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in the Great Republic. Canada's immediate need, as has been emphasized, is the development of western agricultural lands, a form of endeavor that makes but a slight appeal to the nativeborn in the older provinces who go to more congenial tasks under another flag. In fact, during the last few years, many Canadian farm hands have been transferring themselves to American automobile factories. This is an unfortunate situation for Canada, but there seems to be no remedy in sight. Professor Smith in A Study in Canadian Immigration deplores this fact, and in a personal letter to the writer' passes on a question propounded to him by a teacher in Holland. "Why is it that while Canada is offering inducements to settlers, there are two million Canadians living in the United States?" It may be that the population of Canada is top heavy; perhaps there are too many "white collar men for its present state of development in arts and industries. Professor Smith believes that the vast expenditures for promoting immigration should be turned into the more beneficial channels of promoting the immigrant, "that living creatures are more profitable than advertisements. Something like that must be done if the 'leakage' to the Great Republic would be diminished or stayed." s


Advertising methods of attracting immigrants are expensive. In the ten years following 1898, Canada spent about seven million dollars, nearly two million of which were expended in the United States. Yet no method that insures an influx of valuable citizens can really be called expensive. Incompetent settlers are a constant detriment to any country. The following table shows the actual amount spent for immi

'A migrant born on Prince Edward Island, brought up in Nova Scotia, and resident in the United States.

A study in Canadian Immigration, page 371.

gration at home and abroad with per cent. for each great division during the period specified."


United States..
United Kingdom.
Continental Europe




Manual of Citizenship

Eastern Canada, British Edition
Women's Work in Canada



Canada, Where, When and How
Canada West, British Edition
Canada West, U. S. Edition
Descriptive Atlas of Canada, U. S. Edition

Per Cent. of Total






The publicity work for which the large sums indicated are used by Canada to attract settlers is varied. The word settlers is used advisedly in place of immigrants because it is people to settle on the land who are wanted. Industrial enterprises develop as an agricultural population increases, it is true, and they are doing so in Canada, but the prime need is to till the soil, and responsible farmers are sought first. The following list of publications 10 issued shows the nature of this kind of publicity:

Number of copies








In addition to the foregoing, a weekly news letter and feature articles published outside of Canada have a circulation of many millions. One organization alone obtained a circulation of 66,593,862 copies. From this it would appear that no one should be ignorant concerning the advantages of Canada. The success of these methods so far as occupation

'The Immigrant Situation in Canada, page 13 (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.)


Report on Immigration and Colonization, 1922, page 35.

of workers attracted is concerned may be seen for a given year from the following tabulation:

Sex, Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in
Canada, for the Fiscal year ended March 31, 1922.

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Between the years 1898 and 1908, immigrants into Canada numbered 1,244,597 and into the United States 7,753,856. Comparing these figures with the decennial 11 populations of the two countries for the first decade of the twentieth century, it appears that Canada had a percentage of increase from without more than double that of the United States. Canada's problem of assimilation was therefore larger even if less difficult by reason of the similarity of the majority of the newcomers to the native population.

38,597 32,042




Much unsolicited immigration, as has been indicated, came to Canada during the period under discussion, among them numbers from charitable agencies in Great Britain. In the year 1907, the London Societies alone sent over twelve thousand. "They are the products of the distress committees and of the work houses. The distress committees usually operate through some recognized booking agency, providing the fares for the transportation, and leaving such booking agency to provide the employment on the Canadian side. There is no supervision of an official character exercised over these immigrants." 12 From this it will appear that they were actually

"The Canadian Census is taken on the odd year, as 1901, 1911, "Quoted by Smith, A Study in Canadian Immigration, pages

receiving into Canada from the Mother Country large numbers of persons seemingly doomed to dependency; in fact the kind that had been sent to the American colonies, but from whom the new country tried to protect itself after the Revolution. Children from philanthropic organizations in Great Britain Jhave always been received. Thirteen homes are maintained in Canada as receiving and distributing centres for them. The number of children who have come in this way during fiftyfour years, that is from 1868 to 1922 is 76,416, and records for this period seem to indicate that the great majority, responding to the influence of the new environment, developed -into useful citizens. Prior to 1918, Canada was the only one of the overseas Dominions opening her arms to any extent to waifs in Great Britain, but since the close of the war period, Australia and New Zealand, preceiving the advantages arising from immigration of this kind, have started active propaganda to divert some of it to their shores. While this is interesting as a form of national philanthropy it is not strictly speaking immigration in the sense in which it is understood today, although for purposes of administration and regulation, it comes within the field of the Department of Immigration and Colonization in the Dominion of Canada.

As an indication that juvenile immigration is not overdone, it may be stated that during the fifty-four years specified, the proportion of children accepted to applications received was small. The policy has always been to receive only those who give evidence of fitness to profit by the new environment. Last year the children admitted varied in age from twenty months to eighteen years. Babies and younger children are usually given out for adoption; and there are always homes waiting for them.


Canada's immigrant population has increased rapidly during the present century; in 1911, it was twenty-two per cent. of the whole. As might be expected from the general policy of

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