Thucydides are very wisely chosen. Roman history, however, hardly gets its due. The selections are not as good and not so full as those for Greek history. There are only 114 pages against 127 pages for Greek history. They extend no farther than the second century A. D., closing with a good chapter from Tacitus on the Germans. The book is well gotten up, with type of good size. There are brief explanatory and connective notes, besides a useful pronouncing vocabulary. VICTORIA A. ADAMS.

Calumet High School, Chicago.

The State of Kansas has published for use in the schools of the State, "A History of Kansas," by Anna E. Arnold. The book, of about two hundred pages, is written in a clear, simple style, and is excellently illustrated with reproductions of contemporary views and drawings of primitive implements and modes of living. About one-half of the book treats of the history of the Kansas region before the State's admission to the Union. Brief but interesting accounts are given of the Indians, frontier life, means of transportation, and recent economic and intellectual advancement.

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7. Do you favor at all a short course, one half year, in

Letter to High School Teachers of ancient history, followed by a year of medieval and mod

History

Editor HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE:

I am enclosing a copy of a questionnaire in which you and some of your readers may be interested. In order to learn what the California teachers thought about these questions, I sent about fifty copies to teachers of European history in this State. I was amazed at the interest and also a little surprised at the answers. It then seemed wise to find out what teachers in other States thought. The first and second weeks of January, I sent out several hundred sets to teachers in every State in the country. In doing this I tried to reach most of the teachers whom I knew to be interested in this topic of history courses, old and new. I tried also to send to others whose replies might be considered typical.

I regret now that I did not try to include all teachers who may be interested in this subject, for the replies that are coming to me daily show an interest in this question much greater than I had expected. Would it be possible for you to publish, in the March number of the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE, this set of questions, asking other teachers who are interested to write me very soon their opinions on them? They can give their answers by number, being sure to state by whom the replies are being returned and the names of the schools with which they are connected.

May I also thank, through the columns of your valuable paper, those who have taken the trouble to write me, some at considerable length. I cannot send individual replies in all cases, as I should like to do.

I hope to tabulate the results so that I can send them to you for the May number of the MAGAZINE, if you can spare me the space.

Thanking you for your co-operation, I am,

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In common with many other progressive high schools, we are trying to work out courses in history that will be most satisfactory. As the problem of teaching European history seems at present to be the most difficult, we shall appreciate any suggestions that you can give us. If you will send us information or your opinion on the following subjects we shall be greatly obliged.

1. Do as many as ten per cent. of the students in your high school take three years of European history?

2. What per cent. of the students in your school take two years of European history?

3. Do you think that 800 A. D. is the best date for dividing European history into ancient history, on one hand, and into medieval and modern, on the other, for the students who do not make a specialty of Latin or history?

4. For students other than Latin students or history specialists, do you favor the division of European history into early European history for the first year of a twoyear course, and modern European for the second year of such a course?

5. If so, do you prefer 1450, 1520, 1648, 1715 or 1750 as the dividing point between the two years? We should like to know your preference and your reasons.

6. What proportion of the time during the two years should be spent on English history?

ern history, for students who wish only a "bird's-eye view" of ancient history?

8. Do you think that there is a place in our high schools for a one-year course in general European history, AT LEAST one half on the period since 1450, with special emphasis throughout on the life of the people? Such a course would be recommended to those students only who could not possibly give more than one year to European history.

EXPERT CONSULTATION IN HISTORY.

The following letter was sent last October to the city superintendent of schools in the State of Indiana by the Extension Division of Indiana University. It represents an interesting development of co-operation between State universities and the public school systems:

Last year as part of its extension service for the public schools, the University gave to Indianapolis for a short time the services of Mr. Oscar H. Williams, a specialist in the teaching of history. Superintendent Collicott, at whose request the above assistance was given, writes:

"I am glad to be able to report to you the splendid results of the work done by Mr. Wiliams in the Indianapolis schools. As you perhaps know, he visited during an entire recitation period the majority of our history teachers in the seventh and eighth grades. After making a careful study of the kind and amount of work our teachers were doing, he arranged for a round table conference, which the teachers say was one of the best meetings of its kind ever held in Indianapolis. Quite a number of our teachers are urging that we arrange to have this work continued."

The University is now prepared to extend this service to the other schools in the State. Mr. Williams has been freed from his resident duties for the first half of the year, to give his whole time to consultation work.

The plan is as follows: Upon the request of the school officials in any political unit (town, township or city), Mr. Williams will visit the schools to advise and counsel with the teachers upon concrete problems of history teaching. He will observe one complete recitation for eack teacher, and then offer individual suggestions as to materials and methods. After all history classes have been visited, he will conduct a round table conference to exchange local teaching experiences and to consider the results of experimentation in history teaching and of practices in other schools. As a basis for the conference an outline presenting the point of view, the nature and values claimed for history, the special methods underlying the subject and the concrete problems in teaching it, together with illustrations and measurements of efficiency in history teaching, will be used. For future guidance and stimulation, the teachers will be furnished copies of the outline without charge.

In order to check up the results of this extension service, and to offer additional suggestions in conferences, a second visit will be made. The time of such a visit will be mutually arranged between the school officials interested and the Extension Division.

In regard to Mr. Williams, it should be stated that for some years he has directed the practice teaching in history in the University Training School, and has given the course in the Teaching of History in the Department of Secondary Education in the University School of Education. He is also the author of the study on "History Teaching in the High School," published by the University in 1909, and was

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chairman of the committee which prepared the "Readings in Indiana History' (470 pages) just published by the Extension Division. His position in the university is that of Assistant Professor and Critic Teacher in History.

The charges made for the services as above outlined will be $15.00 per school week. This amount, as you will understand, is a nominal fee merely to cover hotel and railroad expenses, the University pays the salary and all incidental expenses. Where less than one week's service is

required, a pro rata charge will be made.

Permit me to suggest that if you desire to secure Mr. Williams' services for your schools, you write us immediately. The fact that we have only a limited amount of his time at our disposal makes this suggestion urgent.

Please address communications upon this subject to the Extension Division, Indiana University. Yours very sincerely,

J. J. PETTIJOHN, I. S. L.. Director.

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The National Educational Association, through the generosity of a resident of California, offers a prize of $1,000 for the best essay on the Essential Place of Religion in Education," with an outline for introducing religious teaching into the public schools. Notice of intention to compete must be sent to the secretary of the association by April 1, 1915, and the essays, not to exceed 10,000 words, must be in his possession by June 1. The address of the secretary is Ann Arbor, Mich.

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A meeting of the New York Conference of History Teachers was held on Saturday morning, February 13, at the Washington Irving High School, New York City. eral topic for discussion was The New Civics." those who presented papers or took part in the discussion were the following: Mr. H. D. Steward, of the South Side High School, Newark, N. J.; Mr. H. F. Biddle, of the High

Reports from the Historical Field School, Plainfield, N. J.; Dr. Nelson P. Mead, City College,

BY WALTER H. CUSHING, EDITOR.

NOTES.

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Tariff History

The sixth edition of Professor Taussig's of United States " includes the tariff of 1913. Doctor Solon J. Buck has been made an assistant professor of history in the University of Minnesota.

Professor Franklin L. Riley has left the University of Mississippi to accept a professorship in Washington and Lee University.

Dr. Charles A. McMurry, of De Kalb, Ill., has been elected Professor of Elementary Education in the George Peabody College for Teachers.

Doctor James E. Winston, of Princeton University, has been appointed to a professorship in the University of Minnesota.

A History Teachers' Association has recently been formed in New Orleans, La. The secretary is Miss Sophie Hanson, Esplanade High School. Miss Norma P. Randolph is chairman of the Membership Committee.

The English Historical Association has published its annual bulletin of historical literature, number three. This pamphlet, of forty-three pages, contains a survey by competent authorities of leading books, mostly English and in English history, published in 1913.

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The chapter on 'Secondary Education" in the report of the United States Commissioner of Education, for the year ending June 30, 1914, will include a special statement on history in the high school. The report will furnish data indicating the year in which are taught the various fields of history, together with data on industrial history, civics and economics.

The death is announced of Professor Katharine Coman at Wellesley, Mass., on January 11. Since 1881 Miss Coman has been connected with the History Department of Wellesley College. She was known as the writer of a number of text-books on English history and two works on United States history-"The Industrial History of the United States" and "Economic Beginnings of the Far West."

The historical department of the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., will begin in April, 1915, the publication of a paper to be entitled, "The Catholic His

New York; Professor Edgar Dawson, Hunter College, New York; Mr. F. H. Paine, Eastern District High School, Brooklyn, and Miss Edna L. Bacon, East Side High School, Newark, N. J.

Professor Herbert D. Foster, of Dartmouth College, chairman of the Committee of the American Historical Association to secure a better definition of the fields of history, has been in touch with numerous organizations of history teachers, and has secured consideration of the project by many of them. At its meeting in April, in 1914, the College Entrance Examination Board passed the following vote: That a request be sent by the Board to the American Historical Association, for fuller definition of the history requirement, showing especially the points to be emphasized and those to be more lightly treated. The Board also voted to state a portion of the requirement as follows: The examination in history will be so framed as to require the use of both judgment and memory on the pupil's part.

MIDDLE STATES ASSOCIATION.

The annual meeting of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland will be held in Baltimore, April 16 and 17. The program is being so planned that it will contain features of interest for teachers in the grades as well as those in higher institutions. The president of the Association is Prof. Henry Johnson, Teachers' College, Columbia University, and the secretary is Prof. Edgar Dawson, Hunter College, New York City.

MARYLAND ASSOCIATION.

An interesting meeting of the History Teachers of Maryland was held on Saturday, February 13, in the Historical Library of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. A composite talk on "Pictorial Material in Historical Research," with stereopticon illustrations, was given by Dr. R. V. D. Magoffin and Professor J. M. Vincent. At the business meeting, plans were discussed for the coming meeting in Baltimore of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland, April 16-17. The usual luncheon was omitted. Professor J. M. Vincent is president, and Miss Laura J. Cairnes is secretary of the Maryland Association.

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IOWA ASSOCIATION.

The officers of the Iowa Society of Social Science Teachers, chosen at the annual meeting, are as follows: President, Thomas Teakle, Des Moines; vice-president, B. S. Asquith, Council Bluffs; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Miriam Woolson Brooks, Des Moines; Executive Committee, H. G. Plum, Iowa City; J. E. Brindley, Ames; Ruth Fall, Albia. All teachers of history, civics or economics, and any others interested in these subjects, are eligible to membership in the Association. The meetings will be held annually in connection with the State Teachers' Association.

ton High School; Professors H. E. Bourne, Western Reserve; H. L. Cannon, Leland Stanford; Edgar Dawson, Hunter College, New York City; O. M. Dickerson, Winona Normal School; H. D. Foster, Dartmouth College; S. B. Harding, Indiana University; R. A. Maurer, Central High School, Washington, D. C.; James Sullivan, principal Boys' High School, Brooklyn, N. Y.

To this standing Committee on History in the Schools have been referred the requests of the various History Teachers' Associations, the Pacific coast branch of the American Historical Association, and the College Entrance Examination Board, for a fuller definition of the field of history.

NEW ENGLAND ASSOCIATION.

At the next meeting of the New England Association, April 30, May 1, the topic for the Saturday morning session will be "The Study and Teaching of Recent American History." By "recent" is meant the period since the close of the Civil War. Among those who will take part in the discussion are Professor F. J. Turner, of Harvard University; Professor Charles R. Lingley, of Dartmouth College, and Mr. R. Eston Phyfe, of the Hartford High School. Following the address of Friday evening, there will be an informal reception at the new Hotel Bancroft, which will be headquarters of the Association during the two days' session. Luncheon will be served at the Bancroft following the session of Saturday morning.

Copies of the catalogue of the Collection of Historical Material on exhibition at the Art Museum, Boston, may be obtained from the secretary of the New England Association, Walter H. Cushing, Framingham, Mass. Price. 25 cents; postage, 2 cents extra.

The Committee on the Course of Study in Economics, of which Mr. Winthrop Tirrell, High School of Commerce, Boston, is chairman, is actively at work on the set of problems and questions which were prepared last year, and have since been tried out in various schools. This committee will make a brief report of progress at the next meeting of the Association, and will probably have this material in shape for publication early in the fall.

DEFINITION OF THE FIELDS OF HISTORY.

A year ago the Committee on Review of the College Entrance Examination Board voted that a request be sent by the Board to the American Historical Association for a fuller definition of the history requirements, showing especially the points to be emphasized and those to be more lightly treated.

In the discussion which led to this recommendation, it was stated that the object in mind was a closer limitation of the definitions in history. The desire seemed to be that the fields of history should be more closely defined, so that the teachers may be able to work more intelligently and with a much higher degree of success. It was the feeling of the members of the committee that, at the present time, the teachers try to cover practically all history, and succeed in making the student entirely conversant with hardly any of the features of history.

At the annual meeting of the American Historical Association last December, the following Committee on History in Schools for 1915 was appointed: Professor W. S. Fergu son. of Harvard University, chairman; Miss Victoria Adams, Chicago High School; Miss Margaret McGill, New

CIVIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

The first preliminary report of the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission of the New England Association on the Reorganization of Secondary Education was published in Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1913, No. 41. Its second preliminary report was submitted at the New England Association meeting in July, 1914. Pending publication of a complete report, the essential points of this second report are given in this and succeeding circular letters issued by the Bureau of Education, Washington. Criticisms, suggestions and illustrative material are solicited by the committee.

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The committee favors the inclusion of the following social studies in the secondary school curriculum: (1) "Community Civics" in the first year; this to include during a part of the year a survey of vocations." (2) History; to include (a) European history to the opening of the eighteenth century, including American Colonial history; (b) European history since the opening of the eighteenth century; and (c) American history since the opening of the eighteenth century. The history to comprise at least two units. (3) "Social science "; to include (a) economics, and (b) advanced civics.

The committee takes the position that the question of number of courses and number of hours devoted to them is secondary to the question of how well they are taught from the point of view of their immediate social or civic value, and how closely they are related to the actual needs of the pupils as members of society.

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The committee is agreed that the entire group of "social studies" should have a definite "civic" aim-" good citizen" and for an adequate ship; civic education there is need of an historical background, a "sociological" point of view, and an understanding of certain economic and sociological facts and relations, as well as more or less organized training in "civics as such.

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The committee recommends specific instruction in 99 civics at two points in the secondary course of study, unless an adequate course in elementary civics is given in the grammar grades. Such elementary school civics has already been successfully introduced in many places, and the committee favors this. But where this has not been done, and perhaps even where it has been done, the committee believes that an elementary course in this subject should be given in the first year of the high school. This course should be of the type known as community civics." A definition of this topic will be found in the February, 1915, number of the MAGAZINE.

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The committee recognizes that "urban and rural problems differ at so many points as to require a different selection of topics."

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