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were called on to demonstrate that free labor is the proper basis for social life and industrial achievement, and that every worker, white and black alike, should be given his opportunity for betterment.

I hold no brief for mere stolid acquiescence in wrong. I make no claim that wars have accomplished nothing. I refuse to teach that men must not struggle to maintain what they believe right. But I do assert my belief that when wars have not actually beaten men backward and downward and heaped up barriers to civilization, they have come because men were so blind they could see no better way, and that if really vital issues were at stake the contest was, by somebody's fault, a huge ignorant blunder, a monumental stupidity. If men could not solve the issues of our Revolutionary contest peacably, it was not because of

Proud as one

the issues, but from human perversity. may be of the devotion and courage of men North and South fifty years ago, the fact still remains we had to deluge the country in blood to rid it of slavery. I often think of the lines of the poet immortalizing the charge at Balaklava:

The fact is that war was one great blunder, a sacrifice to Moloch, an evidence of ministerial incapacity and of popular wrong-headedness. And so, though I fain would be historical-minded and content myself with demonstrable realities, I feel like writing, someone had blundered," as the epitaph of all soldiers who have fallen in conflicts between so-called civilized nations.1

Two Views Regarding Historical Fiction

The Historical Novel: Fiction as History in Soho-respectively; for another period, Fanny

BY ELBRIDGE COLBY.

There has often been raised of recent times the question as to just how much should be done and how far we should go in reading and letting students read-historical novels in conjunction with, or as a substitute for, reading history.

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Such a proceeding is very valuable, but fraught with danger. As to the danger, we find it in the very definition of the historical novel. Looking backwards, as he must if his book deal with history, the writer of this type of fiction is influenced by the opinions of his own time. He reads the past through the spectacles of the present and so the vision, however clear, is never exactly true. That is to say that Richard Coeur de Lion in Ivanhoe," Haroun al Raschid in "The Talisman" and a host of others are idealized characters. Scott's interpretations in Quentin Durward" are almost the only ones he has made of prominent figures which patient research can nearly endorse. Still we must not forget that Ranke turned from literature to history on seeing the disparity between Scott's and Commines's pictures of Louis XI and Charles the Bold. 'Kenilworth" is very unjust to several people; "The Heart of Midlothian" idealizes important persons, and tells a true story only of the common folk with warm human hearts, not unlike those of Scott's own time. Witness, too, the differences between "Westward Ho!" and "Come RackCome Rope!" If, then, we were to get away from these secondary prejudices, the best thing would be to read only contemporary books.

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For a person who wishes to learn something about London life of one period, there would be nothing better than Dekker's Gull's Hornbook and The Bellman" or Ben Jonson's plays; for another period Gay's "Trivia or "Addison's Sir Roger de Coverley "-illustrating London streets and the life of the new landowners with a house in the country and one

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Burney's "Evelina" and Mackenzie's "Man of Feeling," for another period Jane Austen's Country House Comedy in "Emma and London life in Dickens and Thackeray. Thus we get a proper reading of contemporary fiction, and the pictures of social conditions caught in the fleeting snapshots of popular story are usually true. For further example "Alton Locke," Cranford," "Mary Barton," "Yeast," and "The Return of the Natives" are true pictures of certain forms of life, while "Romola," The Quo Vadis? Last Days of Pompeii," and The Prince of India" are so highly colored as to be worthless as historical material, though interesting as mere pleasant reading. To think for a moment of our own time, who in the future could rewrite "Mr. Clutterbuck's Election" as well as an M. P. has done now; who Diana of the Crossways" as well as the man who knew life on the hills to the South; who Anna of the Five Towns so well as one who was fellow citizen of his heroine; who The New Machiavelli" as well as the person who knew at first hand the facts there presented; who "Kim" as well as the gentleman who had been there in India? No one in the future can write of our life so well as we write of it ourselves: he will not have the facts, his viewpoint will not be the same, and the book will be, in every sense of the word, "fiction."

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This danger of misinterpretation is, however, more real with respect to customs and manners than with respect to actual historical facts and often the simple narrative, such as found in those juvenile books by the late Mr. Henty, is both accurate and interesting. But there is another danger here. The fate of the Dauphin, Louis XVII, under the French Revolution, has been written down in dozens of different ways by

1 Reprinted by permission from "The Journal of the New York State Teachers' Association," Vol. II, p. 290. An address to the History Section of the New York State Teachers' Association, November, 1915.

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modern novelists who save, or dispose of the poor boy according to their own whims. Thus the persons who read Catherwood's Lazarre," or Shackeffer's The Lost King," or Capes's A Castle in Spain," or Ayscough's "Dromina,' Dromina," or Merriman's The Lost Hope" will each have a different idea of a certain fact of history. So historical novels need continual corroboration from the history books themselves before being trusted very much. Else the doctor may prove a quack, and the teacher a dunce. In which case it is always the patient or the pupil who must suffer.

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But still there are some books which may be read with the proper amount of discretion and which will prove valuable as historical material. Quentin Durward" has already been mentioned. Andrew Lang's "The Monk of Fife is a fiction of the days of Joan of Arc by a careful student of the period. M. Bentham-Edwards gives a worthy sketch of Danton's career in "A Storm Rent Sky," Mary Johnston's The Long Roll" and Cease Firing are accurate concerning the American Civil War. Cooper's "The Spy" truly depicts conditions about New York in the days of the war for American independence. Mrs. Hylton Dale was inspired by reading a biography to march Camille Demoulins in life-like guise through the pages of "Crowned with the Immortals." Gerard de Nerval is historical concerning the Chouans of Brittany in his "Marquis de Fayolle." Hilaire Belloc lightened his researches and elevated his journalism by some historical novelizing with "The Giron

din."

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Erckmann-Chatrian give good panoramas in their four volumes on the "History of a Peasant" between 1789 and 1815. The Orange Girl" by Sir Walter Besant is a faithful study by a learned antiquarian and the same author's St. Katharine's by the Tower is more valuable as a popular history of the Jacobin clubs than Charles Lever's "Gerald Fitzgerald," simply because Sir Walter had at his command more of the actual facts of which he wrote. So, in the last analysis, all historical novels must be carefully weighed and tested before being trusted.

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The historical novel is a convenient method for throwing ordinary characters into intense situations, but it has the additional disadvantage that sometimes historical persons are led to say and do things which though possibly “in character as the critics would say, are scarcely probable, or at least not really trustworthy. Take the Tale of Two Cities," and the figure of the tragic Sidney Carton on the guillotine stands as an immortal example of such a dramatic combination of fact with fiction. Take Charles II as depicted in "My Merry Rockhurst" by A. and E. Castle and as in Odds Fish! by the late Robert Hugh Benson. One is purely fanciful; the other, the author boasts, strictly historical. In one Charles is imagined doing and saying many things; in the other he says and does nothing of which there is not actual historical record. Both books are interesting, but the

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reader must be put on his guard against the must be directed to believe the other. Thus, we see again that the novel of this type needs historical corroboration or correction.

The further value of the historical novel as a means of conveying facts is strictly limited. History is social and economic or political. For social or economic history its value should be limited to books written contemporaneously with the events. For political, military or dynastic history, the novels fall into two types: where history provides the main theme, and where history is used as a background. Of these two types the first is the most valuable, but usually the most untrustworthy and stands most in need of continual corroboration by the history books. The second type which uses actual incidents as the backgrounds of scenic action by fictitious characters is usually more accurate but less valuable. For instance, it is but a scant idea of a very small part of the French Revolution which we gain from The Scarlet Pimpernel or from Dickens's Tale of Two Cities." Then, the second of these was inspired by Carlyle's "History" and Carlyle had no real respect for liberty and the Baroness Orczy shows herself reproachfully loyal to all the Revolution sought to destroy. Not only, therefore, are the important pictures in these two books very small, lost in the perspective of the background, but they are insignificant as well.

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Consequently, there is so much danger of gaining false information in this way that people should resort to the astonishing expedient of recognizing facts as facts and fiction as fiction. Literature is only a part of history, well written as to style and badly written as to facts. History is the most interesting form of literature, and it is recently being written more attractively as to style. The career of Cromwell, the life of Thomas Paine, the story of Raleigh, the adventures of Drake, the activities of Nelson, the vicissitudes of the Chartist leader Thomas Cooper, the escapades of James II, the smug conservatism of Wellington, the aspirations of Cobden and Brightthese are as thrilling as the latest fiction. There the occasional reader may find enjoyment if he will, and profit whether he will or not. And, after he has learned a little history in one way or another, he may be permitted to read a little historical fiction. Until he has learned that little, the fictitious interpretations should be judged for him by competent authorities and labelled, as the chemist discreetly deals out drugs to the layman, all marked in accordance with the pharmacopeia. Why not? If our proprietary medicine bottles say "12% alcohol," "1/10 of one per cent. opium," "3% morphine," "7% caffeine," why should not the poisoning of the mind likewise be guarded against by such book labels as "372% lies," "16 2/3% exaggeration," "29% fiction," 12% Tory misrepresentation," and "97% radical rubbish."

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The Value of Historical Fiction

BY KATE M. MONRO, MORRIS HIGH
SCHOOL, NEW YORK CITY.

"Historical fiction," says the rigid disciple of fact, "is a conglomeration of incorrect character por trayal, glaring anachronisms, inexcusable contortions of truth, and absurd inaccuracies of every kind. Why write, why read such trash?" he scoffs. Either study history and get the facts straight or leave it alone. This popular opinion of virtuously soaking in a knowledge of history from the historical novel is tommyrot."

We must admit that these charges are too often true, nevertheless historical fiction cannot be dismissed so summarily, for to thousands it has proved the fascinating guide through the gates of indifference or dislike to the delightful presence of history herself.

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How often have we heard some such statements as: 'When a little chap, I was devoted to Scott. His poems, novels, and the Tales of a Grandfather,' all made a strong appeal, so that naturally history beWhen I read in text-books came a passion with me.

about Richard Coeur de Lion, Elizabeth, Mary, Cromwell, and scores of other historical characters, I felt that I was meeting old acquaintances I'd like to know better," or

"I always hated Roman history when I was in school, chiefly because the people seemed unreal. It never occurred to me that they were like us, they were quite human, until I chanced upon some historical novels. Whyte Melville's' Gladiators,' Bulwer-Lytton's 'Last Days of Pompeii,' and Henty's 'The Young Carthaginian,' captured my imagination

Per

American Revolutionary War in high school? haps you made elaborate chronological tables showing the important events in England and France during the eighteenth century. But did you ever really associate these events with those in America, did you ever realize the significance of their interaction, did you ever understand that the American War was not an isolated desire for independence, until you read a novel that pictured to you vividly the stirrings in Europe against oppression? Wasn't it something more dramatic than a text-book that made you see the struggle against England as a natural outcome of the old world cry for liberty, equality, and fraternity?

Perhaps also in our high school days we made charts showing the great contemporaries of history, but does anything impress this so strongly upon the After general reader as does the historical novel? reading Gertrude Atherton's "The Conqueror," one will always associate those American patriots who toiled for freedom and for reconstruction; nor is one who has read the "Scottish Chiefs " likely to forget the valiant friends and foes of William Wallace; nor will one familiar with Kenilworth ever be able to disassociate Elizabeth from those personalities who played so large a part in her life.

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But most important of all, the historical novel helps the general reader to understand the point of view, the beliefs, the hopes, and the mistakes of the people of a past age. Motives, habits, feelings are made clear. that A wider knowledge and more sympathetic attitude is gained, a tolerance for diverse opinions and a basis of comparison developed. These, some one may assert, are the effects of the study of history. True, they should be; sometimes, they are. But in reality, how many boys and girls who read the text-book accounts of the Civil War, for instance, sense much of the passionate outburst of patriotism, of the misery and indecision, of the mental upheaval of that period? Is it not rather Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mary Johnston, Winston Churchill, and other writers who have dramatized the situations, who make us see the human side of the struggle and arouse a sympathetic understanding of the characters, deeds and aspirations of the men and women of both the South and the North?

and convinced me that the Romans were not automatons. Since then, ancient history has no longer seemed dull."

Such examples might be multiplied indefinitely, so we cannot believe that historical fiction is worthless.

It does not, of course, take the place of systematic study; but as a supplement it is valuable, as it does much that systematic study often fails to accomplish. It can evoke the spirit of the past, it can change the shadowy phantoms of text-books to people who toiled and loved, laughed and wept. Cæsar, Cromwell, Napoleon, no longer seem demi-gods, absolutely incomparable with the struggling mortals of to-day. The text-book Washington, who impressed us as so different from living men that we read of his struggles without a glow of sympathy, was too perfect for our comprehension. Then, too, we chanced upon one of the many historical novels of his period and found that this hero had hours of blackest discouragement and torturing indecision. His temper, we learn with surprise, was not always unruffled; his dignity not always undisturbed. 'After all," we exclaim in astonishment," he was not perfect. He was a good deal like other people-just doing the best he knew how and trusting that the outcome would be good."

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Another benefit from historical fiction is that it helps the reader correlate the history of different countries. Do you remember when you studied the

Teachers of history in their eagerness to engrave facts on the minds of their pupils, too often ignore or disdain all emotional appeal. This is a mistake, as the child will not only enjoy, but he will also remember much better those facts. No longer gray and shadowy, but brightened and strengthened by imagination. Let us then not fear to introduce our pupils to the historical novel. It often requires but a suggestion to induce the student to read novels dealing with a period he is studying in class. The effort on the part of the teacher in thus opening up new fields of reading is slight, but the results are many times great. From the enjoyment of the historical novel, a child's, particularly a boy's, interest in other reading may be developed.

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The boy," some one has said, "is a natural heroworshipper and the heroes are mainly those of his

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own land." He needs little urging to induce him to follow these friends through the situations described by the novelist. In this way he unconsciously learns a great deal about the social and political life, about geography, about ideals and character, and tol

erance.

The history teacher who finds his time too limited to devote many minutes to anything but the lesson proper, can, at least, post a list of books dealing with the period under discussion. He who has more time may have oral and written reports from the novels read. The reports, as a rule, should deal with a phase of the social life or with an incident of unusual interest, rather than with the story of the whole book. Another plan is to have the text supplemented by a reading from a novel, such as the "Last Days of Pompeii," which describes the amphitheatre and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in a way never to be forgotten. Note simply these few paragraphs well worth reading for their descriptive value:

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The cloud, which had scattered so deep a murkiness over the day, had now settled into a solid and impenetrable mass. It resembled less even the thickest gloom of a night in the open air than the close and blind darkness of some narrow room. But in proportion as the blackness gathered, did the lightnings around Vesuvius increase in their vivid and scorching glare. Nor was their horrible beauty confined to the usual hues of fire; no rainbow ever rivalled their varying and prodigal dyes. Now brightly blue as the most azure depth of a southern sky-now of a livid and snake-like green, darting restlessly to and fro as the folds of an enormous serpent-now of a lurid and intolerable crimson, gushing forth through the columns of smoke, far and wide, and lighting up the whole city from arch to arch-then suddenly dying into a sickly paleness, like the ghost of their own life.

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The ashes in many places were already kneedeep; and the boiling showers which came from the steaming breath of the volcano forced their way into the houses, bearing with them a strong and suffocating vapor. In some places immense fragments of rock, hurled upon the house roofs, bore down along the street masses of confused ruin, which yet more and more, with every hour, obstructed the way; and as the day advanced the motion of the earth was more sensibly felt the footing seemed to slide and creep-nor could chariot or litter be kept steady, even on the most level ground.

"Sometimes the huger stones, striking against each other as they fell, broke into countless fragments emitting sparks of fire, which caught whatever was combustible within their reach; and along the plains beyond the city the darkness was now terribly relieved; for several houses, and even vineyards, had been set on flames: and at various intervals the fires rose sullenly and fiercely against the solid gloom. To add to this partial relief of the darkness, the citizens had, here and there, in the more public places, such as the porticos of temples and the entrances to the forum, endeavored to place rows of torches; but these

rarely continued long; the showers and the winds extinguished them, and the sudden darkness into which their fitful light was converted had something in it doubly terrible and doubly impressive on the impotence of human hopes, the lesson of despair.

"Frequently, by the momentary light of these torches, parties of fugitives encountered each other, some hurrying toward the sea, others flying from the sea back to the land; for the ocean had retreated rapidly from the shore-an utter darkness lay over it, and, upon its groaning and tossing waves, the storm of cinders and rocks fell without the protection which the streets and roofs afforded to the land. Wild -haggard-ghastly with supernatural fears, these groups encountered each other, but without the leisure to speak, to consult, to advise; for the showers fell now frequently, though not continuously extinguishing the lights, which showed to each band the deathlike faces of the other, and hurrying all to seek refuge beneath the nearest shelter. The whole elements of civilization were broken up. Ever and anon by the flickering lights, you saw the thief hastening by the most solemn authorities of the law, laden with, and fearfully chuckling over, the produce of his sudden gains. If in the darkness, wife was separated from husband, or parent from child, vain was the hope of reunion. Each hurried blindly and confusedly on. Nothing in all the various and complicated machinery of social life was left save the primal law of selfpreservation."

After hearing such a description as this how much more likely is the pupil to be interested in Pompeii text-books-" The important event in the reign of than if he had simply read the record given in most stroyed the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii." Titus was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius which de

And interest in Pompeii is worth arousing. What new ideas and desires it may open up to the child! Naturally he will wish to visit a museum to see relics of the ancient city. This may lead to the study of other parts of the museum, or to more reading, or to an intelligent understanding of history.

The pessimist may sneer, but let him recall the apparently accidental happenings, the haphazard things that have awakened men to a lifelong enthusiasm, an undying joy in the past.

Keats we at once think of, who says in his sonnet "To Homer,"

"Standing aloof in giant ignorance

Of thee I hear and of the Cyclades,
As one who sits ashore and longs perchance
To visit dolphin-coral in deep seas."

Then "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer," we again hear him exclaim:

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Freshman History at the University of California'

BY EVERETT S. BROWN.

Among university teachers of history in the United States to-day there is probably no question more frequently discussed than that of freshman history. The problem is; what courses shall be offered to freshmen, and how shall such courses be conducted in order that the best results may be obtained? It will be my purpose in this paper to avoid theoretical discussion as much as possible and confine myself to facts based on statistics secured in the supervision of the freshman history course, known as History I, at the University of California.

I shall give, first, a brief description of the machinery of History 1; second, statistics to show how many of the students have had previous training in history, and how much; third, conclusions drawn from the grades in scholarship during the first college term to see how far this previous training may have affected the students' college work; and, last, criticisms of the weaknesses of all the freshmen, hoping in this to be able to point out to the high school teachers opportunities of improving the standard of their work. Thus to a considerable extent, this paper will deal not only with the subject of freshman history, but also with the relation between high school and university history.

History 1 is open to all freshmen, no prerequisites being required. It is a course on general history, attempting to cover in eighty lectures the progress of western European civilization from prehistoric times to the completion of the Panama Canal. No text-book is used, but an extensive outline is given in the form of a printed syllabus, drawn up especially for the purpose. Three lectures are delivered every week by Professor H. Morse Stephens. The students must also report for one recitation on the three lectures of the preceding week. For the purpose of conducting the recitations, there are five assistants, all graduate students in history, candidates for their doctors' degrees, the majority of whom have had previous experience in teaching. Each assistant has charge of six sections of students per week, the sections averaging between twenty and twenty-five students each.

In the sections, besides oral recitations on the subject matter of the lectures, the students are given frequent short written quizzes and map drills. History 1 has its own outline maps and thousands of these are used every year. In order to acquaint the freshmen with historical literature the students in each section are required to make an intensive study of one lecture. On this subject the student is asked to read a minimum of seven hundred and fifty pages during the semester from a selected list of books. Reports

1 Paper read at the College Teachers' Session, twelfth annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch, American Historical Association, November 27, 1915, Leland Stanford, Junior, University.

on reading must be handed to the assistant each week. A fee of one dollar and a half is collected from each person in the class and this money is used in the purchase of duplicate copies of books most in demand. These books are kept in the general reading room of the university library where the students may have free access to them. At the end of the term a onehour examination is given to each section on its special subject. Besides this, there is a final examination on the lecture course. These two examinations and the recitation work in the sections form the basis for the determination of the student's grade.

The assistants hold regular office hours during which students may consult with them concerning their work. It will be seen that History 1 is a combination lecture, recitation and reading course. The break between high school and university methods of instruction is thus not very sudden.

What previous training have these freshmen had? Is high school history on the decline? The answers to these questions I have reduced to tabular form:

630 731 % 519 82+ 472 82+ 592 81390 62- 352 61+ 426 58+ 254 40+ 240 42- 271 37+ 563 89+ 511 89+ 651 894

*

69 12+ 115 16213 20+ 29+ 191 33+ 248 34

135 18+

*Note: % not carried out into fractions.

A few students had had courses in various special fields of history but these were not numerous enough to tabulate. In no year did more than five students report having had general history.

The above figures would seem to show that while history in the high schools is practically holding its own, there is a slight decrease in percentage between the years 1913 and 1915. This is especially true of medieval and modern history and English history, the former losing nearly 4%, the latter 3%, although English history showed an increase in 1914 of nearly 2% over 1913. Again, there is a falling off in the number of those taking four years of high school history. The three-year group has held its own, but the four-year has dropped off over 10%. It may be that the three-year course of history in some of the larger cities of the state where the intermediate school exists can account for at least part of this decrease.

Does the study of history in high school have any appreciable effect on freshman scholarship in that subject? This question cannot be answered satisfactorily

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