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Reports from

The Historical Field

The December number of the "Mississippi Valley Historical Review" contains an interesting study by Prof. St. G. L. Sioussat upon the part played by Tennessee in the Compromise of 1850 and in the work of the Nashville Convention of the same year. Mr. Wm. C. Dunn studies "The Spanish Reaction Against the French Advance Toward New Mexico, 1717-1727." His material is gathered almost exclusively from manuscript sources in the archives of Spain and Mexico. Mr. L. H. Gipson, of Wabash College, contributed an article upon "The Statesmanship of President Johnson: a Study of the Presidential Reconstruction Policy." A valuable summary of historical activities in the Trans-Mississippi Northwest covering the period from July 1, 1914, to October 1, 1915, is furnished by Mr. Dan E. Clark, of the State Historical Society of Iowa. The original documents in this number consist of a few papers from the letter files of the Dearborn Family.

Prof. Jonas Viles, of the University of Missouri, has prepared "An Outline of American History for Use in High Schools" based upon Muzzey's text-book of American history, published by Ginn & Co. The outline contains no references other than those to Muzzey's text-book.

The proceedings of the joint meeting of the American Historical Association with the California History Teachers' Association, held at Berkeley, Cal., July 22, 1915, have been published by the Committee on Program. The meeting was one of the sessions of the Panama-Pacific Historical Congress. and was presided over by Prof. Max Farrand, of Yale University. The question under consideration was "Is It in the Interest of History in Schools That a Fuller Definition of the History Requirements be Made by the American Historical Association Showing the Especial Points to be Emphasized and Those to be More Lightly Treated?

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The History Section of the New York State Teachers' Association met at Rochester on Tuesday, November 23, 1915, with Mr. Ernest Robinson, of Glens Falls, presiding. Mr. Avery W. Skinner, of the State Department of Education, urged the use of maps, charts, pictures, etc., in order to make the past real. The use of such material was criticised somewhat adversely by some of the other speakers. Mr. M. B. Garrett, of St. Lawrence University, spoke on "Practical Methods of Testing Collateral Reading; "" Dr. Edward E. Slosson, literary editor of The Independent," presented "The Value of Current Periodicals in Teaching History." Other speakers in the course of the session were Prof. Edgar Dawson, of Hunter College, New York City; Mr. Milton Fletcher, of Jamestown; Mr. Sherman Williams, of the State Division of Home Libraries. Prof. Andrew C. McLaughlin, of the University of Chicago, delivered an address on Teaching Peace and War in American History," the discussion of which was led by Prof. A. S. Risley, of the State Normal College, Albany.

During the session of the Florida State Teachers' Association, held in Tallahassee, December 28 to 30, there was organized a History Teachers' Association of Florida, of which the following are officers: Miss Caroline Brevard, of Woman's College, Tallahassee, president; Prof. Kemper, of De Funiak Springs, vice-president; and Miss E. M. Williams, of Jacksonville, secretary.

Prof. Edgar Dawson, of Hunter College, has been elected chairman of the History Section. of the New York State Teachers' Association.

'Neutral America" is a severe arraignment of the policy of the United States toward the present European war. It is written by Henry B. Joy, of Detroit, Mich.

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The History and Civics Section of the Pennsylvania State Educational Association met in the Central High School in Scranton on Tuesday, December 28. The subject for discussion was The Teaching of Civics," and the following program was arranged: "What Feature of Our Government Can Be Taught Most Successfully in Connection with History?" J. M. Fisher, High School, Ambler; "Civics-When, Why, How? " Eugene C. Fellows, Technical High School. Scranton; "Practical Civics, a Training for Citizenship," J. N. K. Hickman, Boys' High School, Reading; "How Can Community Life and Social Problems Be Made the Basis of a Course in Civics?" Dayton Ellis, High School, Dunmore. The chairman is Mr. W. D. Renninger, of the Central High School, Philadelphia.

The Institute of Public Service of New York City has been organized under the direction of Dr. William H. Allen. The purpose of the institute is to circulate facts, questions and suggestions of nation-wide importance to public service in reference to governments, civic agencies, higher education and benevolent foundations. The office of the institute is 51 Chambers Street, New York City.


The thirtieth annual meeting of the American Historical Association, held in Washington, December 27th to 31st, proved one of the most interesting as well as one of the most largely attended sessions in recent years. The attendance was exceeded only by the meetings held in New York and Boston. The program, formal and informal discussions, and the social events of the meeting were influenced largely, first, by the present European war; and secondly, by the presence in Washington, during the meetings, of delegates to the second Pan-American Scientific Congress. From President H. Morse Stephens' presidential address on "Nationalism" to the sectional meetings on ancient history, European history and English history, there were continual references to nationalism, international rivalries, and the causes of the present war.

Members who are interested in the care and collection of archives had opportunity to discuss their work in two conferences; one upon the desirability of the erection of a National Archive Building in Washington, and the other at the Conference of Historical Societies, at which was discussed the topic, 'The Papers of Business Houses in Historical Work."

Joint sessions were held with several other bodies meeting in Washington at the same time. Among these sessions was the one mentioned on a National Archive Building, in which a number of other societies participated; a joint meeting with the American Economic Association, at which the presidential addresses of the two societies were read; a joint session with the International Commerce of Americanists, dealing with the Indian and kindred civilization in America; a joint session with the Section VI of the Pan-American Scientific Congress; a session with the American Political Science Association upon the "Growth of Nationalism in the British Empire," and a joint session with the Naval History Society.



Inter College tion of the So

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A conference of history teachers to which members and officers of the Asssociation of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland and of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association had been invited, was held on Friday afternoon, December 31. The topic, "Whether More Debt Precise Definition is Advisable Either for College Entrance Requirements or for General School Courses," was ably discussed by six speakers, all of whom favored some definimet i tion of the field. As a result the conference passed resolutions requesting the Committee on the Teaching of Hising fritory of the American Historical Association to carry out the project for stating a series of topics for each of the secondary school courses in history. The papers read at this meeting will be printed in the MAGAZINE in the near future.

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Eugene C. Rol


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During the same week a sub-committee of the National Education Association upon Social Studies in the High Schools was meeting in Washington, and opportunity was had for a comparison of ideals and methods of this comimmittee with those of the committee of the American Historical Association.

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The social events of the week were not so many as to interfere with the real program of the meeting. There di was the usual number of gatherings of persons connected with the several universities. These gatherings constitute a valuable part of the annual meetings, and partake somewhat of the character of alumni societies.

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Owing to the many attacks which had been made in the I public presses and in pamphlets upon the type of organization and methods of management of the Association and of its organ, "The American Historical Review," great interest centered in the annual business meeting which was held on Wednesday, December 29,. from 2 to 6.30 p. m. The reports of the officers and chairmen of committees showed that the work of the Association was being carried on with its usual interest and enthusiasm. The committee on the Herbert Baxter Adams prize reported that they had awarded the prize to Mr. S. C. Pease for his study upon The Leveller Movement," with honorable mention of Dr. Melvin's study of Napoleon's "System of Licensed Navigation." Prof. Edward P. Cheyney, chairman of the Board of Editors of the "American Historical Review," reported upon the controverted points which have been brought up within the last year respecting the "Review." His report created a favorable impression which was evidenced by the unanimous passage of a vote of confidence in the Board of Editors, and of thanks for their work.



The report of the Committee of Nine was presented. Its recommendations for a change of the constitution and bylaws were laid over for consideration at the next annual meeting in accordance with the amendment provision in the constitution. Its resolutions upon the relationship between the Association and the "American Historical Review" were, with some modifications, carried. A Finance Committee, one of the changes in procedure demanded by some members, was elected by the meeting upon nominations made from the floor. The annual election of officers resulted in the choice of the following: President, Prof. George L. Burr; first vice-president, Mr. Worthington C. Ford; second vice-president, Mr. William Roscoe Thayer; secretary, Dr. Waldo G. Leland; treasurer, Dr. C. W. - Bowen; curator, Mr. A. H. Clark; secretary of the council, Prof. E. B. Greene; elective members of the council, Prof. E. C. Barker, Prof. G. S. Ford, Prof. C. H. Haskins, Prof. U. B. Phillips, Prof. Harding. The special Lucy M. Salmon, Prof. Samuel B. committee on finance was composed of Dr. Cheesman A. Herrick, Prof. A. C. Howland and Dr.

Howard L Gray.

In view of the fact that the proposed changes in the constitution were not yet adopted, the nominating committee of 1915 was continued for the ensuing year, without change of personnel, except that the chairman, Dr. McIlwain, refused to serve again, and Prof. F. M. Anderson was chosen in his place. The council of the Association announced the following appointments to committees and commissions for the ensuing year (the names of new appointees are printed in bold face):


Historical Manuscripts Commission.-Gaillard C. H. Ambler, H. E. Bolton, M. M. Quaife, W. O. Scroggs, Justin H. Smith

Committee on the Justin Winsor Prize.-C. R. Fish, G. L. Beer, Everett Kimball, Allen Johnson, O. G. Libby.

Committee on the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize.-L. M. Larson, S. B. Fay, L. J. Paetow, Ruth Putnam, W. R. Shepherd.

Public Archives Commission.-V. H. Paltsits, C. W. Alvord, S. J. Buck, J. C. Fitzpatrick, G. S. Goddard, C. C. Moore, T. M. Owen.

Committee on Bibliography.-G. M. Dutcher, W. T. Laprade, A. H. Lybyer, A. H. Shearer, W. A. Slade, B. C. Steiner, Wallace Notestein, W. W. Rockwell.

Publications (ex-officio with exception of the chairman). —H. B. Learned, C. R. Fish, G. M. Dutcher, Gaillard Hunt, J. F. Jameson, L. M. Larson, V. H. Paltsits, and the secretaries of the Council and of the Association.

General Committee.-W. E. Lingelbach, Arthur I. Andrews, W. K. Boyd, J. M. Callahan, C. E. Carter, I. J. Cox, Eloise Ellery, R. M. McElroy, E. S. Noyes, P. F. Peck, M. P. Robinson, R. B. Way, the secretaries of the Association and the Pacific Coast Branch.

Committee on History in Schools.-W. S. Ferguson, Victoria Adams, H. E. Bourne, H. L. Cannon, Edgar Dawson, O. M. Dickerson, H. D. Foster, S. B. Harding, Margaret McGill, R. A. Maurer, N. W. Stephenson.

Conference of Historical Societies.-Chairman to be selected by the Program Committee; A. H. Shearer, secretary. Advisory Board of the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE.Henry Johnson, F. M. Fling, James Sullivan, Anna B. Thompson (these four hold over); Frederic Duncalf, 0. H. Williams (these two elected for three years from January 1, 1916).

Committee on Program, Thirty-second Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, 1916.-H. E. Bourne, F. M. Anderson, Merrick Whitcomb, J. A. Woodburn, W. H. Siebert, E. R. Turner.

Committee on Local Arrangements.-Charles P. Taft, chairman; Charles T. Greve, vice-chairman; Judson Harmon, Charles W. Dabney, P. V. N. Myers, W. P. Rogers, T. C. Powell, J. L. Shearer, H. C. Hollister, H. B. Mackoy, I. J. Cox, secretary, with power to add to their membership.

Committee on Bibliography of Modern English History.— E. P. Cheyney, A. L. Cross, R. B. Merriman, Conyers Read, W. C. Abbott.

It was voted that the Committee on the Military History Prize be continued as at present until the prize is awarded.

Mr. Ephraim Emerton was elected a member of the Board of Editors of the "American Historical Review" for two years from January 1, 1916, to fill the unexpired term of Mr. George L. Burr, resigned.

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The twelfth annual meeting of the American Political Science Association was held in Washington, December 27 to 31, 1915. The program provided for several joint sessions with other bodies which were meeting in Washington at the same time. The topics for the several sessions were as follows: Preservation of the National Archives, Standardization, Governmental Efficiency, Administrative Tribunals, International Disputes and Justiciable Action, Improvement of the Technique of Direct Legislation, Political Scientists and Practical Governmental Work, The Amending Procedure of the Federal Constitution, the Growth of Nationalism in the British Empire, and Statute Drafting. The Committee on Instruction gave an outline of their projected report which is as follows

General Plan of the Report which is being prepared in the form of a volume with a view toward its publication by The Macmillan Company.

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I. The urgent necessity of more time.-The present allotment of time is insufficient, and as a rule those only are satisfied who now give a full year of four or five hours per week to social science.

II. Better preparation of teachers.-Courses in normal schools, colleges and universities designed to prepare teachers of civivs. The utter indifference and lack of provision along this line is severely condemned by teachers themselves, by principals and city superintendents.

III. More emphasis on local affairs.-Opinion so far as it is virtually unanimous in favor of more emphasis to city and county government and community affairs in general.

IV. Instruction to be made more practical. Such devices are particularly recommended as observation of local government departments, surveys of local conditions, talks to class by officials and others interested in governmental problems, study of government reports and special consideration of the efficiency or inefficiency of present governmental agencies.

V. Better Material.-Collection of a Civics Library with reference works, government reports and pamphlet literature illustrating all phases of government work. A select list of magazines for use with Civic classes. More co-operation in preparation of material by State universities, state and national departments of education. Publication by the government of pamphlets of suggestions and illustrative material as to government functions.

VI. Bring pressure to bear on colleges to accept a full year of social science for entrance when the work is effectively taught.-High schools are much less likely to do justice to this branch of study as long as colleges accept either no work in Civics or give credit for only a half unit.

VII. Put civic instruction into civic practice, by such devices as self-government in school, by organizing class on model of government departments, by formation of civic leagues and community clubs. The courses of study which have been prepared by the

III. Report on the teaching of political science in colleges. committee are intended to offer suggestive material and

and universities.

IV. Appendix with suggestive programs and successful methods for the teaching of Civics in the public schools.


I. Establishment of a separate department of Political Science.

II. Elementary course combining American Government and select foreign governments for the purpose of offering a comparative study.

III. Special provisions for training of teachers of Civics as well as for school administrators.

IV. More stress to be given to administrative methods and the enforcement of the law.

V. Preparation of Reports and Surveys on actual political conditions.

VI. Establishment of Reference Libraries and Research Laboratories for study, and for the purpose of rendering aid to government officials and interested citizens.

VII. Provisions for specific training for certain branches of the public service.

methods of presentation for instruction in civics, beginning in the first grade and continuing until the last year high school. The plan of outline as submitted contains material and data for incidental instruction in the grades from one to six, a full year course for the eighth grade or the first year in junior high school, and a full year course for the senior high school.

Submitted on behalf of the committee by


At the same session of the Political Science Association, Prof. Edgar Dawson, of Hunter College, New York City, presented an outline of "An Elementary College Course in Comparative Government," covering one year of work at the rate of three hours class work a week. Prof. Dawson's outline is as follows:

1. A definition of government, one week.

2. A definition of law, one week.

3. Constitutions, two weeks.

4. The legislative process, two weeks.

5. The process of adjudication, two weeks.

6. The administration of government, four weeks. 7. Local government, one week.

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13. Federal adjudication, one week.

14. Federal administration, two weeks.

15. The government of dependencies, two weeks. 16. International relations, two weeks.

17. A definition of government, one week.

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It is assumed that the student gives to this subject thirty weeks, three hours a week. In such a course a student should read at least 2,000 pages during the year. There is no single book that is entirely satisfactory as a basic text for such a course; but a list of references aggregating about 2,000 pages could be made from such books as the following: Beard's "American Government" and his "Readings; Bryce's "American Commonwealth; " Reinsch's "Readings in American State and Federal Government; " Wilson's "State; "" Lowell's "Governments of Continental Europe and of England; Ogg's Governments of Europe; " Burgess's "Political Science and Constitutional Law; "" Garner or Gettell's Introduction to Hershey's "International Law; "9 Reinsch's "Colonial

Political Science; "" Ostrogorski's "Political Parties; [Government," or other similar books.

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Such a course cannot be satisfactorily conducted on the lecture plan. The object is not to teach the student facts, but to develop his political instinct in the right direction and to organize his political philosophy through discussion.



RYAN, OSWALD. Municipal Freedom: A Study of the Commission Government, with an Introduction by A. Lawrence Lowell. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1915. Pp. xvi, 233. 60 cents.

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Mr. Ryan, then just reaching his majority, won in 1910 the Baldwin Prize offered by the National Municipal League with an essay on the Commission Plan of City Government." Since then he has taught at Harvard, practiced law in Indiana, contributed to "City Government by Commission," and other periodicals, conducted a campaign as candidate for Mayor, and been elected State's Attorney in Indiana. His knowledge of the problems of government is therefore both scientific and practical, and his discussion of the subject is popular as well as scholarly. There is no

more readable or

acceptable account in print of the present

status of municipal government in America than the book

before us.

This account of government by commission is very brief, less as much as the average reader of a popular book on government needs to give him an adequate idea of this great reform movement. The chapter headings with some suggestion of the content of each may be given as follows: "The New Departure in Municipal Democracy," a general account of the commission plan; "A Tale of Two Cities," an account of the experience under the reform wave of Haverhill, Mass., and Salt Lake City, Utah; "Democracy terest of efficiency; "Fixing Responsibility," explains itself and Efficiency," an argument for reorganization in the inas an argument that the only safety is in placing responclearly upon the shoulders of some one that he

sibility so

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can not shift it; Changing Municipal Organization to Preserve Municipal Democracy," to refute the notion that the commission form is un-American, or unrepresentative; the "Coming of the Burgomaster," showing that the City Manager is but the German Burgomaster under another name and smells just as sweet; "Is the Party System Passing from the City?" is answered with an approving affirmative; "Vitalizing the Ballot," preferential voting and other means of permitting the citizen to make a real choice in spite of the activities of the "highly organized minority; Municipal Freedom," an argument in favor of real home rule for American cities as the only hope of arriving at real municipal efficiency under any plan of city government.

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"Ours are the only English-speaking cities in the world that are denied the right of self-government. One cannot imagine, for example, legislative intermeddling in the affairs of an English city, which is permitted by parlia ment to develop in its own way and according to its own ideas of administrative organization. English cities since 1832 have been among the best governed in the world, and American cities have been among the worst governed. And one reason for this is that English cities are self-governed and American cities are State-governed. It has been well said that the citizens of Birmingham [England] govern Birmingham, but that the legislature of Indiana governs Indianapolis." (Page 151.)

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The appendix contains the text of the Iowa Commission Government Act, providing the "Des Moines Plan" of commission government; the “ Commission-Manager Plan as Outlined in Selected Sections of the Dayton Charter; and “Preferential Voting as Provided in the Charter of Grand Junction, Colorado." Added to this is a list of about 150 references on municipal government. Possibly the lack of an index will not be regarded as a considerable defect in a book of this character. If this is a fair sample of The American Books, the name of the series, Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Company are to be congratulated, and we may look forward to the other volumes of the series with impatience. EDGAR DAWSON.

Hunter College of the City of New York.

I ACCUSE. By a German. Translated by Alexander Gray. New York: George H. Doran Co., 1915. Pp. 445. $1.50, net.

This book purports to have been written by a German who believes that the mass of his countrymen have been misled by their rulers, and that Germany and AustriaHungary are almost wholly responsible for bringing about the great war in 1914. The author starts with a brief survey of the situation in February, 1915, and concludes that in spite of victories in the field Germany cannot win in the end. Then follows a long chapter on the “Historical Antecedents of the Crime." In this he argues that Germany was pushed into the war by the expansionists to gain such advantages as more territory and foreign colonies which are really not advantages at all. He believes that the best markets of Germany from which her merchants have been getting rich were in Europe and America, and he fears the chances of Germany have been greatly injured in those countries. He shows that the German government has for some years past been the chief obstacle to peace agreements in Europe, and that no other government except those of Austria and Germany wanted war. chapter three he discusses "The Crime," taking up the part of each of the five great powers in bringing about the war. In this he uses mainly the official documents published by the various governments. These he analyzes very cleverly and clearly to prove his conclusion that Germany and Aus



tria intentionally brought about the war in 1914 because they believed the moral advantages (by reason of the murder of the Austrian Archduke) and the military advantages were theirs. In his argument the author uses the Austrian Red Book and German White Book, as well as other official German statements very effectively to prove the insincerity of the German government. He does not hesitate to say that some of its statements are lies. His criticisms of the German policy toward Belgium are especially keen. After discussing the evidence about each government's responsibility he summarizes his arguments very well. Then follow two shorter chapters on "The Consequences of the Deed" and "The Future." The tone of the author is one of anger at the leaders of Germany and Austria-Hungary, who he believes have drawn all Europe into the awful war, and sorrow for the German people who have "been corrupted and blinded that it might be driven into a war which it has never foreseen, never intended, and never desired. In order that it might be liberated, it has been put in chains." The author declares he has written his book in order to break this charm. Whatever his nationality, he has written a very strong book full of keen argument. Students of recent European history will find it worth reading whether they agree with all its conclusions or not. CLARENCE PERKINS.

Ohio State University.

HOLLAND, RUPERT S. Historic Heroes of Chivalry. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1914. Pp. 304. $1.50.

Roland and Oliver, the Cid, St. Louis, William Tell, du Guesclin, del Pulgar and la Vega, Giovanni of the Black Band, Gustavus Vasa, Francis Drake, Montrose, Louis Grandpré, and Gordon of Khartoum are the heroes of this volume of "The Historic Series for Young People," and legend rather than history is the principal basis of it. Sixteen illustrations are supplied.


THOMPSON, C. MILDRED. Reconstruction in Georgia, Economic, Social, Political, 1865-1872. New York: Columbia University Press, 1915. Pp. 418. $3.00. Paper. This is the latest and in some respects the best of the series of studies upon reconstruction, the inspiration for which has been gained in Professor Dunning's seminar in Columbia University. Dr. Thompson's work covers the period, 18651872, with an introductory chapter upon Georgia in the Civil War. Compared with Dr. Woolley's study, which bears a similar title, the new work shows a marked advance in method, a broader point of view, and a greater maturity of judgment. Miss Thompson's book is particularly valuable for the light which it throws upon economic and social conditions in Georgia following the war. political and constitutional aspects of reconstruction are not neglected but they occupy only one-fourth of the volume; the remaining three-fourths being devoted to economic and social reconstruction. The section upon railroads seems somewhat overburdened with statistics; while that upon the churches is all too short. The reconstruction of agriculture under the new labor system is described in much detail, and illustrated with fresh material from newspapers, family records, and official reports. An interesting point is made of the influence of the withdrawal of negro women from field labor upon the supply of labor for agricultural purposes. The Ku Klux Klan movement and outrages by negroes and against them are treated more briefly than in some other studies of the period. The author seems to feel that these were unfortunate, but inevitable results of the epoch; and that the description of them

should not be expanded at the expense of an adequate treatment of the great changes in economic organization. One gets the impression from this study that reconstruction was accomplished in Georgia with a minimum of economic and social loss. The second interference by Congress in the affairs of the State was due to the Democrats getting control of the State government at too early a date. There is an excellent bibliography, and an elaborate table of contents, but no index. M.

LANSING, ROBERT, AND JONES, GARY M. Government: Its Origin, Growth and Form in the United States. Pp. viii, 252. 72 cents; with The Government of Iowa. By Dan Elbert Clark. $1.00. 1915. New York: Silver, Burdette & Co.

The general edition of this work appeared in 1902, and therefore needs no comment. The supplement of 143 pages which has just been added contains a brief historical sketch of the State, and this is followed by a general description of the local and State governments, with special chapters on elections, taxation, roads, the State educational system, the military force of the State, and an appendix containing the State constitution. The treatment of the subject is essentially the same as that of other texts now in the field, but it is the only work that brings the government of that State up to date. K. F. G.

MAITLAND, FREDERIC W., AND MONTAGUE, FRANCIS C. A Sketch of Legal History. Edited by James F. Colby. New Pork: Putnam's Sons, 1915. Pp. 229. $1.50. Professor Colby has made a useful book by reprinting the contributions on the history of English law in Traill's "Social England," which were written by Maitland and Montague. He has enhanced the value of the volume by adding material from other authors, including Blackstone, Pollock and Jenks, and by well-selected references for the various topics. The most important facts in the development of English law are set forth in a non-technical manner, so that the work will be useful for teachers of English history as well as for students of law. Princeton University.


TUCKER, HENRY ST. GEORGE. Limitations on the Treaty. Making Power Under the Constitution of the United States. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1915. Pp. xxi, 444. $5.00.

As the title suggests, this work deals with the treatymaking power under the Constitution of the United States, and not with the broader question of the construction, scope, nature and binding effect of treaties in general. From the opinions of a large number of publicists, jurists and statesmen, which he quotes at length, from a critical examination of adjudicated cases and from a careful study of the Constitution itself, the author hopes to "eliminate the error of unlimited' and boundless power and establish what are the reasonable limitations." And it must be admitted, after a careful reading of the work, it is hard to deny that a clear case is established. The whole period of American history, both under the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, is examined and the most important cases, covering every phase of the subject, receive due attention. The error of those who hold to the "unlimited" theory lies in the fact that the treaty-making power has been regarded too much from the point of view of the treaty clause by itself, which undoubtedly does give unlimited power as to subjects; but other articles of the

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