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Constitution and the amendments of that instrument exclude certain subjects from the competence of the Executive. Positive prohibitions upon Congress, certain guarantees in the amendments, powers reserved to the States, including police powers, are in their very nature effective barriers against the treaty-making power. Especially innteresting is the chapter on the Japanese-California controversies in which the weight of evidence favors the State as against the Federal government. That the present limited powers of the Federal government in these matters are often embarrassing, as in the California case, is not denied, but the proper remedy lies not in the assumpItion of new and unwarranted powers by the Executive, but C in an amendment to the Constitution. It is a scholarly and valuable work, especially instructive to the teacher of constitutional law. KARL F. GEISER.
This volume is one of a series edited by Professor Haskins, of Harvard. The author, Professor Larson, of the University of Illinois, has compressed into a small manual the story of the development of England, giving particular attention to those topics which bear upon "the development of American life and thought and civilization." The work is so well done that one cannot but regret that Professor Larson was so restricted by the size of the volume. It is a serious question whether, in undertaking to put so much valuable merchandise in so small a parcel, he has not attempted the impossible.
While it is true that a text-book may contain so much detail that the mind of the student is confused, it is also true that without considerable detail the text-book may lack that atmosphere, so indispensable to an appreciation of the subject. Professor Larson has avoided the first danger, but has not altogether escaped the second. He has made a wise selection of topics for discussion, and has discussed them in a clear and direct style. Several subjects, however, are inadequately treated, and several, which seem to an old teacher indispensable to a clear understanding of English history, are omitted altogether. The account of feudalism (page 56) gives no description of its military features. Insufficient emphasis is laid on the importance of the power of Parliament to impeach ministers of the crown, first exercised by the Good Parliament (page 173). The statement of the Test Act of 1673 is so incomplete as to be misleading, and the Parliamentary Test Act of 1678 is not mentioned. The important change made by the Act of Settlement of 1701 in the tenure of office of judges receives no attention. The discussion of the financial situation of Charles I is unfortunately brief. Nothing is said of the famous Confirmatio Cartarum of the time of Edward I.
LARSON, LAWRENCE M. A Short History of England and the British Empire. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1915. Pp. 661. $1.40.
However, no writer can be expected to cover the whole field of English history in one small volume, and do so to the entire satisfaction of all teachers. The present work has many excellent features and will make many friends. The illustrations are numerous, and for the most part are well chosen. There are some very interesting and unusual pictures made from photographs of historical places and buildings which greatly add to the usefulness of the book. It may be questioned, however, whether some of the 73 portraits might not have been omitted, without serious loss, and the valuable space thus saved used to better purpose in the discussion of some of the omitted topics.
Frequent references are given to source books and other text-books. The bibliography contains 70 titles, mostly of
text-books and short biographies. A few errors have
ELLERY, ELOISE. Brissot de Warville. A Study in the
The Vassar alumnæ are to be congratulated on the publication of Dr. Ellery's biography of Brissot. It is tangible evidence that Vassar has produced an historian, and is additional proof that women can do as scientific work as men. In recent years only a limited number of scholarly works has been published in English on the French Revolution, and it is noteworthy that the majority of these volumes have been written by women; Miss Ellery's book is one of the best of them. It rests upon patient researchsee the bibliography of fifty pages-and is the fruit of long years of study. A careful and impartial account of the life of one of the important figures of the revolution, it is the first biography of Brissot in English and-strange to say the first full life of him that has ever been written. Although the book carries the sub-title, "A Study in the History of the French Revolution," it is almost exclusively a biography, but little attention being paid to background. That is not necessarily a criticism of the work, for if more space were given to background, it could be found only by crowding out bibliographical detail or by enlarging the volume. While this narrower biographical method is justifiable, it is clear we know more about a man when we are told what others thought of him and of what he said and did. However, for the period of Brissot's life before the revolution, his biographer can do little more than let Brissot tell his own story, supplementing it with a description of his writings. Apart from some letters connected with Brissot's visit to this country, letters found in Washington, New York and Worcester (Mass.), Dr. Ellery, in spite of her tireless investigations, was able to add but little to the list of manuscript sources already known to us.
The most important chapters of the volume are those dealing with Brissot as a journalist and a humanitarian, and his visit to the United States. Students of United States history may read with profit the account of his colonial policy and his attitude toward slavery. The University of Nebraska.
FRED MORROW FLING.
MOORE, NORMAN. The Physician in English History.
In this lecture before St. John's College, Cambridge, the author, a physician, appraises the services rendered by distinguished physicians of bygone times in other fields of activity than their profession. A few names that the layman recognizes, like Linacre and Arbuthnot, appear among his worthies, but the book is primarily for readers of the author's profession rather than for the general student of history.
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