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Other races

RACES REPRESENTED Among the persons admitted in the years between 1912 and 1920 we find a formidable array of nationalities, sufficient indeed to give a cosmopolitan air to the population, although with the exception of the British, the numbers in most cases are insignificant. The races are shown below. 11 Europeans Sevin

Eurasians
Austrians
Turks

Filipinos
Belgians

Americans

Hindoos
British
North Americans

Japanese
Danes

Javanese Dutch

South Americans
French

Malays
American Indians
Germans
Negroes

Syrians

Timorese Greeks

West Indians Italians

Asiatica
Maltese
Afghans

Maories
Poles
Arabs

Mauritians
Portugese
Burmese

Pacific Islanders
Russians
Chinese

Papuans Scandanavians Singalese

Some Unspecified Spaniards

The natural increase of the population 12 between 1861 and 1920 was 3,251,667. The net immigration for the same period was 1,015,066. In other words, 23.8 per cent. of the increase of population in Australia for sixty years in the period from 1861 to 1920 was due to net immigration, and 76.2 per cent. to natural increase. There is always migration of considerable volume, much of it destined to New Zealand, and other parts of the empire. With new inducements, doubtless immigration will increase.

NATURALIZATION OF ALIENS

A matter closely akin to immigration is naturalization which in Australia is controlled by the “Nationality Act of 1920,” 18 in effect January 1, 1921. This law is based on the Commonwealth Act of 1903 and the more stringent Act of u Official Year Book, No. 1921, page

1139. Official Year Book, No. 14, 1921, pages 1172–1174. * Official Year Book, No. 14, 1921, pages 1141-1143.

1917. Prior to the Act of 1903, naturalization had been a state function. The conditions of naturalization now are: 1. Residence in Australia continuously for not less than

one year immediately preceding application for naturalization, and previous residence, either in the Commonwealth or in some other part of His Majesty's dominions, for a period of four years

within the last eight years before application. 2. Good character and an adequate knowledge of the

English language.
3. Intention to settle in the British Empire.

The applicant must furnish in addition to certain personal facts, (a) Newspapers containing copies of an advertisement,

as prescribed by law, of his intention to seek nat

uralization. (b) Certificates of character from three natural-born

British subjects, two of whom must be householders, and the third a Justice of the Peace, Postmaster or State School Teacher or Police

Officer. (c) Satisfactory evidence that he has an adequate knowl.

edge of the English language. There is no charge made for a naturalization certificate.

There is also provision in the law for the naturalization of a woman by marriage, and of a minor child by residence with a naturalized parent. The Governor-General has absolute power to grant, or revoke a certificate of naturalization if his judgment deems either proceeding wise.

Since only non-British subjects need to seek naturalization in Australia, the number of certificates granted is not large as is indicated by the following figures : Year Number Year

Number 1909 2,431 1915

1,602 1910 1,849 1916

842 1911 2,077 1917

445 1912

1,945
1918

261 1913 2,291 1919

295 1914 4,272 1920

629

This represents a total of 18,939 for the last decennial period included in the records.14

ASSIMILATION NO PROBLEM The problems connected with the naturalization of aliens in the United States, are not apparent in either Australia or New Zealand. There is no mass of unassimilated foreigners to be exploited politically or otherwise. The language and traditions of Britain prevail. There are no foreign colonies or groups to be specially considered. The two or three per cent. of non-British people function individually in their various spheres. Even the aboriginals do not project themselves upon the country as a problem as they do in the Union of South Africa for instance. They are a vanishing people dwelling in a savage state in the far interior and probably number not more than twenty-five thousand at the present time. Any statistics in regard to these tribes are only approximations since their contacts with the outposts of civilization are extremely limited. They are improperly called Bushmen. A Bushman in Australia, according to local usage, is any one who tends cattle or sheep or otherwise lives in the open even though not far removed from the cities.

Other pressing problems connected with immigration in the United States, and even in Canada are in no sense vital in either Australia or New Zealand. There are no alien hordes enmeshed in the manufacturing industries offering a constant menace to the national standard of living. Both countries, particularly New Zealand, have experimented lavishly with welfare legislation, and in other ways have undertaken to prevent abuses connected with the production and distribution of wealth. Poverty in its most menacing aspects, such as battens on an illiterate and foreign urban industrial population is not found in Australia. It is true that the Commonwealth has not made such commercial strides as the United States for instance has made, yet the Australian, when he sees our unfortunate industrial backwash, does not regard this

" Official Year Book, No. 14, 1921, page 1175.

fact as altogether deplorable. Neither does he wish to duplicate even on an infinitesimal scale the slums of English cities.

It might appear from the foregoing that, on account of space and other favorable conditions, Australia would be an ideal place to test out through future generations the Briton's ability physical and other, to develop a great country in the South Seas under climatic conditions totally unlike those at home. For the reasons that have been indicated and also because, although in the midst of Asiatics, the Australians insist on remaining dominantly British, their immigration situation is of surpassing interest to the general student of society as well as to the specialist in movements of population. Is the last outpost of Anglo-Saxon civilization to survive in the South Seas on shores washed by the “rising tide of color ?” This is a question that may well be asked by thoughtful people everywhere.

CHAPTER IX

THE SITUATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA

THE last country in the British Empire to be considered in our survey of immigrant receiving lands is South Africa, properly referred to as the Union of South Africa since there is a federation of states comparable with others that have been studied. Geographically South Africa includes all the country south of the Zambesi River, and having an area of 1,200,000 square miles if we include Rhodesia, South West Africaover which the Union holds a mandate and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. The Union itself is much smaller than this consisting of only 473,096 square miles. The Union of South Africa was formed by Act of the Imperial Parliament in 1909 from the four states whose area and population are given below:

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From its early beginnings, South Africa was mainly an agricultural and pastoral country, and in spite of the development of its mines and manufactures, agriculture is still the staple industry of the country. Great changes have, however,

1 The more than four million natives and other colored persons are not included.

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