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in Council is issued," not passed; a treaty may be passed" in this country, but not in England, generally one says it is "signed" or "ratified." The student should know a minister from an ambassador -even if only as a bigger guy-and should really

know how they both differ from a consul. Treaty, neutrality, belligerent, convention, admiralty court, naturalization, blockade, search, contraband, reciprocity, and such words should remain forever domesticated in the student's vocabulary.

How the Furs Came Down from the North Country

BY L. A. CHASE, M.A., INSTRUCTOR IN HISTORY, HOUGHTON HIGH SCHOOL, HOUGHTON, MICH.

You can go from New York City right across the continent, touching at Edmonton, Alberta, on the way, and ride in a boat almost every mile of the distance. You can go north from New Orleans the whole length of the continent, coming out at the Arctic Ocean, using a boat for your conveyance almost all the way. And from St. Louis you can take side-trips to Hudson's Bay, to Quebec, or to Richmond, Va., and still have a boat-ride all but a very few miles of the route. I have not seen this fact pointed out in any of the geographies, but you can find the proof of it in any of the geographies themselves. Perhaps we should leave this statement as a sort of geographical puzzle to be solved; but the fact is that all portions of these water routes have been used by people in just this way at one time or another.

Now if one can imagine a time when there were no airships, no automobiles, no canals, and no railways, one sees that the statement above is really important. Ever since the time of Columbus, men have wished to get across North America, and the easiest way to do it was once to follow the lakes and rivers, for these made an almost continuous waterway from east to west and from north to south, even where the continent was the widest.

Right at the center of North America, and not many miles apart, rise the greatest lake system and the greatest river system in the world. West and northwest of this point is the prairie-interminable miles of it-undulating away to the western mountains and the frozen north. It is an immense country, only now being opened up by settlement. At one time only two sorts of people had any real interest in it-the Indian and the trader. It has been a wonderful game country, and not long ago the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company said as much fur is coming out of it now as at any time. This is saying a good deal. A hundred years ago they were taking out of this country-it is not a mere guess-hundreds of thousands of skins every year. As the result of a season's work on the Red, Mississippi, or Saskatchewan Rivers, a single trader might fetch out a thousand to twentyfive hundred beaver skins, two hundred bear skins, and great quantities of foxes, martens, minks and other valuable furs, and if he brought them safely to a Lake Superior port, a handsome profit was assured. But it is eleven hundred miles from Port Arthur on Lake Superior, to Edmonton, Alberta, and yet great quantities of fur were brought much farther than this. How was it done?

To-day one can take a sleeper at Duluth or Port Arthur and go almost anywhere west or northwest, although I will not say that Dr. Cook went to the North Pole in a Pullman, as one writer has stated. But a hundred years ago, when Henrys and Thompsons brought out big loads of fur from nineteen hundred miles up the Saskatchewan, and from away beyond that, the transportation problem was a hard one. From western Lake Superior, the upper Mississippi, or the lower Missouri, there were three or four thousand miles of comparatively clear sailing out to civilization. Beyond Lake Superior and the upper Mississippi, is a wonderful network of lakes and rivers as far north as a man cares to go. These lakes and rivers were the great arteries of the old fur trade. If you will find the northern boundary of the United States where it leaves the west end of Lake Superior, you may trace it through a succession of small lakes and rivers as far as the Lake of the Woods on the boundary between Canada and Minnesota. great trunk line of the old fur traders. It led them into Lake Winnipeg, and from Lake Winnipeg it is water all the way to Hudson Bay, and almost all the way to New Orleans, New York, Portland, Oregon, and to far-away Fort MacPherson on the Arctic Ocean at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. At one time or another the old fur traders went over all these routes, and their experiences make some of the most romantic episodes of the old days. And this was all for the purpose of allowing well-to-do people in Europe to have fine beaver hats to wear and to deck themselves out in costly mink, marten, and otter furs.

This was the

Where you found a fur trader in the far-away north country, you usually found a Scotchman or a Frenchman; but, whether his name was Donald or Francois, he was quite sure to be a man who could provide himself with almost everything he needed out of the bounty of nature close at hand. Not to speak of the ordinary provision of food, clothing, and shelter, the Indian had taught the trader to see in every object around him some article of use that we think can only be produced in a factory. White earth or clay gave him mortar and whitewash for his buildings; and if the Indian used this same clay for soap, the white man made his soap out of tallow and salt, which, as one of them said, seemed an excellent article, hard and dry, and almost white. When cut in cakes it looks good, and they say it washes as well as English soap." He cut a wheel from the end of a log. He made ropes from the hair of the horse or

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buffalo. We have forgotten how useful the buffalo once was. If the Indians used a shoulder-blade of a buffalo as a hoe, and his paunch as a water-jar, the trader fettered his horses with lines woven from his fore-lock, made boats from his hide, and on the treeless country north of the upper Missouri built campfires of buffalo-chips. Buffalo tongue was perhaps the most prized meat on the fur frontier.

When the trader traveled, he went in his own con➡veyance, made of such material as the north country afforded. He must pass up and down for thousands I of miles on rapid rivers, by lake and by portage, getting boat-loads of rum, powder, fire-arms and knives, and all sorts of knick-knacks into the fur country; and, when these had been traded for the peltries of the Indians, getting thousands of pounds of these peltries out to market.

1

On a day in September could once be seen on the lower Red River of the North, or the Saskatchewan, a file of canoes slowly making their way up-stream. It was the outfit of one of the big northwestern fur companies making its way to the winter post to trade with the Indians. They often went so far into that north country that European news was a year in geting to them; but they were men who had lost their connection with civilization and did not care to restore it. They might have their families with them-even to the family cat and kittens-stowed away in the boat; or they established temporary family relations among the Indians to whom they were going. There was no Puritanism on the far frontier. Packed in each boat were four or five men, perhaps a woman— one man in the bow, another in the stern to steer, the rest distributed among kegs of sugar, whiskey and wine, powder, salt, bags of flour, and shot, bales of goods, tobacco, and kettles, cases of guns and irons. These were the articles the Indians wanted, especially the spirits. Nothing would deliver them of their furs so quickly as the liquor. Nine months later the outfit" would go down the river, but then the boats would contain no spirits, no powder and shot, tobacco and salt, and gaudy clothes; for the Indians had drunk the liquor, then tried the new guns and knives -first on one another, then on beasts and other enemies, had adorned themselves in their apparel, and then out to hunt for more furs with which to buy more spirits, guns, and knives with which to have another fight all round. In the down-river boats

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packs of furs and pelts, weighing usually ninety pounds each. There were also bags of pemmican made at the posts, potatoes raised at the post garden, kegs of grease obtained from the game killed, kegs gum, tents, cart wheels, and now and then a cow. Like almost everything else used in the fur country, these boats were made on the spot, usually by the men at a trading post. The stronger bateaux, some forty feet long, were made of boards sawed out by the men and nailed with nails turned out at the post. Since such a boat required a thousand nails, the labor must have been very great. But skin boats were also much used. To make these skin canoes, a frame of willows was first put together in the shape of a canoe;

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then one or two buffalo hides-according to the size of the boat-were stretched over this frame. If two skins were used they were cut square at the shoulders and sewed togther with sinews. The sides are fetched round the gunnels and lashed fast with leather cords. The hair was turned inward. These skin canoes would carry surprisingly heavy loads, but to prevent them becoming water-logged, they had to be taken out of the water frequently and dried. Of the same material the Indians on the upper Missouri made a "bull-boat," like a great tub composed of skins drawn over a frame of willow. The paddle consisted of a stick about five feet long, split at one end. In this 'split" was lashed a board a half-foot by two feet in size. With this propeller the Indians worked their way across wide rivers, spinning round like huge water-bugs, but managing somehow to make the opposite shore, without deviating more than a mile from their objective. Very different from this ungainly craft was the delicate, treacherous birch-bark used in the eastern game field. The " maitre canot was described as eight fathoms long and one fathom and a half wide, covered with birch bark and sewed very close with fibrous roots. Such a fragile boat would carry ten men or four tons each. Into these boats were put the goods for the Indians, very carefully. The dry merchandise was put in bales of about eighty pounds, the rum, powder, and shot in small kegs. Great care had to be taken not to tear the sides of these canoes, but such accidents were frequent and might easily be costly. When no boat was to be had, sometimes a raft of brush was improvised for the purpose of crossing a river.

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But there were places and seasons for which any kind of boat was useless. When the sub-Arctic climate was clapped down on the northern country, the streams froze deep and long. If the trader then would go far and be comfortable, he used his "cariole.' One style of cariole was made of boards plained smooth, turned up in front about two feet and coming to a point there while two and a half feet wide behind. A box was fixed on this bottom and covered with dressed skins. The top of the box was partly covered, so that the rider-there could be but one-sitting within the box, wrapped in his robes and leaning against a cushion, could, as one of them said, "bid defiance to the wind and weather." A horse between shafts or three or four dogs afforded the drawing-power. Sometimes the cariole was simply made by drawing moose skins over a few timbers, well secured with a line.

There are many graves along the rivers in the old fur country. It usually happens this way. These rivers are large, swift and treacherous. The boat, heavily loaded with men and goods, is trying to get through a piece of bad water. Someone loses his head, or the boat hits a hidden rock, and it is all up. If the men are strong swimmers, they may get out, but they do not always make it. Here is one instance of many. "An outfit had been toiling for several days over the old water trail" from Grand Portage on Lake Superior to Lake Winnipeg. They were at

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last on the Winnipeg River. An eye-witness tells the story: "I perceived the canoe on the north side coming off to sault (shoot) the rapids. She had not gone many yards when, by some mismanagement of the foreman, the current bore down her bow full upon the shore, against a rock; upon which the fellow, taking the advantage of the situation, jumped, whilst the current whirled the canoe around. The steersman, finding himself within reach of the shore, jumped upon the rock with one of the midmen; the other midman, not being sufficiently active, remained in the canoe, which was instantly carried out and lost to view amongst the high waves. At length she appeared and stood perpendicular for a moment, when she sank down again, and I then perceived the man riding upon a bale of dry goods in the midst of the waves. We made every exertion to get near him, and did not cease calling out to him to take courage and not let go his hold; but, alas! he sank under a heavy swell, and when the bale arose the man appeared no more.'

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Among the people of the old fur trade, the French were the most picturesque. They fitted in perfectly with the life-were good workers, good drinkers, exuberant, and got on well with the Indians. How a party of them appeared as it started out from the post on upper Red River, going into the hills after fur, can be seen from this description of an on-looker. "Antoine Payet, guide and second in command, leads the van, with a cart drawn by two horses and loaded with his private baggage, cassetetes, bags, kettles, and mashqueminctes. Madame Payet follows the cart with a child a year old on her back, very merry. Charles Bottineau, with two horses and a cart loaded with 12 packs, his own baggage, and two young children, with kettles and other trash hanging on to it. Madame Bottineau has a squalling infant on her back, scolding and tossing it about. Joseph Dubord goes on foot, with his long pipe-stem and calumet in his hand; Madame Dubord follows on foot, carrying Joseph's tobacco pouch with a broad bead tail. Antoine Thellier, with a cart and two horses, loaded with

112 packs of goods and Dubois' baggage. Antoine LaPointe with another cart and horses, loaded with two pieces of goods and with baggage belonging to Brisebois, Jasmin, and Pouliot, and a kettle hung on each side. Auguste Brisebois follows with only his gun on his shoulder and a fresh-lighted pipe in his mouth. Michel Jasmin next, like Brisebois, with gun and pipe puffing out clouds of smoke. Nicholas Pouliot, the greatest smoker in the northwest, has nothing but pipe and pouch. Those three fellows, having taken a farewell dram and lighted fresh pipes, go on brisk and merry, playing numerous pranks. Domin Livernois, with a young mare, the property of Mr. Langlois, loaded with weeds for smoking, an old worsted bag (Madame's property), some squashes and potatoes, a small keg of fresh water, and two young whelps howling. Next goes Livernois' young horse, drawing a travaille loaded with his baggage and a large worsted mashguemcate belonging to Madame Langlois. Next appears Madame Cameron's mare, kicking, rearing, and snorting, hauling a travaille loaded with a bag of flour, cabbages, turnips, onions, a small keg of water, and a large kettle of broth. Michel Langlois, who is master of the band, now comes on leading a horse that draws a travaille nicely covered with a new painted tent under which his daughter and Mrs. Cameron lie at full length, very sick; this covering or canopy has a pretty effect in the caravan, and appears at a great distance in the plains. Madame Langlois brings up the rear of the human beings, following the travaille with a slow step and melancholy air, attending to the wants of her daughter, who, notwithstanding her sickness, can find no other expressions of gratitude to her parents than The rear by calling them dogs, fools, beasts, etc. guard consists of a long train of twenty dogs, some for sleighs, some for game, and others of no use whatever, except to snarl and destroy meat. The total forms a procession nearly a mile long." All this was a hundred years ago.

The Development of the Modern High School Library'

BY MARY E. HALL, LIBRARIAN, GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL, BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Twenty years and more ago we hailed with joy the opening of special reading rooms for children in our public libraries. To-day, those of us who are interested in library work with older boys and girls feel much the same enthusiasm over the possibilities of the modern high school library. In the children's library movement we saw a new and wonderful chapter written in library history. In this year's organized national campaign for better high school libraries we see a fitting sequel to that chapter.

1 Reprinted by permission from "The Library Journal" (R. R. Bowker Co., New York), Vol. 40, pp. 628-632 (September, 1915).

While the work of the high school library is an utterly different problem from the work of the children's room, high school librarians gladly acknowledge their indebtedness to the children's libraries for many characteristic features of the new high school library. The lure of the room is very much the same

pictures, plants, interesting bulletins, walls lined with books in attractive bindings, tables strewn with magazines and fascinating illustrated editions of the world's great books, and, best of all, a pervading joyous atmosphere of freedom. The room may fulfil all its proper pedagogical functions as a reference collection for obtaining information, a training school in best methods of securing that information, a labora

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tory for special topic work and collateral reading in connection with the subjects in the curriculum and yet fail of one of its highest functions if it fails to be a place of inspiration and recreation as well. This reading room feature of the new high school library, its "browsing corner suggested by the Smith College Library, or its "bait shelf" suggested by Professor Abbott, of Columbia University, has values which cannot be measured by any class examinations. Rackham and Maxfield Parrish, Dulac, Abbey and Hugh Thomson do more to cultivate a taste for good reading and the ownership of books than all the formal written tests on supplementary reading that were ever faithfully prepared by the conscientious teacher of the past. Dipping into the many books of many kinds which make up a carefully selected high school library is a liberal education in itself and a very real Imeans of culture. Just to glance each day over the current magazines or the ever-changing bulletin boards with their ever-changing collections of pictures, clippings and suggestive reading lists, stimulates intellectual curiosity and widens a pupil's interests.

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To realize what we mean by a "modern" high school library one must actually see it in action. Even the high school librarian who spends her days year in and year out in this library feels each day the fascination and wonder of it all. To have as your visitors each day, from 500 to 700 boys and girls of all nationalities and all stations in life, to see them come eagerly crowding in, 100 or more every 40 minutes, and to realize that for four of the most important years of their lives it is the opportunity of the library to have a real and lasting influence upon each individual boy and girl, gives the librarian a feeling that her calling is one of high privilege and great responsibility. One has constantly in mind the splendid summing up of this opportunity by Dr. Atkinson in his article on "Reading for Young People" ("Library Journal," April, 1908, 33: 134): "The reading of the adolescent period, which is conceded to be the most critical period of a man's life, has not received the attention that it should. The mental life of the adolescent is distinct from the mental life of the child and so is the problem of his reading. I believe there is greater need for looking after the matter of reading during the adolescent period, when habits of a lifetime are formed, than for any other period. During the period of youth, when the interest is so easily aroused, when the sympathies are so keen, when the mind is so open to impressions, and the memory is so tenacious in retaining them; when the tastes are as yet unperverted, and the capacity for forming ideals is so strong; when the natural appetite for reading is so marked and when the conditions of life give so much leisure to indulge it—at this time, if ever, is there necessity for wise and skilful guidance in the use of books. Only arouse a love for the best in literature, and little thought may then be given to what the men and women

of the future will read." Now that the leaders in the educational world are becoming quite as enthusiastic as librarians over the possibilities of the new type of high school library,

the near future will reveal many new developments. As school superintendents, high school principals, teachers of English and history, indeed any teachers who believe in the influence of books and good reading, visit these twentieth century libraries, or, better still, work within the school in close co-operation with the librarian in making the library all that it ought to be, important suggestions are being constantly made as to its larger usefulness to the school. The place which the library is to hold in the high school of the future has already been recognized. Dr. Darwin L. Bardwell, district superintendent of high schools and in charge of the high school libraries of New York City, writes: "It may confidently be asserted that the most potent single agency in the modern cosmopolitan high school is the library." ("Educational Review," April, 1915.) Likewise Mr. Jesse Davis, principal of the Grand Rapids High School, writes: The school library of the future will be the proof of the extent of the transformation of a high school from the medieval system of the past to the new standards and ideals in high school education of this twentieth century. I believe I am safe in saying that the school library will be the proof of the educational value of the new curriculum. When our schools have outgrown their cloister days and are aiming to prepare our boys and girls for the life they must live in a workaday world the library will be the open door to the opportunity of the present." (N. E. A. Proceedings, 1912, p. 1267.)

1905.

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What we understand to-day by a modern or "twentieth century" high school library is largely the growth of the last ten years, most of these libraries having been established or reorganized since If we were to define briefly this new type we might sum it up in a paragraph which would show at least how widely it differs from the high school library of the past and the library still to be found in the great majority of high schools to-day. It is a carefully selected collection of books, periodicals, pamphlets, clippings and illustrative material, chosen to meet the needs of the average high school student, organized according to modern library methods by a trained librarian who can devote her entire time to the school library, and who is thoroughly interested in boys and girls. This library has a spacious and attractive reading room seating anywhere from 50 to 125 pupils, it is maintained by adequate annual appropriations and is used by every department in the modern high school for information, as a means of awakening or stimulating interest in a subject, and for all that such a room may do by way of suggestion and inspiration. It is the headquarters for many reading clubs conducted by teachers and librarians working in co-operation, it is used for classes trained by the librarian in the use of the library reference books and tools, it becomes a social center for afternoon and evening receptions to groups of students and to their parents, it works in close co-operation with the public library of the city and encourages the constant use of its resources.

The activities of the modern high school library are

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fast outgrowing the one reading room and other rooms are being added. As we look over the plans of the newer library rooms we find in addition to the reading room a librarian's office or workroom in the Spokane High Schools, a teachers' reference room.in the new Hutchinson High School of Buffalo, a library classroom which is to be fitted up in the Girls' High School, Brooklyn, N. Y., during the next school year. This proposed library classroom is one of the contributions made by teachers to the development of the high school library and is the result of suggestions found in a "Report on English Equipment," by Vincil Coulter ("English Journal," March, 1913), and the practical suggestions made by Professor Abbott, of Columbia University, as one of his contributions to the work of the New York Library Club's committee on school libraries. The library classroom adjoins the library reading room and should be fitted up to have as little of the regular classroom atmosphere as possible. It should be made quite as attractive as the reading room and have its interesting pictures on the walls, its growing plants and its library furniture. Chairs with tablet arms on which pupils can take notes, one or more tables around which a small class can gather with their teacher and look over beautiful illustrated editions or pass mounted pictures and postcards from one to another, should surely form a feature of this classroom. Walls should have long stretches of bulletin space on which a teacher may place pictures and clippings to illustrate or add interest to the hour's lesson. There should be cases for large mounted lithographs such as Mr. Dana lends to schools and cases for maps and charts, lantern slides, mounted pictures, and clippings. A radiopticon or lantern with the projectoscope in which a teacher can use not only lantern slides but postcards, pictures in books and magazines, etc., is a most important part of the equipment. For the English work and, indeed, for German and French, a Victrola with records which will make it possible for students to hear the English and other songs sung by famous singers, will help them to realize what a lyric poem is. This Victrola will be particularly helpful to classes studying Palgrave's "Golden Treasury.' small platform for classroom dramatics completes the important features of this new room which adds greatly to the library's opportunity for service to the entire school. Simple stage property in the shape of table, chairs, etc., and background and curtain furnished by the art department at little expense add much to the pupils' enjoyment of a play of Shakespeare or Sheridan's Rivals," etc. This room will be used by the librarian for all her classes in the use of reference books and library tools, it will constantly serve teachers of history, Latin, German, French, and be a boon to the departments of physical and commercial geography. After school it will be a center for club work. Reading clubs can be made more interesting by the use of the lantern, and dramatic clubs will enjoy the platform for amateur plays. All through the day it will be in use. Classes will be scheduled for a regular class recitation there when a teacher

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wishes the aid of the room in awakening interest. A class about to begin reading Homer's "Odyssey" in first year English will be given some background for the enjoyment of this work by a library hour in this classroom. Students will gather around the tables on which are opened Dr. Schliemann's books with their interesting illustrations, a teacher will read aloud his story in his autobiography of how he as a little boy came to have this burning desire to "dig up Troy." The various illustrated children's versions of the "Odyssey" will be there, particularly Church's Odyssey" for boys and girls, with its colored pictures. There will be books on Greek customs, mounted pictures in color such as the three favorite pictures of Circe by Maxfield Parrish, Dulac and Burne-Jones, classical dictionaries, mythologies and books of travel in Greece, such as Barrow's "Isles and Shrines of Greece." Each student will be supplied with a Gayley or Bulfinch to take home and a list of interesting myths to read before beginning the real study of the "Odyssey." In this room they can talk more freely than in the busy reading room and such a library hour leads to many happy study periods in the library reading these books or looking at these pictures as they reach certain portions of the story of Ulysses. This is merely a suggestion of how a teacher uses such a room. The same kind of a library hour will stimulate interest in Virgil, in a lesson in medieval history, etc., the lantern being used whenever it will help.

In such a library as we have tried to picture in this paper we have traveled a long way from the high school library with which most of us were familiar, the dreary room with its glass cases and locked doors, its forbidding rows of unbroken sets of standard authors, its rules and regulations calculated to discour age any voluntary reading. If it was open to the pupils at all it was likely to be associated in their minds merely as a place of set tasks where so many pages of collateral reading had to be done. There still exist high school libraries which do not even provide a reading room, where books are shelved in the principal's office and kept under lock and key or locked in cases in classrooms. We still find the reference facilities consisting of one long table in a corridor and a few dictionaries and an encyclopedia. But the doom of these libraries has been sealed and we feel that it is only a question of a few years before they will go the way of many other relics of the dark

How did this new type of library come to be and who were the pioneers-the teachers and librarians of vision who saw possibilities in the forlorn excuse for a school library with which most of us were familiar twenty or more years ago? We have not data at hand to write a full history of this development of the modern high school library. We wish we might name the devoted teachers of English and history and other subjects who, in certain high schools, with the care of the library thrust upon them as an additional burden, with no appropriations for books and only a tiny library room, yet made the school

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