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(2) The children of Brazilian fathers, and illegitimate

children of Brazilian mothers, born in foreign

countries, if domiciled in Brazil. (3) The children of Brazilian fathers employed in the

service of the Republic in foreign countries, al

though not domiciled in Brazil. (4) Foreigners who resided in Brazil on November 15,

1889, and who had not up to August 24, 1891, declared their intention of retaining their original

nationality. (5) Foreigners owning real estate in Brazil, married to

Brazilian women, or having Brazilian issue, provided they are resident in Brazil, and have not declared their intention to adhere to their original

nationality. (6) Foreigners who apply for naturalization under the

present law. Art. II. Naturalized foreigners shall enjoy all civil and political rights, and may hold any public office, except that of President or Vice-President of the Republic. The office of Senator may be held after six years citizenship, and that of Deputy after four years.

Art. IV. Foreigners who desire Brazilian citizenship must apply to the President of the Republic, through the Ministry of Justice. Applications must be signed and authenticated by a notary public, and must state nationality, parentage, domicile, profession, condition, and legitimate issue must also be mentioned.

Applications must be accompanied by certificate of personal identity, legal age, residence of not less than two years in Brazil, good moral and civil conduct, and proof that applicants have not been indicted in Brazil or elsewhere for the offences enumerated in Article IX.

Art. V. Necessity of actual residence shall not be obligatory in the cases of foreigners married to Brazilian women, those with real estate in Brazil, those interested in some indus

trial undertaking, or who are inventors or introducers of some industry useful to the country, and those recommended by their talents or literary attainments, or by their professional skill, and finally, sons of naturalized foreigners born abroad before their fathers' naturalization.

Art. VI. Certificates from public departments, or given by judicial, municipal, or police authorities of Brazil, are sufficient proof of identity. Certification of signatures by notaries, or in case of application through the latter, power of attorney, is sufficient, and birth or baptism certificates, or passports, or other admitted documents, will be proof of legal majority, and certificates from the authorities of his place of domicile, from his consul or diplomatic representative, will be accepted as proof that he has not been convicted of the crimes mentioned in Article IX.

Art. VIII. Papers relating to naturalization are exempt from all costs, stamps, or fees.

Art. IX. Foreigners who have been convicted of homicide, theft, bankruptcy, perjury, smuggling, forgery, counterfeiting, or immorality will not be permitted to naturalize.

Art. XVI. The titles of naturalization must be claimed within six months by persons living in the Federal capital.

Art. XVII. Persons residing in the states must claim their titles within one year.

The situation in Brazil at the present time is of unusual interest because of the great unoccupied areas which extend opportunity to peoples now practically excluded from the United States, and also because there have not heretofore been the usual race antagonisms. The country offers little to unskilled laborers of any nationality who want to live in cities. Ninety per cent of the Portuguese in Brazil are in the cities and have pre-empted urban occupations. The Germans, on the other hand, are rural dwellers, and have pointed the way to success on the soil. The land-hungry are the people desired by the great immigrant-receiving countries having vast areas awaiting development, and it is these people to whom Brazil extends a cordial hand.

CHAPTER XI

SETTLERS AND LAWS IN THE ARGENTINE

REPUBLIC

SIZE AND POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF ARGENTINA

The Argentine Republic, popularly known as Argentina, with an area of 1,153,418 square miles, is about equal in size to that portion of the United States lying east of the Mississippi River. The population as officially estimated is 9,000,000. Originally discovered by a Spaniard in 1516, this part of South America has, in language and customs, remained Spanish, although both Portugal and England, through later discoveries and the fortunes of war, from time to time attempted conquest. In 1816 the Argentine provinces, owing to defeat of the Spaniards by the patriot army in 1812, were declared an independent Republic, and a government modeled on that of the United States was established. The country is divided into a Federal District and twenty-four territories and provinces as follows:

DIVISIONS OF ARGENTINA
Name

Area in kilometers Population
Territory of Terra del Fuego

21,500

3,000 Territory of Santa Cruz

282,750 15,000 Territory of Chubut

242,039

40,000 Territory of Rio Negro

200,000 52,000 Territory of Neuquen

100,000

33,000 Province of Pampa Central

150,000 135,000 Province of Buenos Aires ?

305,000 4,000,000 Province of San Luis

75,000 122,000 Province of Mendoza

150,000 323,000 Province of San Juan

98,000 125,000 Province of La Rioja

98,000

82,000 Province of Entre Rios

76,000 455,000 Province of Santa Fé

130,000 1,000,000 Province of Cordoba

173,000 824,000 Province of Catamarca

95,000 102,000 Province of Tucuman

27,000 350,000 * By all odds the most important.

DIVISIONS OF ARGENTINA-Continued
Name

Area in kilometers Population
Province of Santiago del Estero 143,000 281,000
Province of Salta

125,000 144,000 Territory of Los Andes

90,000 250,000 Province of Jujuy

38,000 81,000 Territory of Chaco

136,000 67,000 Territory of Formosa

100,000 25,000 Province of Corrientes

87,000 360,000
Territory of Misiones

30,000 57,000
Federal District (City of Buenos
Aires)

82 sq. miles 1,692,327

CONTRASTS BETWEEN IBERIAN AND ANGLO.

SAXON COLONIZATION

It has been said 2 that a characteristic difference between Iberian and Anglo-Saxon colonization is that in the former there has been a blending of blood with the governed colored races, while in the latter the white man has held himself aloof and supreme. This difference naturally results in the formation of new and distinct racial types. The blending process was operative from the beginning in southern South America, but here the advent of Europeans being continuous and ever increasing, the weight of influence in determining the character of the civilization lay with them. Quite the reverse was true in India. The point to be made here in regard to Argentina is that the basic ideals of the country are not solely Spanish although Spanish is the language of the country. The blending of races has apparently led to a degree of liberalism and the awakening of national spirit which may be seen in her policy toward migrating people.

ARGENTINES ALMOST WHOLLY OF EUROPEAN

EXTRACTION The population of Argentina is almost wholly of European extraction. The untamed Indians number only about 18,000, but there are in addition 50,000 pure aboriginals

· W. H. Koebel: The New Argentina.

who have become domesticated. These people are almost entirely in the Chaco and neighboring districts. There are about 200,000 of the famous gauchos, originally a mixture of Spaniards and Indians, and about 100,000 other mulattoes." This gives approximately 368,000 colored people in a population of 9,000,000; the rest are of European stock. This European element includes many racial groups. During the last fifty years the following have settled in the country: Italians

2,000,000 Spaniards

1,150,000 French

200,000 English

50,000 Austro-Hungarians

70,000 Germans

50,000 Swiss

30,000 Belgians

21,000 Others

4,000,000 Total (approximate) 7,571,000 In the passing of a half-century these Europeans have become blended in a nation of Argentines with their own standards of living and national aspirations. Each year several hundred thousand persons are added by immigration; and these in turn leave their impress on the race. It is the same process that has gone on in other lands. European races have ever been modified by changed environment until they have taken on the characteristics of another race. It is this that makes immigration into the new countries a matter of the greatest interest. In the Argentine, there has developed a type of civilization quite distinct from that in any other country.

ARGENTINA NOW COSMOPOLITAN The population of the Argentine Republic is cosmopolitan. Buenos Aires, the capital, has over 800,000 foreign-born; that is, about half of its people were born elsewhere. As an indica

* W. H. Koebel: The New Argentina, page 85.
*“ Argentine Republic,” Pan-American Union Publications, 1923,

page 14.

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