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which they are employed. It is sometimes used in furthering a good cause, but often abused in advancing a bad one.
The fourth class, Deliberative, possesses the attributes of the second class, the Demonstrative, and the third class, the Forensic, and aims to persuade by argument, and to move by passion.
The fifth class, Social, appeals only to the emotions, and its sole object is to entertain and amuse.
Each of these five forms of oratory may embrace the four divisions of English composition — Exposition, Argumentation, Description and Narration — but they must be delivered in a manner suitable to the class in which they are used.
The Philosophic discourse may be expositive, argumentative, descriptive and narrative in the one address, but never must it be allowed to wander from making its appeal to the reason. Such a discourse must always rest on the righteousness of its cause, and justice must be the one motive that governs it. It may instruct, argue, describe, narrate, and appeal, but only through the intellect. All the other classes of oratory — Demonstrative, Forensic, Deliberative, and Social — may do the like things, but only in a manner befitting each particular class. Even in Demonstrative oratory it is necessary to explain, argue, describe,
and narrate, as well as to arouse, but it is always done with the idea of swaying the listeners through the passions, and not by the force of reason.
All speeches, no matter what their class, must possess an opening, a body, and a conclusion, but each class should be governed by the particular quality or qualities that go to make it up. Thus, reason governs the Philosophic and Forensic; passion the Demonstrative; both reason and passion the Deliberative, and emotion the Social. All of them, however, in their own particular way, seek to convince, persuade, and move, by appealing to either the reason or the passion, and all use the four divisions of English composition without in any manner losing the distinctive style of composition and delivery befitting the individual class to which the speech belongs.
EXAMPLES OF THE FIVE
FIRST CLASS — THE PHILOSOPHIC
COMMUNION WITH GOD
John Henry Newman, Roman Catholic cardinal, distinguished English theologian, and one of the greatest preachers of his day, was born in London, England, February 21, 1801, and died in Edgbaston, near Birmingham, August 11, 1890. His literary productions are considered models of English style.
“One thing have I desired of the Lord, which I will require: even that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the fair beauty of the Lord, and to visit his temple.”—Psalm xxvii, 4.
W H AT the Psalmist desired, we Christians en
VV joy to the full,— the liberty of holding communion with God in His temple all through our life. Under the law the presence of God was but in one place; and therefore could be approached and enjoyed only at set times. For far the greater pårt of their lives the chosen people were in one sense
that I may
“ cast out of the sight of His eyes”; and the periodical return to it which they were allowed was a privilege highly coveted and earnestly expected. Much more precious was the privilege of continually dwelling in His sight which is spoken of in the text. “ One thing," says the Psalmist, “ have I desired of the Lord dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the fair beauty of the Lord, and to visit His temple.” He desired to have continually that communion with God in prayer, praise, and meditation, to which His presence admits the soul; and this, I say, is the portion of Christians. Faith opens upon us Christians the temple of God wherever we are; for that temple is a spiritual one, and so is everywhere present. “We have access,” says the apostle,– that is, we have admission or introduction, “by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.” And hence, he says elsewhere, “ Rejoice in the Lord alway, and again I say, rejoice.” “Rejoice evermore, pray without ceasing; in everything give thanks.” And St. James, “Is any afflicted? let him pray: is any merry? let him sing psalms.” Prayer, praise, thanksgiving, contemplation, are the peculiar privilege and duty of a Christian, and that for their own sakes, from
the exceeding comfort and satisfaction they afford him, and without reference to any definite results to which prayer attends, without reference to the answers which are promised to it, from a general sense of the blessedness of being under the shadow of God's throne.
I propose, then, in what follows to make some remarks on communion with God, or prayer in a large sense of the word; not as regards its external consequences, but as it may be considered to affect our own minds and hearts.
What, then, is prayer? It is (if it may be said reverently) conversing with God. We converse with our fellow men, and then we use familiar language, because they are our fellows. We converse with God, and then we use the lowliest, awfullest, calmest, concisest language we can, because he is God. Prayer, then, is divine converse, differing from human as God differs from man. Thus St. Paul says, “ Our conversation is in heaven,” — not indeed thereby meaning converse of words only, but intercourse and manner of living generally; yet still in an especial way converse of words or prayer; because language is the special means of all intercourse. Our intercourse with our fellow men goes on, not by sight but by sound, not by eyes, but by ears. Hearing is