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dlacret, J. H., "Bourbon and Vasa,” reviewed, 87.

qanford, Albert H., review of Beard's gd"Readings in American Government and Politics," 89; review of Hill's "The Teaching of Civics," 127; review of Johnson's "Captain John Smith," 300; review of Mace's "Method in History," 330.

chilling, D. C., review of West's "The Modern World," 331. fchmidt, Louis B., The Activities of the State Historical Society of Iowa, 75inth 81.

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"State: I History and Development,"
Stearns, Wallace N., Canadian History
by F. Oppenheimer, reviewed, 26.
Next, 294.

Stout, John E., "The High School," re-
Stowell, Ellery C.,
viewed, 226.


'Diplomacy of the
War of 1914," reviewed, 332.
Summer School of the South, courses in,
Stratford-on-Avon Conference, 156.


Summer Schools, History in, 1915, 147


Sutcliffe, Alice C., "Robert Fulton," re-
Supplementary Reading for
viewed, 299.
Grade, Minimum of, 325-328.
Syllabus, use of, 33; in European his-
tory, by A. H. Lybyer, 192;
method of using, in high school, 219-
220; proposed in Virginia, 333.


choolbooks of Our Ancestors, 243-248. Picott, Jonathan F., "Historical Essays on Apprenticeship and Vocational Education," reviewed, 126. econdary Schools, Economics in, 26. econdary Schools, History in, teaching of Roman History, 3-12, 53,58; early methods of teaching, 14-19, 44-52;

definition of field of history in, 23, 92, Tariff, Protective, arguments for, 333.

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Teachers of History, training of, report
of committee upon, 150-152; certifica-
tion of, ibid.; training of, 275-276.
Teaching of History, course in, 224;



193, 127; contemporary history in, 82-
85; unity and continuity in high
school history courses, 140-144; prob-
lem method, 156; programs of, 173-
178; social sciences in, 212-215; word
study in, 220-221; standards of judg-
ing, 235-241; methods of attaining
efficiency, 241-242; American history
in, 249-256, 281-286; relation of high
school history to college history, 272-
277; political parties and leaders,
course in, 312-315; course of study in
Berkeley, Cal., 328-330.
ellery, G. C., review of J. D. Rogers' Texas History Teacher's Bulletin, 24,
Outlines of Modern Europe," 190;, 156, 296.
review of Allen's "Age of Erasmus," Texas, University of,

Teaching of History," by H. John-
son, reviewed, 265; in the Elementary
School, 290-293. See Methods; Sec-
ondary Schools; Colleges.

Tennessee History Teachers' Associa-
tion, meeting of, 156.


summer school

courses, 149.

eybolt, Robert F., review of Scott's
Historical Essays on Apprenticeship
and Vocational Education," 126.
eymour, Charles, Recent Aspects of
British Electoral Reform, 70-73.
heap, Harriet, The Working Museum
of History Again, 184.
heppard, William R., "Latin America,"
reviewed, 189.

Textbooks, early methods in use of, 15;
historical, published before 1861, 122-
125; total sales of, in U. S., 223;
criticism of, 261-263.
Thallon, Ida C., "Readings in Greek His-
tory," reviewed, 158.

Thompson, James Westfall, Value, Con-
tent, and Method in Medieval History,

Taxation under John and Henry III,
Studies in," by S. K. Mitchell, re-
viewed, 301.

Politics," 89; review of Webster's Values, Educational, in history, 154,

"Readings in Ancient History," 90;

155, 156, 157, 167-178, 187.

review of Thallon's "Readings in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, 323.

Violette, E. M., Wanted-A New Order of Reference Books in History, 261263.

Virginia History Teachers, 333.
Virginia, University of, summer school
courses, 149.

Vitalizing the History Work, by R. D.
Chadwick, 112-121.
Vocational Education, essays on, re-
viewed, 126.

Wanted A New Order of Reference
Walsh, Correa M., "Political Science of
John Adams," reviewed, 266.

War, European, possible terms of peace,
Books in History, 261-263.

12; the war and future of civilization,
13; short bibliography mentioned, 23;
college course upon, 23; magazine ar-
ticles upon, see Periodical Literature;
effect upon history teaching in Eng-
land, 60; German literature upon, 62-
63; teaching the war, 67-70; the war
in English schools, 73; attitude of The
History Teacher's Magazine toward,
74-75; the war in German schools, 81;
and the Magazine, 121; history teachers
and the war, 154; literature upon,
228; supplementary bibliography re-
ferred to, 311; Stowell's Diplomacy of,
332; influence upon French schools,
333; economic causes of, 333; effect
upon history teachers' papers, 323.
"War of 1812, Diplomacy of," by F. A.
Updyke, reviewed, 330.
Warrensburg, Mo., State Normal School,
history bulletin, 155.
"War's Aftermath," by D. S. and H. E.
Jordan, reviewed, 299.
"Wars between England and America,"
by T. C. Smith, reviewed, 59.
Washington, University of, summer
school courses, 149.

Wayland, John W., "How to Teach
American History," reviewed, 89.
"Webster, Daniel," by F. A. Ogg, re-
viewed, 25.

Wells, H. G., "Social Forces in England
and America," reviewed, 190.
West, the teaching of government in, 40-

"The Modern World,"

West, Willis M.,
reviewed, 331.
Westermann, William L., review of
Bouchier's "Life and Letters in Ro-
man Africa," 59; review of Mierow's
edition of Jordan's Gothic History,
190; The Municipal System of the
Roman State, 103-110.
West Virginia University,
school courses, 149.
White, Joseph A., History Teaching in
England and the Great War, 60-61.
Wilgus, James A., Teaching of History
in the Elementary School, 290-293.
"Thomas Jefferson,"

hong, A. C., review of J. E. Stout's Tomlinson, Everett E.,

"High School," 226.

Short History of Rome," by E. E.
Bryant, reviewed, 332.

"Places Young
Americans Want to Know," reviewed,
Trimble, William J., The Agrarian His-
tory of the United States as a Subject
for Research, 135-137.

loane, William M., "Party Government
in the United States," reviewed, 159.
Smith, Captain John," by R. Johnson, Tuell, Harriet E., High School and Col- Williams, John S.,

reviewed, 189.

reviewed, 300.

lege History Courses, 272-277.

Smith, Charles A., review of Mitchell's Tyler, M. W., Last Twelve Years of Brit- Williams, Mary W., editor of depart

"Studies in Taxation," 301.
Smith, Theodore C., "The Wars between "Union and Democracy," by A. John-

ish Diplomacy, 180-181.

ment of Periodical Literature, 24, 62, 94, 128, 160, 187; A Fragment of the Passing Frontier, 33-37.

England and America," reviewed, 59.

Social Forces in England and Amer Unity and Continuity in High School Williams, Oscar W., expert in consultaica" by H. G. Wells, reviewed, 190.

son, reviewed, 331.

tion work in history, 91; Standards for Judging History Instruction, 235241.

Social Sciences in the High School, 212- Updyke, F. A., "Diplomacy of the War

History Courses, 140-144.


of 1812," reviewed, 330.

ociology, in high school, 214-215.
Source Books, review of Beard's "Read-
ings in American Government and

Usher, Roland G., The War and the Fu-
ture of Civilization, 13.


Wisconsin, University of, summer school

courses, 150.

Woodburn, James A., Political Parties and Party Leaders, 312-315.

Word Study in History Teaching, 220


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"It were far better, as things now stand," says Professor Dicey in his brilliant book on The Law of the Constitution," "to be charged with heresy than to fall under the suspicion of lacking historicalmindedness." The high popular appreciation of the subject which is implied in this saying is flattering to the professional historian, but doubts intrude. Our colleagues love to cite to us on occasion that dictum of Sainte Beuve that "History is in great part a set of fables which people have agreed to believe in;" and we are regaled also with the story of the great Whig leader who, when retired from politics, called for something to read-" anything but hisatory," said he, "for history must be false.' Lack of historical-mindedness may be an intellectual crime, but a true appreciation of the nature of history and of its methods-still more, a constant and correct application of these in the discussion of problems of current politics-is the rarest of virtues, and one not always displayed by professional historians themselves. A discussion, therefore, of the nature of this subject, and the materials and processes of the historical student, may not be altogether impertinent. Let it be understood at the outset, however, that I have little



to offer you of my own. This whole paper may be described as merely a rehash of principles laid down in the well-known manuals of Bernheim, of Langlois and Seignobos, and of other writers on historical methodology.



First, then, as to the nature of history. Here, I Chink, is the great stumbling-block, not only for the aity, but for the old-fashioned historians as well. With due humility I would assert that all the definiions which make history a record" or narrative of events are fundamentally wrong. They direct attention not to the content but to the vehicle of the ts subject; to the outer husk and not to the inner meat. This, I contend, is by no means an unessential matter, for it colors the whole point of view. The decision of this point determines whether history is to be accounted a branch of literature or a science; whether artistry of presentation or the veracity of he facts presented is to be reckoned the main thing. O capable a historian as Mr. Rhodes has shown himelf to be in his "History of the United States from 1 850," errs on this point when he comes to set down

The Nature and Method of History


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$2.00 a year.

20 cents a copy.

1 Paper read at the Gary Conference on History Teachg in the Secondary Schools, February 26, 27, 1915. Reprinted from Indiana University Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 10 (September, 1915), pp. 44-54.


the qualities which make the great historian; and with him err the late Charles Francis Adams, president of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a host of lesser lights. In their view Herodotus, Thucydides, and Tacitus are still the unsurpassed masters, because of the charm of their presentation and the vigor of their style. Despite the vast increase of historical knowledge-despite the sharpening of the historian's tools, the perfecting of his methods, and the enormously greater skill displayed in critical processes the modern historian is held less worthy than the ancient, on the ground of inferiority in the art of presenting his subject. I confess that, to me, this view seems most absurd. The zoologist of today does not value Pliny or Buffon above modern writers on account of a possibly greater charm of style; nor are Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville esteemed better guides than more recent travelers to the geography of Asia, because of the naive charm of their narratives. History is a body of knowledge, and literary considerations have the same weight, and no greater, in estimating the value of works dealing with it as is accorded to those relating to mathematics, astronomy, and the other sciences. Pray, however, do not misunderstand me. No one will condemn more readily than I the slovenly writer who, through carelessness, pedantic affectation, or ignorance of his mother tongue produces an unreadable book, no matter with what field of knowledge it is concerned. Perhaps more than on most subjects, works on history, because of their concern with the facts of man's life in society, can and ought to be made easily and pleasantly readable, not only for the scholar, but for the general public also. And this union of accurate scholarship with artistic skill of presentation is by no means unknown among historians. Parkman possessed in a high degree both qualities; Dean Milman and John Richard Green are cases in point; and Macaulay, though at times biased by political prejudices, and inaccurate from too much dependence on his truly marvelous memory, was a shining example of the combination of vast historical erudition with a captivating style. The point which I wish to make is merely this: that style can save no man, and (in the words of Professor Masson, the author of the monumental life of Milton), "History without accuracy is a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal." It is for this reason that Hume, Rollin, and Ridpath are numbered among the historically damned; that Froude, Thierry, and Fiske wander in the limbo of the uncondemned yet unredeemed; and

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