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$35,000,000; the hulls alone were worth nearly $10,000,000; and the "linters" or lint that sticks to the seed, used in a variety of manufactures, were worth nearly $5,000,000. All these by-products were formerly wasted. Naturally, in the new age, the oil mills constitute an enormous industry, which, because of the perishable character of the raw product, must predominantly be located in the South. In 1913 there were in the United States 870 cotton-seed oil mills of which all but six were in the southern States. The total value of the seed crushed was $155,500,000.28

To attempt to discuss other important manufactures, such as those which have to do with tobacco, petroleum, turpentine and resin, would extend this paper beyond all limits. Just a word may be said as to lumber and iron. From colonial times to 1870 the center of the lumber industry was in the North Eastern States. In 1880 the States on the Great Lakes took the lead. In 1905 the South forged ahead, producing 42 per cent. of the total output of the union. The South had increased the value of lumber production more than fivefold since 1880, while that of the rest of the country had little more than doubled. The three great lumber belts in the South are those of the mountain region whence comes the oak, hemlock, poplar and pine; the Atlantic lowlands and the gulf plain with their yellow pine, and the swamps, that produce cypress and live-oak. From the saw mill stage the industry has expanded to the manufacture of the more refined products. High Point, North Carolina, is now the center of a flourishing specialized furniture manufacture, reminding one of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Of older importance than the lumber industry is the manufacture of iron and steel. In its modern stage this dates from 1882-1883. In Tennessee and Alabama this was a time of "boom towns, of which Birmingham survived. In this region the manufacture has centralized, declining in other States. It has been absorbed in the great tendency to combination, especially in the purchase by the United States Steel Corporation or the Tennessee Coal and Iron

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Company. The steel trust has preferred, however, to exploit chiefly the Mesaba region on the Great Lakes though a stalwart friend of the iron industry now calls attention to the greater desirability for strategic reasons of developing the southern fields. As in the case of lumber a number of branch specialized industries have sprung out of that of iron and steel manufacture, for example the making of stoves.

Along with the rise of manufactures has developed of course the expansion of commerce and the growth of cities. The census of 1910 showed a much more rapid rate of increase in the cities of the South than in the rural districts, but the latter showed a considerable increase, whereas the rural population of New England slightly declined. The rate of increase for the cities of the South was higher in 1l of the divisions of the South than in New England, the East North Central, or the West North Central divisions; and the rate in the West South Central division was higher than that in any of them except the Pacific. But the proportion of rural to urban population is higher in the East South Central than in any other division and in the South as a whole than in the rest of the country. Only 22.5 per cent. of the southern people live in towns and cities. Of fifty cities in the United States which have a population of one hundred thousand or more, there are but nine in the South. Of one hundred and seventy-nine cities in the whole country with a population between 25,000 and 100,000 the South has thirty-five. Of more than 2,000 cities having between 2,500 and 25,000 inhabitants there are in the South less than 500.20 Thus the South is still a rural community, marked, however, by a rapid rate of increase in municipal life. Especially significant is the growth of great ports like New Orleans and Galveston with their enormous export trade30 and that of railroad centers such as Memphis and Houston, and manufacturing and jobbing cities like Birmingham, Richmond and Nashville.31

(This paper will be continued in the October issue.)

Position of the Historian in Statehood Centennials


There come about periods, when it seems advisable for different professions to depart slightly from their accustomed plans, and give special attention to questions that lie outside their regular course. The threehundredth anniversary of Shakespeare's death, for example, is now being celebrated throughout the Englishspeaking world. Hundreds of people, who in other years manifested little interest in this immortal writer, are now diligently reading his plays, and witnessing their reproduction. During the last school year, he has practically monopolized the English courses in our universities, colleges and high schools.

28" Cotton Production, 1913," Census Bulletin 125, pp. 30-32.


This is but one illustration of those special occasions that demand our attention. Two years ago, following the outbreak of the great European war, many colleges and universities in this country found it necessary to suddenly re-arrange their history courses. New classes had to be provided for, in European history, and American diplomacy. The writer, who at that time was engaged in research work at the University of Wisconsin, and who had his 29 These computations are derived from the Thirteenth Census, Abstract.

30 B. J. Ramage, in "S. in B. of N.," Vol. 6, pp. 363-368, 607-610.

31 U. B. Phillips, Ibid, pp. 315-316.

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heart set upon taking a special course that was to be offered by the department of American history, was informed at the time of registration, that that particular course would have to give way to a class in diplomatic history. This change was necessitated because of the great interest which the war had created in the study of international relations. Students wanted to know something of the problems of diplomacy, and it was up to the departments of history and political science to provide classes for their accommodation.

The recurrence of these special events imposes new demands upon our profession. But the event in which certain of us are now specially interested is the observance of statehood centennials. Five States are now on the eve of celebrating the hundredth anniversary of their admission into the union. That they will have a celebration of some kind, is well known. But the exact nature of that celebration, the significant events of the last century that shall be emphasized, the study of the developments that have occurred within each State-these will depend in large part upon the attitude of the historian.

And the occasion should be welcomed on our part as an opportunity to render a genuine service. There will be a great temptation for producing cheap historical literature. The popularizer and the sensational story teller are going to be in the field early. To the knowledge of the writer, two large publishing companies are already canvassing two of the States that are planning for the centennial, in an attempt to have county histories written and put on the market, purely for commercial purposes. The stories contained on those gilt-edged pages will form the storehouse of historical knowledge for the citizens of each respective county. And while it is true that some of the histories thus produced are not without merit, yet they fall so far short of what we as a profession expect, that we wonder at their sale.


Because of this very condition, it is imperative that the historian assert himself in an unusual degree. the popularizer and the commercial publisher are to be checked, and if the true facts of a locality are to be set forth, then the historian must (to use the current word) provide for a certain kind of prepared


The plans contemplated should enlist the services of every teacher of history in the high schools, in the colleges, the research students and the professors in the universities. It is the desire to include every individual who is interested in the study, the teaching, or the writing of history, for it is believed that the scope of the work to be covered is of sufficiently wide range to enlist their combined support.

First; let us consider the work that can be done by those who conduct seminaries, and who emphasize research work. They doubtless have the opportunity to render the greatest service of all. The students that enroll with them are, in most cases, residents of the State. When they enter upon graduate study, they are supposed to be prepared for thorough research

work. Therefore, on the approach of the statehood centennial, you should select the one or two most important historical movements that have occurred in your commonwealth during the last century, and make it the subject of special study. If such a study is not made, then others, less well prepared, will be busy in an attempt to discover some new or startling fact, and will flash it before the public. Such movements should be checked. And the most effective method to suggest is that of having the best equipped students undertake these investigations. The facts should be reported to you. Around the seminar table, and in joint conferences with all those interested in the study, a thorough discussion should take place, and the real story of the movement should be unraveled. When this is done, the results of the investigation should be published. And if given proper publicity, there will be no occasion for the clever writer of a Sunday paper to distort the facts by composing a new feature story. Of one thing we can be positively certain, that those episodes in our State history, which lend themselves to the more dramatic treatment, will give rise to numerous sensational stories. And the extent to which the members of the history profession fail in making known the real fact, to that extent will the public be led astray, and history will be falsified.

This research work of which I speak should be undertaken early, at least three or four years in advance of the centennial observance. If it is to be of any genuine value either to those who teach the subject, or to those who direct the exercises during the centennial year, then they must be in possession of the facts before laying their plans. So far as the writer has been able to learn, only two universities, in the five States preparing for centennial celebrations, have seen fit to select a local movement for the subject of their seminar study this year. Surely there have been historical developments within each of our commonwealths, during the last century, of sufficient importance to justify a careful study. And I submit for your consideration the value of State and sectional subjects during the next two or three years.

Next, addressing those who are considering the writing of text books, I raise the question does not the approach of the statehood centennials provide the best opportunity they will ever have to make a real contribution? The schools of every city, town and rural district of the State are going to study, as never before, the growth of their commonwealth. Boards

of Education will demand it in the public schools, and the colleges will add it in order to satisfy the students and patrons. The demand for a carefully written, impartial and comprehensive history will, therefore, be enormous. Those who contemplate writing a textbook will never find conditions more favorable, or the demand for their sale any greater. But their contributions should be made early. Do not allow the situation that occurred in Indiana to repeat itself. It was only four months ago that a committee was appointed to visit the State Board of Education, and request that it hereafter refuse the adoption of any his

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tory for a text-book unless it contained a minimum of at least sixty pages devoted to the history of Indiana. What was the result? When the members of the State Board of Education met last week,1 there were six different histories submitted for adoption. Each of these histories had been prepared, set up, and typed within a period of less than four months. And while it is true that certain of them represent careful and earnest work on the part of the authors, yet they themselves must acknowledge that the brief time allotted would scarcely admit the use of extensive, original material. How much greater would have been the service rendered to the cause of State history, had these texts been made available four or five years ago. Closely allied to the text-book writing, but really offering a broader field, is that of making at this time, a careful study of the institutions in each section of the country. No text-book can include all this material. And if the study is to be an exhaustive one, the historian must do it. Such a study as contemplated will of necessity overlap the boundary lines of the individual States, and include the institutions of the neighboring commonwealths. And well it should, for this will necessitate a thorough investigation of the institution wherever it exists. To be specific, there is at this moment, in Indiana and Illinois, a great demand on the part of the schools, libraries, clubs, and even among the laymen, for a detailed history of the railroads in the old Northwest. The development of the entire system of transportation in that section of the country would, if properly written, meet with a reception that is seldom accorded to historical works.

There is also a universal demand for a history of the churches in the two States just mentioned. To be complete, such a history would of course have to include the growth of the different churches in the States of the Northwest. But this would only enhance its value, both to the public and the author. A detailed bistory of the educational system in that region is also awaiting the study of some careful investigator.

The two Southern States now on the eve of centennial celebrations perhaps offer even a greater opportunity for institutional history than the Northwest. The development of the railroad system in the South and especially the system of transportation contemplated just prior to the Civil War, present fitting subjects for centennial study. For biographical history-of which there will be an unusual demand-no section is so rich in material as the Southern States. For there, more than in any other region, the leadership of a few men determined their history.

And as to Missouri, no State offers such an inviting field for the study of transportation system in the West. The migration that poured into the upper Missouri valley, the far West, and the Southwest for three-quarters of a century, rendezvoused in this border State. There is no chapter in the development of the West that is richer in romance and genuine his1 May 8, 1916.

torical interest, and a thorough study of that great movement would be a worthy centennial contribution, not only to Missourians, but to every student of Western history.

As to the writing of biographies, I believe it to be literally true, in stating that the observance of statehood centennials, offers the best opportunity that we will ever have in producing the life history of representative citizens. The celebrations that are being planned call for a review of those characters who helped in the building of the commonwealth. graphical history will be seized upon as never before, and we will be neglecting a duty that is peculiarly our own, if we fail to write the true story of the fathers of our State.


But this, also, should be undertaken at least three or four years in advance of the centennial observance. Resorting again to self-accusation, we made the mistake in Indiana of postponing this work until the present year. The result is that we are now rushing through, in newspaper fashion, the lives of "A Hundred Leading Hoosiers." Needless to say, it is being done in a very superficial manner. Had this work been undertaken five years ago, the life history of the leading hoosiers would now be found in every school in the State.

In turning to those of our number who are engaged primarily in the teaching of history, and who find no time for research work, the question arises, what can they do? Because of the large number of classes that must be met daily, and because of the limited library facilities at their disposal, about the only thing left to do is that of simply teaching. Necessarily, they must await the appearance of the special research work and the text-books that have been mentioned. But when these special contributions are brought to their attention they should see to it that they get a place in the curriculum. During these few years, we are justified in eliminating some of the regular courses and substituting therefor a study of State and local history. The extent to which each community becomes interested will depend in large part upon the emphasis that is given to these subjects.

Aside from all this special work that has been suggested, there is yet another duty that falls upon us as a profession. In this, we should act as a unit. Every individual who is interested in the teaching or study of history should do a little propagandist work. If historians were ever justified in making a campaign in behalf of a cause, and urging upon the public, the importance of a correct study of their own history, it is on the eve of some great anniversary or centennial celebration.

On such occasions, it becomes our duty to take the initiative. A list of subjects for study and investigation should be agreed upon, and an appeal should then be made to State authorities for sufficient means to conduct the research work. Even wealthy individuals should not be overlooked in this appeal. Agencies ought to be provided for publishing and distributing


the results of these investigations after they have been made.

The plan advocated is not an impossible one. Three years ago, when the Panama-Pacific exposition was being planned, the people of California became greatly interested in the study of local history. Professor C. E. Chapman, of the State University, organized a seminar for the purpose of conducting the research work. Students flocked into his courses, and additional classes had to be organized. A prominent order, known as the Native Sons of the Golden West, took up the study, and when the next session of the legislature met, an act was passed and signed by Governor Johnson, for the purpose of encouraging the study of local history. Funds were provided, out of which fellowships and research prizes were to be offered. And to-day, California is many times richer in the collection of historical material than she was three years ago.

In one of our neighboring States, we find a still better illustration. Professor Alvord, of Illinois, has set a high standard in this line of work. Through his careful guidance, the publications of the Illinois Historical Society are bringing to light the most complete survey of State documents in the Middle West. The social, political and institutional history of that commonwealth will no longer be written from the personal stories of pioneers, but will be founded upon purely documentary evidence. The approach of the Statehood anniversaries offer unusual opportunities to inaugurate similar movements elsewhere.

Thus far, all the work that has been mentioned should be done in advance of the centennial year. When the actual celebrations begin, and when the historical dramas and pageants are being given, the historian can do little more than be an interested spectator. Doubtless he will be called upon by the pageant-master and play-writer to suggest episodes and proper historical settings. And such assistance should be cheerfully given. In the main, however, our work should be temporarily suspended during the actual playing of the game.

But the work to be done after the celebration is over is quite definite. In centennial observances as in all similar events, the tendency will be to drop the whole thing as soon as the spectacular features have been presented. The pageant-master will pass on into other sections to dramatize their events. The committees that have formed the working units in the various counties of the State will become disorganized. The newspapers that have been running stories of historic interest will find other items for their columns. It remains for the historians alone to gather up the fragments of real historic interest, and preserve them for future generations.

This feature of the work will perhaps not interest as many of us as did the plans leading up to the celebration. But it is none the less imperative that some of our number enter upon the duty. As stated early in this paper, the occasion will arouse a more universal interest in the study of local history than any

other event in our generation. The centennial will be small indeed if it does not leave us richer in material for new studies. And who knows but that from these sources a new history of the State, or even of an institution, may be written. The stories should at least be tested, and the truth made known.

These are the duties, in the observance of statehood centennials, that devolve primarily upon the historian. The suggestions made appear to be of sufficient range to enlist the attention of every student and teacher of Western American history. The charge cannot be made that such a plan as here outlined is too sectional or local in scope. A thorough study of the history of any one of the five States now preparing for its centennial carries with it a very significant part of American history. No one can study the history of Indiana or Illinois without gaining a rather definite conception of the development of the old Northwest territory. A correct study of the history of Mississippi or Alabama involves a general study of the entire cotton South. And a history of a century's development in Missouri will include a careful survey of the territory that lies west of its border.

Hence, the occasion offers us an opportunity to render a very special service to the cause of history. Plans are already under way for celebrations, of some kind. And if we actively enlist in the work, and help to direct those plans, we will be rendering a far greater service than we will if we simply stand aside, sneer at the attempts of others, and then, at the close of the celebrations, lament the fact that history has been woefully distorted. If we really want the people to appreciate their history, then let us see to it that they know their history.1

The Historical Association (English) has taken over the "Journal of History" founded four years ago by Mr. Harold F. B. Wheeler. The Journal's existence was threatened as a result of circumstances connected with the war. On the other hand, many subscribers of " History" were members of the Historical Association. At the annual meeting in January, 1916, a resolution was unanimously carried to the effect that the Association should, if possi ble, possess an organ of its own. As a result of the situation concerning the Journal and the desire of the Associa tion for a medium through which to address its constit uency, arrangements have been made for publishing the Journal with the same title as the official quarterly journal of the Historical Association. The editor is Prof. A. F. Pollard. With him are associated on the editorial board, Prof. F. J. C. Hearnshaw, Miss M. A. Howard, Dr. J. E. Morris, Mr. J. A. White, and Miss E. Jeffries Davis, secretary. The first number under the new arrangements, that for April, 1916, has arrived, and is numbered new series Vol. 1, No. 1, published by Macmillan Company, at the annual subscription price of 4s, 6d. This number contains a paper by Sir Charles Lucas on "The Teaching of Im perial History; two papers upon the "Teaching of Naval and Military History," by Julian Corbett and HL W. Hodges; and a discussion entitled, "History and Science," by A. F. Pollard.

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1Paper read April 27, 1916, before a conference of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association at Nashville.


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A System for Library Reference Work


Library reference exercises have come to be a necessary and valuable part of high school work especially in connection with history. It is oftentimes a problem how to take care of such work satisfactorily, but after considerable experimenting the author hit upon the following, which seems to work well and may be of use to others.

A selection was made of the topics to be used, which were numbered and card catalogued with the references for them. The following is an example taken at random from English History.

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The teacher wishes to give an assignment on Origin of the Prime Minister," which is found to be sub-topic 19 under main topic 64, George I, with two references, A and B. A printed form, about 51⁄2 by 82 inches, is filled out with the pupil's name, topic reference book, volume and page, the topic number and date when due. The form is then passed to the pupil, who records his notes on the same slip using both sides if necessary.

A duplicate copy of the notes is put in the pupil's notebook, and after the topic is given in class, the form with the notes is passed in to the teacher who then has a complete record of what the pupil has actually done. It is an easy matter to record in the class book the number of the topic, with the date when it is due, and check it as the work is passed in.

When the plan was first tried it was with some doubt as to how the pupils would take hold of it, but it worked well from the start. The passing in of the printed slip as an affidavit of the work done seems to appeal to them, and then, too, they know they cannot get away from such a system. It is up to them to earn their credit or a zero, for there is no chance of bluffing or copying someone else's work, as the references are always different, and the slip handed in is a receipt for completed work.

There is the tendency of course for the pupil to copy the reference word for word from the book, but when it is given in class it should be in the pupil's own words and delivered in such a way that the rest of the class may take notes upon it. This in itself is training worth while and should help the pupil in expressing his own thoughts and impressions derived from his reading.

Different references are sometimes assigned upon the same topic, which offers opportunities of comparison and discussion in class. The references are seldom over a page in length and are used to emphasize the main points covered by the text. The forms can be secured from any printer at about $4.00 per thousand.

The First Newspaper Published in Alaska

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The first newspaper published in Alaska was the Sitka Times.' Instead of being in conventional type it is dressed in writing, and for this reason is all the more interesting in displaying the disadvantages which the people of the country then had to meet.

Volume one, number one, was issued at Sitka on Saturday, September 19, 1868, a little less than one year after the United States came into full possession of the territory. The first official overture for the purchase of Alaska was made during the presidency of James Buchanan. The purchase at the price of $7,200,000.00 was consummated March 30, 1867, and formal transfer of the territory was made at Sitka, October 18 of the same year. The total number of inhabitants at that time was about thirty thousand, of whom less than five hundred were white people. The value of the products of Alaska since its purchase by the United States including furs, fishery products and minerals is approximately $500,000,000.00. Sitka, the early capital of Alaska, is in many ways the most interesting of all the Alaskan towns. It is located

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on a bay famed for its transcendent beauty. It was for some years the center of Alaskan interests of all kinds, but more recent discoveries of mineral wealth throughout the territory has gradually taken away from its importance. The four plates presented herewith reproduce an original copy of the first number of the "Sitka Times in reduced form. The original is in two sheets, and each sheet is written on both sides. The size of the sheets is approximately eight inches by twelve inches. Nearly all lines in the original are in red ink and these have not in every case reproduced well in the plates, otherwise the reproduction is good. The paper is a recent gift to the School of Mines from Mr. Joseph B. Gossage, founder and editor of the "Rapid City Daily Journal," he having received it years ago from a friend. The sheets will be mounted and placed on exhibition in the School of Mines where they will serve as a most interesting souvenir of the early history of this rich northern land. From the Pahasapa Quarterly, April, 1916, p. 34. [Published by the South Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, S. D.]

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