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came so accustomed to darkness, that at last the similarity of the vision shews us at least they preferred it to the Light of Life, when this much, that a vision necessary for the he appeared among them. The lesson con- Jewish Church may be equally needful for veyed by the vision was thus lost upon the the times of the New Testament. Not that Jews. They thought that they could do we need the language of the vision to prove without the olive-trees, or could do equally our point, which is just as well proved from well with olive-trees of their own planting ; the unprophetic parts of the New Testament. and most calamitous was the result. But is In the first place, the New Testament connot the vision equally instructive to us, or tains no proof that the Holy Spirit was comindeed doubly so, as we see the evil conse- municated by unauthorised teachers. By the quences of disregarding it? There is now a laying on of the hands of the Apostles it was great desire to do good, to spread the know- communicated. There are two remarkable ledge of the truth, and to stop the torrent of instances in which God was pleased especially ungodliness and indifference that threatens to recognise and honour the ministry of his to overwhelm us : but let us not forget that own appointment, by calling in their mediathis spiritual work is not to be accomplished tion. One is that of Cornelius, who, though by might nor by power, but by the Spirit of a devout man, whose prayers and alms had the Lord of Hosts, and that this Spirit is not gone up as a memorial before God, yet was to be had except through the divinely appoint- not visited with the outpouring of the Holy ed channels. 'The heavenly oil flows only Spirit until the Apostle came and preached from the olive-trees of God's own planting to him the word of God. The other the case The monarchy and the priesthood are these of St. Paul, who, though miraculously stopped two olive-trees : it is vain, therefore, to look by the Lord himself, received not the gift for the communication of divine grace from of the Spirit until a divinely commissioned other sources ; and yet the so-called Chris- messenger laid his hands upon him. St. tian world appears to have forgotten this first Paul also teaches us plainly, that the edificaprinciple. The monarchy and the state are tion of the Church of Christ is to be expected looked upon as mere worldly ordinances, and only through the ministration of those teachtherefore mere worldly men, no matter what ers whom God has given. “But unto every their creed, or whether they have none, are one of us is given grace according to the mealooked upon as fit and proper persons to hold sure of the gift of Christ; wherefore he saith, the subordinate office of legislation ; and men When he ascended up on high, he led caphope, whilst they are trying to make the state tivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.... a kingdom of Satan, that they will make the And he gave some apostles ; and some proworld the kingdom of God. In like manner, phets; and some evangelists; and some pasthey endeavour to set aside the office of the tors and teachers; for the perfecting of the Christian priesthood, and think to spread saints, for the work of the ministry, for the spiritual religion by men whose divine com- edifying of the body of Christ: till we all mission is just as genuine as that of the Pha- come in the unity of the faith, and of the risces. In fact, Pharisaism is revived, and knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect once more in full operation. If it become man, unto the measure of the stature of the general, the present lay system will lead to fulness of Christ: that we be henceforth no the same results as those brought about by more children, tossed to and fro, and carried its Pharisaic architype, the candlestick will about with every wind of doctrine, by the be separated from the olive-branch, and the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, wherelight of its lamps soon extinguished.

by they lie in wait to deceive.” (Eph. iv. Some may perhaps think that the vision of 7–13.) Now, if God gives teachers, there Zechariah, though very good for the Jews, must be some way of finding out who they does not apply to our times and to the Chris- are, and they must have some credentials to tian Church. "No doubt it is very convenient establish the truth of their claims. The Phafor some to deny or get rid of the authority risees of old, and their successors, the rabof the Old Testament ; but such evasion will binical Jews, make religious knowledge this not serve them here. The very same figure test. Though such professed sticklers for occurs in the New Testament. Christian the law of Moses, and even for the letter of Churches are also represented by the symbol that law, they totally disregard the claims of of golden candlesticks (Rev. i. 20); and in the priests and Levites, to whom God comthe eleventh chapter of that book a vision initted the office of teaching, unless they similar to Zechariah's is again. given, and of happen to possess that sort of religious knowthe two witnesses it is said, “ These are the ledge which they consider the truth. The two olive-trees, and the two candlesticks Jews have now, therefore, no clergyman : standing before the God of the earth.” Now, any man, no matter what his business or whatever be the interpretation of that passage, occupation, if he have only acquired the re

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quisite quantum of knowledge, may become from secular employment, and as affording peculiar a rabbi or teacher in Israel. In fact, rab

opportunities of communion with God, as a day when a

favourite preacher will be heard. I do not mean to binical Judaism presents the completest sys

assert, that it is not of the last importance that men tem of unauthorised lay-teaching now to be should hear the truth of the Gospel plainly set before found. But is it attended with God's bless- them; unquestionably it is : but it is certainly a point ing? The lay-teaching of the Pharisees led of secondary importance from whom the truth is heard. the Jews to reject the Lord Jesus Christ, and

The very humblest productions of an earnest labourer

in the vineyard, not blessed with extraordinary powers, the lay-teaching of the Rabbis confirms their

are often the means of doing far more good than the posterity in error. The lay-teaching of the most highly wrought compositions of men of the Pharisees destroyed the Church and Temple, highest talent. We must beware, lest we deceive our

Let and scattered Israel through the world.

selves on this point, and confound a restless anxiety If

to " hear some new thing," with the sober and serious

desire of being made wise unto salvation. the knowledge salpation amongst the people of this land, let us your fourth Number, I beg to transmit for insertion beware of attempting it on Pharisaic prin- in a work to which you have already adverted, Me

in your pages a letter on this subject, contained ciples ; let us not think that religious know- moirs of the Rev. G. T. Bedell. This eminent servant ledge, even though accompanied with an of God seems to have deeply deplored the spirit reearnest desire to do good, is a sufficient qua

ferred to, and to have traced to it many most lamentlification for a teacher.

able results. Paul may plant, and

I am your constant reader, Apollos water ; but God alone can give the in

OXONIENSIS. crease. But God will not bless those means which men invent for themselves. He will not

Dearly beloved Brethren,-It is probable that most join with men in offering disrespect to his own

of you are aware that it will not be in my power to institutions. Ten thousand or a hundred thou

attend to the usual evening services of our Church

until the weather shall become more settled. Having sand unauthorised lay-teachers, though ever

suffered much this season from exposure to the nightso diligent and earnest, will not make the lamps of the golden candlestick burn brighter. winter, my physician, in whose judgment I place im

air, in consequence of the peculiar severity of the For this the heavenly oil is required, and that

plicit confidence, has thought it best that I should not can be had only from the two olive-branches

attempt my customary duties on Friday evenings, until wheh God hath planted. If we therefore I can do it with more probable safety to myself. To really desire to promote true religion, and to

this arrangement I submit, because I feel that my spread the kingdom of Christ, let us pray own most earnest desires are not to be put into comthat the olive-branches may flourish, that petition with the medical advice formed on mature God may supply them with sap. Let us do deliberation. God be praised! I feel that my health what in us lies to promote the spiritual wel- is very materially improved from what it was three fare of the State and the Church. Let us use weeks ago; and I rejoice in the prospect of not being that portion of power which God hath com- prevented from discharging my duties on the Lord's mitted to us, to select men full of faith and day. the Holy Ghost for all offices which are When I found that I should be compelled to relinelective. Let us contribute to the building quish the idea of lecturing, for the space of at least and endowment of churches. Let us uphold five or six weeks, my mind became painfully exer

propagate the true Bible principles of cised as to what was the course of my duty in relation State and Church, and let us every where to the Friday evening lecture. I regret to be comdiscountenance the lay-system of the Pha- pelled to say, that I felt as if it might be my duty to

A. M. close the lectures, because I did fear the attendance

might be so diminished as to be observed by those who

would kindly assist me in the period of my absence. REV. G. T. BEDELL.

On mature reflection, however, I came to the concluTo the Editors of the Church of England Magazine.

sion, that, let those who were accustomed to attend Your fourth Number contained an essay “On the take what course they would, it was my obvious duty be received;" a subject which well deserves the serious temper with which the ministry of the Gospel should

not to close up the opportunity of religious instrucronisideration of not a few, who, led away, it is to be

tion. The intention of this pastoral letter is to express scared, by religious excitement, rather than actuated my opinion on a subject, that has never ceased to

3 sincere desire for spiritual improvement, are too give uneasiness to my mind, viz. the unchristian distions of those who, however sincerely devoted to their

or at least to disregard, the ministra- position manifested by many, to forsake the instruction Master's work, and faithful in their inculcation of

of the Lord's house whenever the preacher may not Seripture truth, may be deficient in oratorical powers.

be one who, in all respects, may gratify their tastes. The Christian minister is, indeed, often pained to This is an unwholesome state of feeling, which I have

long known to exist among ourselves to a considerable than for real advancement in Christian knowledge,

extent, and which cannot be too strongly reprobated, among many members of his flock; and he will feel it an imperative duty to point out the danger likely

as inconsistent with a right state of feeling towards to result from it. The Sabbath is too often antici- the worship and the word of God. Where the mipated with pleasure, not so much as a day of holy rest nister who preaches is known, and believed to preach

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ape to despise,


the truth as it is in Jesus, there is no excuse which very many of you neglected the things which concern can justify a feeling of dislike to his ministrations. your everlasting peace; too long have you misused It is a direct and positive proof of the want of a sound the mercies of God; too long have you trampled under spiritual state. Under no circumstances, unless the foot the love of a Saviour. I pray you, cease from character of the minister be such as may not be ap- these things, and return unto the Lord. In this your proved, or unless he is not believed to deliver the day of merciful visitation, he stands ready to receive message of the Gospel in simplicity and godly sin- you, and pardon your sins, and forgive you freely. cerity, is it justifiable to feel a disrelish to his minis- May the Lord have you in his holy keeping; may he trations. And though it is natural, and cannot be lift up the light of his countenance upon you, and avoided, to be more gratified with one than with give you peace here, and happiness hereafter, is the another, yet, whenever providential circumstances prayer, through Jesus Christ, of place a minister before the people, reverence for the

Your affectionate friend and pastor. word of God ought to ensure him a respectful attention. I have felt these things most painfully, because I

Biography. have seen and known many who will not attend either on Sundays, or at the lectures, unless they are first assured who is to be the preacher. This is peculiarly

[Conclusion.) distressing to myself, because when any of my brethren The Articles being finished, Cranmer's attention was in the ministry assist me, it is purely because they employed upon the design of establishing a code of desire to render me the aid which my health requires; canon law, which was afterwards published, under the and what ought to give me more pain than the reflec- title of Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum, a book, tion, that my own people are not willing to appreciate which, though it has never possessed public authority, the services done from a spirit of kindness to their has often been appealed to as a record of very great inown minister ? I am happy to say, that, both in rela- portance. It has frequently been quoted in parliament tion to the services on Sundays, and in relation to and the law-courts, to illustrate points of ecclesiastical these lectures, there has been a manifest improve- jurisprudence; and has been often brought forward ment, and apparently a much better state of feeling by our divines, as a comment on the Articles of Rethan formerly existed. And I do not write these ligion. There is a, manuscript copy of this code, things so much to complain of what at present exists, which belonged to Cranmer, in the British Museum. as I do to caution you on a subject which, I fear, is The archbishop, in the autumn of 1552, received a not so much thought of as it should be. Especially commission from the council to examine a sect, newly by those accustomed to attend the lectures, and still sprung up in the county of Kent, holding some more particularly by those who are the professing blasphemous and absurd tenets: he was also directed members of this Church, I expect a course of conduct to find out who they were that had embezzled the conformable to the Gospel. Let them be in their plate and goods belonging to churches and chantries places, just as if I were to be there ; let them give which had been given to the king, and which they had heed to the message, just as if I had been so highly converted to their own use. In this latter commis. privileged as to deliver it. It is in this way alone sion, however, he avoided acting, because he felt sure that a blessing can be expected. And I hardly need that whatever he might possibly recover would not to say, that it is in this way alone that my feelings pass into the hands of the king, but into those of the can be gratified. Let me but see that the services of rapacious Duke of Northumberland and his friends. my dear brethren, who kindly assist me, are duly ap- He accordingly wrote to Cecil, with whom he was preciated, and I shall then take pleasure in addressing very intimate, excusing himself on the ground of the you, when, in the mercy of God, I may again be per- absence of those who were to have worked with him mitted to resume the lectures myself; but it will in the commission. The health of Edward was now be with pain that I shall come back, if I find that declining; and Northumberland, anxious to place the the attendance in the meantime has been much di- crown on the head of his son's wite, Lady Jane Grey, minished.

represented to the king, with wicked dissimulation, It is my anxious desire for your spiritual welfare, the illegitimacy of Mary and Elizabeth, and the brethren, which has led me to touch, even lightly as I | danger in which the Church would be, if his successor have, on this subject. But I do wish my beloved

should not maintain the established religion. “Of a people, under all circumstances, to love and lionour religious and good prince,” he insinuatingly remarked, the Gospel for the Gospel's sake, and to feel that they "it was the duty not to regard the regular lineage, are highly distinguished by God in being permitted when the glory of God, and the good of his subjects, to hear the Gospel in its purity; and let me beseech might be endangered; nor could he be able, if he you all to seek to profit by that preaching, and ear- acted otherwise, to answer it before God." He obnestly to take heed to the things which you hear, lest tained the consent of the dying sovereign. Cranmer at any time you should let them slip. Whether it is argued repeatedly with the young king against this I, your minister set over you in the Lord, or whether illegal proceeding; and if he had been permitted to it is any one of my brethren, whose good will to me converse with him alone, he might have prevailed; has induced them to consent to this duty, who ad- but Northumberland took care to prevent this ; and dresses you, oh, let the Gospel be mixed with faith, Cranmer, at last, assented; but so reluctantly, that so that, instead of being a savour of death unto death, his enemies admit he was compelled to it: and never, it may be a savour of life unto life. Too long have during all the days of reproach and suffering through

abich he-afterwards passed, was his share in this This was intended as a disrespect, but proved a great transaction an ingredient in his cup of rebuke. consolation, a circumstance of which Latimer remind

A fut Edward's death, the sceptre remained in the ed the queen's commissioners at Oxford : " Mr. Cranhands of Lady Jane Grey for eleven days : at the end mer,” said he, “archbishop of Canterbury; Mr. Ridof sluch time, Mary commenced her reign; and with ley, bishop of London ; that holy man, Mr. Bradford ; that event began the troubles of Cranmer. It was and I, old Hugh Latimer, were imprisoned in the neparted that he had offered to chant the mass and Tower of London for Christ's Gospel preaching; and main at the funeral of King Edward ; and that he for because we would not go a-massing, every one in had already restored mass in his cathedral at Canter- close prison from other, the same tower being so full tary. Mass was restored there, it is true, but not by of other prisoners, we four were thrust into one chamCranmer: it was the vice-dean, Dr. Thornden, who ber, as men not to be accounted of. But, God be bad done this, but without the archbishop's consent or thanked, to our great joy and comfort, there did we knowledge. “ But the aforesaid slanderous report together read over the New Testament, with great de

says Strype) so troubled the archbishop, that, to stay liberation and painful study; and, I assure you, as I ! it, he wrote a letter to a friend of his, that he never will answer before the tribunal of God's majesty, we 1 made any promise of saying mass, nor that he did set could find in the Testament of Christ's body and blood

p the mass in Canterbury; but that it was done by a none other presence but a spiritual presence, nor that

false, flattering, lying monk, Dr. Thornden (such a the mass was any sacrifice for sin. But, in that ! character, in his just anger, he gave him), who was heavenly book it appeared, that the sacrifice which

sairagan of Dover, and vice-dean of that church, in Christ Jesus our Redeemer did upon the cross, was the absence of Dr. Wotton, who was then abroad in perfect, holy, and good; that God the heavenly Father embassy. This Thornden (continues Strype) was a did require none other, nor that ever again to be man having neither wit, learning, nor honesty. And done." jet his wit is very ready : for he preacheth as well ex- In the year 1553, Mary, who had given out that tempore as at a year's warning: so learnedly, that no "she meant graciously not to compel or strain other man can tell what he chiefly intendeth, or goeth about men's consciences, otherwise than God should, as she o prove: so aptly, that a gross of points is not suffi- trusted, put in their hearts a persuasion of the truth ceat to tie his sermon together: not unlike to Jodocus, through the opening of his word unto them,” published i vonk, of whom Erasmus maketh mention in his a proclamation, in which, after artfully repeating the Calbaquies, who, if he were not garnished with these above concession, she adds, "until such time, as further akorisus titles, monk, doctor, vice-dean, and suffragan, order, by common consent, may be taken therein.” siete torthy to walk openly in the streets with a bell Resolving, therefore, at the instigation of Gardiner and cock's-comb."

(who was now chancellor of Cambridge), to silence the Cramer drew up a declaration of his innocence of reformed clergy, she summoned several distinguished this céarge of having restored mass. It is a curious bishops and clergy to appear before the, council. dicament

, and may be found in Strype's History. Hooper, afterwards the martyr, was immediately comWhile this manifesto was in circulation, Cranmer was mitted to the Fleet prison; and Myles Coverdale, salinoned to appear before the queen's commissioners, bishop of Exeter, (the celebrated publisher of the and to bring with him an inventory of his goods, which English Bible three centuries ago,) was deprived of ke did at the beginning of August, 1553, receiving a

A convocation afterwards met at St. Paul's command not to depart from his palace, and to be forth by the queen's order, to settle the doctrine of the real coming when called.

He settled his affairs, paid his presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's supdebts, and prepared for the worst, exclaiming, says per. Dr. Weston, dean of Westminster, who presided, lez

, " that he was now his own man, and, with the and all the rest of the assembly, except five or six, belp of God, was ready to meet any adversity.” His maintained the bodily presence of Christ in that sacraresolution had no sooner been formed, than he was a ment; but finding that the three bishops were an second time brought before the lords of the council, overmatch for them in argument, they procured their who sent him to the Tower, partly for setting his hand removal from the prison to Oxford, when it was into the instrument of Lady Jane Grey's succession, and tended they should enter the lists with a select body of party for having publicly offered to justify openly the popish disputants

. This meeting at Oxford did not religious proceedings of the late king. On the thir- take place until April in the following year. teenth of November he was adjudged guilty of high The lieutenant of the Tower was directed “to detreason ; he was, however, pardoned for having been liver to Sir John Williams the bodies of the late archa traitor, but left to suffer for the crime of heresy. The bishop of Canterbury, Dr. Ridley, and Mr. Latimer, achbishop, who was permitted to see Lady Jane Grey to be by him conveyed to Oxford.” On the fourteenth in the prison, strengthened her resistance to the at- of April they were led from the common prison in Oxtempts made by Mary to convert her to the Romish ford, called Bocardo, to meet their opponents in St. faith : but in this she was firm. “Should I (said she), Mary's church. Weston opened the commission in a who am young and in the flower of my years, forsake plausible speech, in which he dwelt on the happiness my faith for love of life? Nay, God forbid.” The of religious unity; and ended his harangue by holding archbishop had for his fellow-prisoners Ridley, Brad- out to Cranmer a paper, saying, "We hope you will ford, and Latimer. The prison was soon crowded with have no objection to subscribe these articles." He read other victims ; and the four arrested Protestants, to the statement, which contained the doctrine of the each of whom at the first a separate apartment was

real presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's allotted were now placed together in a single room.

supper, shook his head, and said he feared that that

his see.


paper would not afford just grounds for the desired he,“ be dusky, your candlestick is like to be remored, unity. He was then' remanded to prison ; and two days and have a great fall; so low that it be quite out of after, Cranmer and the others were brought before the God's favour, and past all hope of recovery: for in commissioners, and asked whether they would sub- hell is no redemption. The danger whereof being so scribe the articles: they refused to do so, and were great, very pity causeth me to say, Remember from condemned as heretics. From this sentence the arch- whence thou hast fallen! I add also, and whither you bishop appealed to the just judgment of the Almighty. fall.” He then exhorted him to renounce his errors, A year elapsed, before the sentence of condemnation, assuring him that he had been spared for his treason, that had been pronounced against Cranmer and his in hope of his amendment; and that if he were confriends, was put in force. They had acted without the verted, it were ten to one, that though he had been pope's authority in the late proceeding, and must, metropolitan of England, he should be as well still, therefore, obtain a new commission from Rome. In and rather better. this afflicting interval, whilst they were denied even Cranmer then made his defence, at great length, the very necessaries of life, “they had comforts (says uttering no invective against any one, but boldly and one of Cranmer's biographers) in their own hearts, clearly justifying his own opinions and conduct. He which as the world could not give, so neither could it was finally cited to appear at Rome, in person, within take away. He in whose shadow they had formerly eighty days—a mere form and mockery; for his enetrusted, had not deserted them in this time of need. mies made it impossible he should do so, by detaining They were, indeed, troubled on every side, but not him in prison. Not appearing, however, at Rome, he distressed ; perplexed, but not in despair ; persecuted, was declared contumacious ; and a commission was but not forsaken ; cast down, but not destroyed ;' and sent over to England to degrade him, and give him thus, though shut out from all mortal help, their lan- up to the secular power. guage breathed resignation and hope; and they were Thirlby,, bishop of Ely, and Bonner, were appointed enabled to give encouragement and comfort to their to perform this ceremony: the former had been his fellow-sufferers." Nor were the hours of solitude spent

old and familiar friend, and had received many and in idleness. Latimer deliberately read the New Tes- great kindnesses from his hands : his tears and emotament seven times through, considering and proving tions shewed that, at least, he remembered this. To the principles of his faith. Ridley employed himself make the mockery more complete, they arrayed him in composition with increased earnestness; and Cran- in an archbishop's robes, not made of the usual mamer laboured with indefatigable diligence in his vindi- terials, but of rags and canvass; and thus they exhication of his writings upon the sacrament, against bited him, with a mock mitre and pall, and a crosier Gardiner-a work that he was extremely anxious to in his hand, in St. Mary's church; the malignant finish before his death, and of which he was able to Bonner exclaiming, “ This is the man that has conclude a very elegant Latin translation. Such is the despised the pope, and is now to be judged by him! triumph of religion. In the day of prosperity the sin- This is the man that hath pulled down so many ner appears to have equal, if not in many instances churches, and now is come to be judged in a church ! superior, advantages over the believer. He enjoys This is the man that condemned the blessed sacrawhatever his soul lusteth after; he owns no restriction ment, and now is come to be condemned before that in his pleasures, but seizes every gratification that sacrament!" So grossly abusive was he, that even blooms in his path, undisturbed by the fear of God, or Thirlby pulled him often by the sleeve to make him of a future day of retribution. But in the night of desist. They now hastened to disrobe him : he made adversity the case becomes very different, “ Light no opposition till they came to take the crosier out of springeth up in the darkness to the righteous ;" and, his hand : he held it fast : “ the crosier was the last conscious that he is in the hand of Him who does not insignia of an office he had long and honourably held, behold the fall of the sparrow unnoticed, and who has and he could not resign it without a pang.” Instead promised to be with him to the end of the world, he of yielding it, he delivered a paper, containing an rises above all earthly fears ; and every fresh act of appeal to a general council. His hair was then cut human malice serves only to make him desire more close round, and the bishops scraped the tops of his earnestly the sanctuary that is provided for him in the fingers where he had been anointed: he was then bosom of his Saviour and his God. The sinner, on the dressed in a yeoman's thread-bare gown and a townscontrary, driven from his strongholds of iniquity, man's cap, and sent back to prison. reads nothing but retributive justice in his afflictions ; It is most painful, as we draw near to the close of he beholds with dismay the destruction of the gourd this memoir, to feel that we have to record an event in which he had rejoiced; and, seeing himself deserted in which Cranmer seriously fell. But truth compels by the idols in which he trusted, his terrified imagina- us to confess that he did fall

. “Some, perhaps from tion presents him with no retreat to fly to for safety, sincere attachment to him, and others in the hope of and nothing to expect but a fiery looking-for of indig- prevailing with a mind naturally timid,” tried to make nation from his insulted Maker.

him recant his principles; and there is little doubt The new commission from Rome being received,

that he signed, at all events, an equivocal recantation. Brookes, bishop of Gloucester, opened the proceedings Bonner prepared five papers, in which Cranmer was with a speech, in which he reminded the archbishop made to vilify himself as a mischief-maker and blasof the low origin from which he had risen, and the phemer. “That he erred,” says a biographer

, “ is high degree whence he had fallen, lower and lower, only too certain : they who are most eminent in virtue, and now to the lowest degree of all, to the end of

and whom experience has taught how weak the heart honour and life. "If the light of your candle,” said of the best man in reality is, will pity his degradation,

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