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Beatman, head of the History Department of the Julia Richman High School, New York City, said that it was their plan to give a course in Spanish-American history to commercial students specializing in Spanish, covering a three or four year course, and beginning in September, 1916. Other speakers requested a bibliography of the subject, and urged the need of a satisfactory text-book on Spanish-American history for use in high schools and col

leges.

Saturday, at noon, the members of the Association were the guests at lunch of Columbia University. In the afternoon a delightful yacht trip was taken around Manhattan Island, and dinner was had at the historic Fraunce's Tavern. The new officers of the Association elected at the business meeting are as follows: President, Miss Jessie C. Evans, William Penn High School, Philadelphia; vicepresident, Prof. Marshall S. Brown, of New York University; secretary-treasurer, Prof. Livingston R. Schuyler, College of the City of New York; additional members of the Council, Miss Florence E. Stryker, State Normal School, Montclair, N. J., and Mr. E. S. Barnes, State Normal School, Geneseo, N. Y.

NEW ENGLAND ASSOCIATION.

The annual spring meeting of the New England History Teachers' Association was held on Saturday, May 6, in the Massachusetts Historical Society Building, Boston. Committee reports were made upon methods of teaching and studying, and upon the teaching of economics. Prof. Frank M. Anderson, of Dartmouth College, read a paper on "The Changes which the European War Has Brought About in the Attitude of the Historian and the Teacher Toward the Recent History of Europe," and Dr. Samuel E. Morison, of Harvard University, showed how the traditional American point of view in international politics has been effected by the war and how this change is likely to be reflected by a different method of presentation of American history.

Luncheon was had at the Carlton Hotel, at which the guest of honor was Mr. George A. Plimpton. The officers of the association are: President, Philip P. Chase, Milton Academy; vice-president, Prof. Charles R. Lingley, Dartmouth College; secretary-treasurer, Horace Kidger, Newtonville, Mass., and additional members of the Council are Blanche Leavitt, of Newport, R. I.; Harriet E. Tuell, Somerville, Mass.; H. M. Varrell, Simmons College, Boston, and Prof. John O. Sumner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The association has recently issued a pamphlet, giving the names of officers, committees and members of the association, and describing the work which the association has done and which it contemplates doing. The membership list contains 350 names.

OHIO HISTORY TEACHERS' JOURNAL.

The first number of "The Ohio History Teachers' Journal," dated March, 1916, has appeared. The Journal is published by the Ohio History Teachers' Association. The aim of the paper is the improvement of the methods of teaching history and civics, and the development of a spirit of co-operation among the teachers of those studies throughout the State. The program for the Journal includes the advancement of the following plans: "An interchange of ideas concerning adequate history programs for our schools and the promotion of joint action on the part of college and high school teachers of history in introducing such programs where needed; the raising of standards both of preparation and performance for the history teacher; the encouragement of such teachers as find them

selves isolated more or less from their fellow-workers and handicapped by the variety of subjects they are called upon to teach, as well as by inadequate library and school equipment; the development of a bond of union among the history teachers of the State by making possible an exchange of suggestions and questions; the publication of lists of books for high school libraries; the recommendation of useful equipment for history teaching; the furnishing of topics and references relating to the history of Ohio; and last, but not least, the publication of the proceedings of the association itself."

The present number contains a paper upon “The Evolution of the American Common School," by Dean F. P. Graves, of the School of Education of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. E. J. Benton, of Western Reserve University, contributes a survey of past ideals and methods in the teaching of American history with suggestions for improvement in the methods from the elementary school to the college. In an article upon "Teaching Citizenship in the Public Schools," Mr. E. G. Pumphrey, of the Steele High School, Dayton, O., says: "To train a citizenship to be efficient, contented and economically independent is of stupendous primary value to the State; but to neglect a thorough grounding in the principles of citizenship is stupendous folly." The Historical and Archæological Museum is described as a new tool in education by Samuel C. Derby, of Ohio State University. Other articles are "The Use of Aids to History Teaching in Ohio," by U. M. McCaughey, of the Central High School, Akron, O.; "How to Reach the Pupils in History Teaching," by Miss Frances Walsh, of the Normal School, Columbus, O.; "Justification for a Study of Ohio History in Our Schools," by Prof. C. L. Martzolff, of Ohio University, and "A Source Book on the National Aspects of Ohio History," by Mr. Homer C. Hockett, of Ohio State University.

CONSULTATION IN HISTORY.

Mention was made in the May number of the MAGAZINE that conferences for history teachers of New York State had been arranged by the State Department of Education, and that these conferences were under the direction of Mr. Avery W. Skinner, specialist in history of the State Department of Education. We have now a list of topics for discussion in these conferences, and are glad to publish them herewith.

1. The relative importance of social, industrial, political, military and religious phases of history. (To be discussed with reference to a particular field of history, for example, English history.)

2. General topics to be emphasized in each field of history.

3. The conduct of the history recitation.

4. The character and value of history tests (local).

5. How shall we use maps, globes and charts to the best. advantage?

6. How shall we train pupils to organize material? 7. The kinds of source material and their use.

8. Collateral reading: (a) kinds; (b) purpose of assignment; (c) method of assignment; (d) testing; (e) reports. 9. What should a notebook contain?

10. The content of question papers in history.

11. The rating of history papers (with a comparison of some papers).

12. The importance of local history and how to arouse interest in it.

13. Excursions to historic sites or to museums (how and what to see).

14. The correlation of history with other subjects.

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15. The use and abuse of aids to visualization.

16. Desirable modifications in the history syllabus.

17. How may we best teach the European background of American history?

18. To what extent and by what method shall we teach the present European war?

19. The use of periodical literature.

20. How shall we revive an interest in the teaching of civics?

21. Community civics and social science.

22. Value of the biographical approach to history.

23. The value of debates in their relation to English and to history.

24. Should our teaching of history be made more definite and exact?

25. Dramatization as a means of vivifying history. 26. The " reportorical" method.

27. Aims and methods of history teaching in the grades. 28. Aims and methods of history teaching in the high schools.

29. Special methods of teaching pupils to study history. 30. How to teach current events.

31. The mechanism of the recitation:

a. Waste of time in assignment of lessons.
b. Calling roll, etc.

32. How shall clippings, illustrative material, etc., be classified and filed?

a. For teacher's use.

b. For pupil's use.

33. The importance of the incorrect answer and how to handle it.

"The inexperienced teacher does not know what to do with it."

"The experienced teacher does not know what to do with the correct answer."

34. Certain phases of American history which demand fuller treatment than that given in the average text; for example, the rise and fall of our merchant marine.

35. Erroneous impressions gained from close adherence to the views set forth by one text.

36. To what extent shall we treat history as a cultural subject and to what extent shall we treat it as an informational subject?

37. What books on the methods of teaching history have you read within the past two years and which have you found most helpful?

Please bring to the conference a list of the books you have found most helpful for students' collateral reading and for reference in each subject. Consider and classify this list as follows: (1) reference books; (2) books of an inspirational character; (3) books of an informational character; (4) source material.

GENEALOGICAL CHART.

The Genealogical Chart of the Kings of England and Scotland," by Prof. Winifred Johnson, of the department of history, State Normal School, Cape Girardeau, Mo. (A. J. Nystrom & Co., Chicago), is one of the most complete and scholarly contributions to this phase of historical literature yet produced. The English lines, beginning with Egbert, and the Scotch, beginning with Malcolm II, are continued with more or less detail to the present time. The relationships existing between the various royal houses of Europe to-day are given in detail, and one is able to see at a glance the connections existing between the rulers of England, Italy, Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Montenegro, Roumania, Greece, Germany, Austria, Holland, Servia and Bulgaria, as well as the Bonapartes.

Another interesting feature is the genealogy of the Hanoverian kings, through the paternal line to Karl the Great. The intricate genealogies of the early Lancastrians, Yorkists and Tudors are given with remarkable clearness; the Hapsburg dynasty is traced to Maximilian I; the Holland rulers to William the Rich, Count of Dillenborg (the father of William the Silent); and the Hanoverian, again, to William the Silent. The Spanish and Savoyan houses with their network of intermarriages, are given a semblance of order.

Typographical aids are employed to enable one to follow a line directly through an apparent maze of broken lineages. Despite the necessity of repetition of various names and lines, useless confusion has been carefully avoided, and characters of no historical importance are not dismissed with a mere mention.

The work as a whole is so admirably distinguished by scholarly accuracy and painstaking detail that it is diffi cult to do it justice in any recountal of its merits. Certainly it is a permanent contribution to historical literature, and is one that no amount of further investigation can alter or make obsolete. As such it is a necessity for teachers and students, not only of English, but of modern European history.

ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.

Editor HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE: I write to ask for possible information concerning pictures illustrative of medieval and modern history suitable for use in a radiopticon. Having seen other bibliographies in your MAGAZINE, I thought probably you could aid me in this respect. Answer. A Bibliography of Historical Pictures, Lantern Slides, etc., was published in the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE for June, 1913, Volume 4, page 153.

Editor THE HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE: Can you aid me in securing information about the history and work of the Red Cross Society? N. B. DE B.

Answer. The following references are suggested: "Under the Red Cross Flag at Home and Abroad," by Mabel T. Boardman, Philadelphia, 1915.

"The Origin of the Red Cross," translated from the French of H. Dunant, Philadelphia, 1911.

"The Life of Florence Nightingale," by Sir Edward Cook, London, 1913.

"A Story of the Red Cross," by Clara Barton, New York, 1904.

"Women's Work in America," by A. N. Myer, New York, 1891.

See also the articles upon the subject in the International Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica, and in Bliss, Encyclopedia of Social Reform, as well as the several year books.

The American Red Cross Society (Washington, D. C.) publishes an illustrated monthly magazine and reports

from time to time.

HISTORY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS. Additions to and corrections of the following list of associations are requested by the editor of the MAGAZINE. Alabama History Teachers' Association, T. L. Grove, Tuscaloosa, Ala., member of Executive Council.

American Historical Association-Secretary, Waldo G. Leland, Washington, D. C.

History Section of Colorado State Teachers' Association —Chairman, Prof. C. C. Eckhardt, University of Colorado, Boulder, Col.

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History Teachers' Association of Florida-President, Miss Caroline Brevard, Woman's College, Tallahassee; secretary, Miss E. M. Williams, Jacksonville.

Indiana History Teachers' Association-Secretary, Mrs. Osa Graham, Indianapolis, Ind.

Iowa Society of Social Science Teachers-President, Prof. L. B. Schmidt, Ames, Ia.; secretary, Miss Mary Kassan, East High School, Des Moines, Ia.

Jasper County, Mo., History Association-Secretary, Miss Elizabeth Peiffer, Carthage, Mo.

Kleio Club of University of Missouri.

Association of History Teachers of Middle States and Maryland-President, Miss Jessie C. Evans, William Penn High School, Philadelphia; secretary, Prof. L. R. Schuyler, City College, New York City.

Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Teachers' Section-Secretary, Howard C. Hill, State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.

Missouri Association of Teachers of History and Government-Secretary, Jesse E. Wrench, Columbia, Mo.

Nebraska History Teachers' Association-Secretary, Julia M. Wort, Lincoln, Neb.

New England History Teachers' Association-Secretary, Mr. Horace Kidger, 82 Madison Avenue, Newtonville, Mass. New York City Conference-Chairman, Fred. H. Paine, East District High School, Brooklyn; secretary-treasurer, Miss Florence E. Stryker, State Normal School, Montclair, N. J.

Northwest Association of Teachers of History, Economics and Government-Secretary, Prof. L. T. Jackson, Pullman, Wash.

Ohio History Teachers' Association-Chairman, Wilbur H. Siebert, Ohio State University, Columbus; secretary, Miss A. P. Dickson, Dayton.

Political Science Club of students who have majored in history at Ohio State University.

South Dakota History Teachers' Association-Secretary, Edwin Ott, Sioux Falls, S. D.

Tennessee History Teachers'

Association-Secretary

treasurer, Max Souby, Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Texas History Teachers' Section of the State Teachers' Association-Secretary, Prof. C. W. Ramsdell, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.

Twin City History Teachers' Association-Secretary, Miss Amanda Sundean, 2828 South Girard Avenue, Minneapolis, Minn., teacher in West High School.

Virginia History Teachers' Section of Virginia State Teachers' Association-President, Prof. J. W. Wayland, Harrisonburg, Va.; secretary, Katherine Wicker, Norfolk,

Va.

HISTORY IN THE SUMMER SCHOOLS, 1916. Information received too late for the May issue of the MAGAZINE.

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY.

Baton Rouge, La., June 5 to August 4, 1916. Professor Fleming and Doctor Stroud.

Modern European History. A Survey of European History Since 1715. Dr. Stroud.

History of Louisiana. Professor Fleming. The French Revolution and Napoleon. Professor Fleming. Current History, European and American. Professor Fleming.

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE.

Orono, Maine, June 26 to August 4, 1916. Professor Colvin.

United States History. A general survey from 1815. European History.

English History. The history of England since 1715.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA.
Chapel Hill, N. C., June 13 to July 28, 1916.
Mr. Vernon, Mr. Wagstaff, Mr. Hamilton.
The History of England. Mr. Vernon.

The History of the United States. Mr. Vernon.
History of Rome. Mr. Wagstaff.

The Reconstruction of the Union. A course in the history of the United States from 1865 to 1877. Mr. Hamilton.

Modern Europe. History of Europe from 1815 to the Present Time. Mr. Wagstaff.

Contemporary United States History. Mr. Hamilton. Modern International Relations. Mr. Hamilton.

OHIO UNIVERSITY.

Athens, Ohio, June 24 to August 4, 1916.

Professor T. M. Morgan, Professor Hoover, Professor Martzolff, Assistant Professor Jones.

Economics. Professor Morgan.

European History. This course will be deovted to the period beginning with the Renaissance and the Dawn of Modern Civilization, covering the Thirty Years' War, the Protestant Reformation, and coming down to the French Revolution. Professor Morgan.

European History, II. The second course will cover the period from the French Revolution to the present time. Professor Morgan.

The British Empire. Professor Morgan.

American History, I. Covers the period to 1800. Professor Hoover.

American History, II. Covers the period from 1800 to the present time. Professor Hoover.

Methods in History. Professor Hoover.

Ohio History. Professor Martzolff.

United States History Review. Assistant

Professor

General History, I. Embraces the period from the earliest written record to the Treaty of Verdun, 843 A. D. Assistant Professor Jones.

General History, II. Takes from the Treaty of Verdun to the present time. Assistant Professor Jones. Civics.

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY.

Morgantown, West Virginia, June 19 to August 19, 1916. Professor John H. Latané, Professor J. M. Callahan, Professor O. P. Chitwood, Mr. Chester P. Higby.

Latin-American History and Diplomacy. Mr. Latané. American Diplomacy and Foreign Policy: The United States as a World Power. Mr. Callahan.

International Law and Practice of Diplomacy. Mr. Calla

History of Rome. Mr. Chitwood.

Modern European History. Mr. Chitwood.

Continental Europe in the Nineteenth Century. Mr. Chit

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Landmarks of English History. Mr. Higby.

United States History and Civics for Teachers. Mr. Higby.

American Social and Economic History. Mr. Higby.

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Misunderstandings'

(April Forum") is a discussion of the unsympathetic attitude of mind of the American and Latin-American toward each other.

BOOK REVIEWS

EDITED BY PROFESSOR WAYLAND J. CHASE, UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN.

CLEMENT, ERNEST WILSON. A Short History of Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1915. Pp. x, 190. $1.00.

The author was for many years a resident of Japan as teacher, interpreter for the United States Legation, correspondent and editor, and has written two other books relating to this country. This little book is designed to quicken rather than to satisfy the reader's desire for knowledge of Japan's history, and is well furnished with references to works containing more details. It is a serviceable brief summary and makes a good preparation for a more extended study of the subject elsewhere.

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New France. Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Vol. LXV, No. 1. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1915. Pp. 274. $2.25. There has been no lack of interest among American scholars in the history of the western world in its age of colonial dependency. There has, however, been a radical change of emphasis. The older romantic school, Parkman, Prescott, Bancroft, made widely known the picturesque and dramatic in the story of the French, Spanish and English in America. The recent school has turned from the epic to place the emphasis upon the prosaic theme of institutional history. What colonial history has lost in the romantic it has gained in intensity and depth of knowledge. There have arisen within late years several groups of scholars, closely related and widely distributed, who have done most commendable work of a highly organized character to uncover, chart and publish new and vast stores of material and to broaden our knowledge of the I political and administrative side of French, Spanish and = English evolution in America. On the Atlantic the Andrews-Osgood school has brought into the light of day the institutional aspects of English colonial-imperial evolution. The California group has done much to trace the institutional history of the Spanish colonies. Professor Bolton's recent monograph on "Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century deserves particular mention as & noteworthy contribution to Spanish colonial history and administration. The Canadian school has made large additions to the knowledge of local development in Canada under the French regime. It is within this class of intensive, critical, and copiously documented studies that falls Dr. Cahall's doctorate thesis on the Sovereign Council in Canada under the French control. There is no doubt of the author's diligent and wide examination and critical analysis of the sources, manuscript and printed, as attested by the abundant footnotes, careful bibliography and several appendixes.

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have been very well worked into the remaining chapters on the organization, procedure, functions, and achievements. The latter chapters contain the most invaluable material, and as the author confesses are 'the core of the work." And finally, as too often is the case with these local studies, the author has left out of account a treatment of the relation of the Council to the sovereign power in France.

It is a well written and painstaking study, and is welcomed by the serious student of colonial government. W. T. ROOT.

The University of Wisconsin.

BECK, JAMES M. The Evidence in the Case. A Discussion of the Moral Responsibility for the War of 1914, as Disclosed by the Diplomatic Records of England, Germany, Russia, France, Austria, Italy, and Belgium. With an Introduction by Hon. Joseph H. Choate. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Revised edition, 1915. Pp. xxxv, 275. $1.00, net.

This book is an amplification of an article printed in the New York "Times," October 25, 1914. Mr. Beck has studied the official documents published by the various nations at war, and from these as a basis he has made a very detailed and thorough argument as to the responsibility for the war. He expressly disclaims intention to discuss the underlying causes of the war, but limits himself to the diplomatic negotiations; to the question, "Who brought about the war in August, 1914?"

He makes much of the failure of Germany and Austria to give full statements of the communications which passed Then between them just previous to the outbreak of war. he gives a narrative account of the events, based on the documents, interrupting at one point to add new material derived from the official documents published by France. He concludes that Austria and Germany provoked the war, that Germany especially is guilty of not restraining Austria, and possibly even of instigating Austria, that there was no provocation for the invasion of Belgium by Germany, and that England, France, Italy, and Russia worked sincerely for the maintenance of peace. The book is well written and gives useful summaries of the facts. It may be used in connection with high school courses in recent European history, though its frank hostility to the German government may render it objectionable in some quarters. CLARENCE PERKINS. Ohio State University.

TICKNER, F. W. Social and Industrial History of England. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1915. Pp. xii, 721. $1.00.

Those high school teachers and general readers who are interested in the social and industrial side of English history will welcome this book. It is a continuous survey of this phase of English history, and is written in language within the comprehension of high school pupils. The work is presented in an attractive manner as some of the chapter headings indicate: "Life in an Early English Village," "A Medieval Town at Work," "A Medieval Town at Play," "Agricultural Progress at Last," How Our Forefathers Were Governed," "How We Are Governed." On pages 383-385 the author drops into mere tabulation of facts which might be better in the form of a chronological table. However, this does not hold true of the book as a whole, which is well presented. The illustrations are not up to the standard of the narrative matter. There is a very good chronological table and a complete index.

The Sovereign Council was the chief governing body in New France, and its position and the lack of information concerning it are good and sufficient reasons for the existence of this study. The first three chapters are devoted to a detailed account of the relations of the chief personalities within the Council to each other. These relations were replete with friction as a result of the presence of three officials, the governor, the intendant, and the bishop, whose jurisdiction overlapped and who enjoyed much independence in position. But to single out for special treatment and to devote nearly one-half the volume to this aspect of conciliar history is to leave a distorted account of the body as a working organization. This part of the study might University of Wisconsin.

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C. A. SMITH.

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WALLING, WILLIAM ENGLISH. The Socialists and War. A Documentary Statement of the Position of the Socialists of All Countries; with Special Reference to Their Peace Policy. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1915. Pp. xii, 512. $1.50, net.

As the title indicates, Mr. Walling has selected from the mass of statements made by leading socialists and the socialist press of different countries, a number which he regards as of the greatest political and economic importance. Three-fourths of the book is composed of such documents, and the editorial comment serves mainly to connect and explain the quotations. The book is divided into five parts: (1) The general position of the socialists on war and how they proposed to prevent war. (2) What they had done in the period immediately before the war. (3) The attitude of the leading socialists in various countries toward the war at its outbreak. (4) Socialist action and opinion during the war, classified by countries. (5) What the socialists are doing to end the war, their views of peace, and what the war has led the governments to do in the direction of State socialism.

Mr. Walling has made a remarkable compilation welded together by skilful editorial work. He states that "No material has been omitted or included merely because it seemed creditable or discreditable to socialists in general, or to the socialists of any particular country." The views expressed are quite diverse, and nearly always of great interest and suggestiveness. Whether or not one favors socialism, he must admit that most intelligent people the world over look to the socialist leaders for news of popular movements which may end the war. Mr. Walling gives us an excellent survey of their views, and suggests answers to many questions which thinking people have asked since the war began. The book is rather detailed and heavy for the average high school pupil, but it may be used to advantage by the more mature students of modern European history and economics.

Ohio State University.

CLARENCE PERKINS.

ASHLEY, ROSCOE LEWIS. Ancient Civilization. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. Pp. xxi, 363. $1.10.

This text-book is written primarily to meet the demand for a half-year course in ancient history, extending from prehistoric man to 800 A. D., with emphasis on the civilization. For such a purpose the book furnishes a good basis. But since a skeleton of political history in a continuous narrative form has been included-and wisely so-it can be used for the ordinary year's work in ancient history.

The general make-up of the book maintains the excellent standard both of the publishers and of the author, who has written many text-books. There are numerous illustrations of a high order and abundant maps, both colored and in black and white. Besides topical headings and marginal notes in the text, each chapter is followed by lists of references, topics, studies and questions. The topics are more difficult than the studies. There are also comparative chronological tables at the close of certain periods. Perhaps the adjective clear best describes the appearance, the style and the contents of the book.

While teachers will notice that it is not the work of a specialist in ancient history, they will also note the many excellencies that are the results of the twofold experience of the author: first as a high school teacher, and second as a writer of many text-books in other historical fields. The references given are those that he has found usable in classes of ordinary high school pupils. The topics, studies,

questions and notes are the results of practical experience. He knows and understands the interests and capacity of pupils in secondary schools. VICTORIA A. ADAMS. Calumet High School, Chicago.

ROBINSON, ALBERT G. Cuba Old and New. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1915. Pp. 264.

The author of this work is a newspaper correspondent of reputation, known also as the author of "Cuba and the Intervention" (1905), probably the best narrative account of the first American intervention in Cuba. The present volume lacks the seriousness of the earlier work. It seems to have been written as a literary guide-book to Cuba, but no statement of such a purpose is made by the author. It contains abundant advice for the traveler, as well as a store of historical, political and economic information purveyed in a very popular style. Old Cuba and New Cuba, Old Havana and New Havana, the United States and Cuba, Cuba's Revolutions, Independence, Filibustering, are the titles of some of the chapters. The most interesting chapter is that giving details of filibustering expeditions in the period 1895 to 1898. M.

DODD, WILLIAM E. Expansion and Conflict. The Riverside History of the United States, III. Boston: Houghton, Mitlin Co., 1915. Pp. xii, 329, xxiv. $1.25. PAXSON, FREDERIC L. The New Nation. The Riverside History, IV. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co.. 1915. Pp. xiv, 328. $1.25.

Probably most of those who see this opinion will already have examined the books and formed their own judgments. In scope, they are uniquely comprehensive, presenting political conditions against a background of social, intellectual, emotional, and economic influences in a degree which no other book has attempted. The period covered is the most complex in our history, and each author is a recognized master of his sub-division of the field. Some chapters in each volume will be extremely useful reference reading for college classes. I shall be surprised, however, if they prove, as a whole, satisfactory text-books. Indeed, I am not sure that they are intended for text-books. Touching so many phases of our history as they do in such brief space, the impression they give is of a series of essays on history, rapid and allusive, assuming a knowledge that few college students possess, and hinting at connections and relations that few undergraduates have the insight to understand. It seems a pity that such breadth of plan, co-ordinating so many diverse elements of national development, had to be presented on so compressed a scale. A distinguishing feature of the books is their use of the census statistics on population and wealth, a source which in the past, historians have been too much inclined to leave to the economist. Frequent maps are introduced, especially in Professor Dodd's volume, to illustrate this material, which is used with telling effect in analyzing sectional differences and sociological tendencies. The main topics of United States history from Andrew Jackson to Woodrow Wilson are familiar to all who read this maga zine. To enumerate them here would be an impertinence. These volumes discuss or allude to them all, and because of their comprehensive viewpoint will inevitably become useful and stimulating guides to further reading and study of the period, which, perhaps, may be their principal aim. The well chosen bibliographical notes at the end of each chapter make this easy even for the inexperienced reader. The dividing line between the volumes is the close of the Civil War. It is Professor Dodd's opinion, with which few

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