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In the actual test of the school-room during the past four years, it has been found that the vitalizing elements of the Language Lessons are, first, the analytic or inductive method of unfolding the theory of language; and, secondly, the affluence of constructive

Accordingly, in the preparation of the present book these approved features have been retained; but it has been the author's aim to remould the book on a more comprehensive plan, with a more systematic arrangement and a more orderly development of the subject. Wherever the book was thought to be weak as, for instance, according to many, on the side of too great a neglect of grammatical forms—it has been “toned up;" and, throughout, the effort has been made to produce a thorough, working text-book.

To the thousands of teachers who gave the old Language Lessons a reception exceptional in the history of text-books, the author desires to commend the New Language Lessons as being, in his belief, more worthy of their acceptance, and, in his hope, a nearer approach to their ideal.

WILLIAM SWINTON. Dec., 1877.

CONTENTS.

GEOTION

PAGB

1

21

60

I. CLASSES OF WORDS..
II. THE SENTENCE AND ITS ELEMENTS....
III. SUBDIVISION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH..
IV. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH..
V. SYNTAX.......
VI. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS.

APPENDIX.

85

116

144

181

INDE X.

Analysis, definition of, 144; of the sim-
Abstract noun, definition of, 62.

A, article, 6.

ple sentence, 148–150; of complex
Active voice, 103.

sentences, 154-157; of the compound
Adjective, definition of, 6; use of, as sentence, 162–164.

modifier, 29; qualifying, 71; limit- Antecedent, definition of, 68.
ing, 72; proper, 71; pronominal, 73; | Apposition, explanation of, 36; syntax
irregular, comparison of, 97; com-

of, 127.
parison of, 96; syntax of, '123; pred Article, definite, 72; indefinite, 72; use
icate, syntax of, 125.

of, 72, 73; syntax of, 124.
Adjunct, definition of, 28, 144.

Auxiliary verb, 103.
Adverb, definition of, 9; use of, as mod-

ifier, 42; simple, 78; conjunctive, 78; Bills, forms of, 176.
comparison of, 97; syntax of, 131;
misuse of, 125.

Capitals, rules for use of, 21, 61, 71.
An, article, 6.

Case, definition of, 89; nominative, 89;

80.

possessive, 89; objective, 89; pos- | Modification, definition of, 86.
sessive, syntax of, 126.

Modifier, definition of, 28, 14.
Clause, definition of, 147.

Mood, definition of, 101; indicative,
Common noun, definition of, 61.

101; potential, 101 ; subjunctive, 101;
Comparative degree, definition of, 96; imperative, 101.

rule for use of, 124.
Comparison, definition of, 96; rules No, 78.

for the adjective and adverb, 96, 97; Nominative case, 89.
of irregular adjectives, 97.

Nominative independent, syntax of,
Complement, syntax of, 130.

38.
Complex sentence, 147; analysis, 154- Note, promissory, 178, 179.

157; synthesis of the, 158_162. Nouns, definition of, 2; in apposition,
Composition, definition of, 1.

36; common, definition of, 61; prop-
Compound sentence, 147; analysis of er, definition of, 61; abstract, detini-

the, 162–164; synthesis of the, 16+ tion of, 62; modification of, 87; gen-
167.

der of, 90; declension of, 90; person
Conjugation, definition of, 103; regu- of, 90, 91.
lar, 103; irregular, 103.

Number, definition of, 87; definition
Conjunction, definition of, 14; subor- of, in verb, 99; irregularities of, in
dinate, definition of, 80; co-ordinate,

nouns, 182.
80 ; syntax of, 137.
Construction, rule of, 117, 118.

Object, definition of, 50; of a verb, rule
Contraction of sentence, 169, 170. for, 128; indirect, 129.
Co-ordinate conjunction, definition of, Objective case, definition of, 89; gov-

crnment of by a preposition, 136;

syntax of, 128.
Declension, definition of, 89.
Degrees of comparison, 96.

Parsing, definition of, 116; model for,
object, 49, 50; adjective, definition | Subjunctive mood, 10; syntax of, 140.
of, 53; nominative, definition of, 53; Subordinate conjunction, definition of,
adjective, syntax of, 125.

116, 117.
Expansion of sentences, 167, 168. Participle, definition of, 102; mode of

forming present, 102; mode of past,
Forms of the verb, 184; progressive, 102; syntax of, 123, 129.
184; emphatic, 184, 185.

Parts, principal, of a verb, 103.

Parts of speech classified, 2–20; sub-
Gender, explanation of, 90.

division of the, 60–84; modification
Gerund, explanation of, 102.

of the, 85–115.
Grammar, definition of, 1.

Passive voice, definition of, 103; mode

of forming, 103.
Imperative mood, 101.

Person, definition of, 66, note; explana-
Indicative mood, 101.

tion of, 90, 91; definition of, in verbs,
Infinitive mood, definition of, 101; 99.
syntax of, 129, 139.

Personal pronoun, definition of, 66;
Interjection, definition of, 16; syntax declension of, 94.
of, 138.

Phrase, definition of, 40, 146; adjec-
Interrogative pronoun, definition of, tive, definition of, 40; adverbial,
68; declension of, 95.

definition of, 44; arrangement of,
Intransitive verb, definition of, 76. 48.
Irregular verb, definition of, 103; list Plural of nouns, rules for, 87, 88; double
of, 187–192.

forms of, 181; in foreign nouns, 182;

in compound nouns, 183.
Language, definition of, 1.

Possessive case, use of as modifier, 33;
Language lessons, definition of, 1. definition of, 89; rule for forming
Letter - writing, directions for, 171- the, 89; syntax of, 126.
175.

Potential mood, 101.
Limiting adjective, 72.

Predicate, simple, 28, 144; complete,
Love, to, conjugation of, 101-107. 28, 145; modification of, 42-48; with
Verb, definition of, 4; transitive, de-
Receipts, forms of, 177, 178.

80.
Preposition, definition of, 12; list of, Subscription, models of, 171–175.
13; syntax of, 136.

Superlative degree, definition of, 96;
Principal parts of a verb, 103.

rule for use of, 124.
Pronoun, definition of, 11; personal, Superscriptions, models of, 171–175.

definition of, 66; relative, definition Syntax, definition of, 116; false, exer-
of, 68; interrogative, definition of, cises in, 141, 142.
68; modifications of, 94, 95; person- Synthesis, definition of, 144; of the
al, declension of, 94; relative and simple sentence, 151 - 154; of the
interrogative, declension of, 95; syn- complex sentence, 158–162; of the
tax of, 133.

compound sentence, 164–169.
Proper noun, definition of, 61.
Proposition, definition of, 145.

Tense, definition of, 100.
Punctuation, rules for, 24, 47, 50, 151, The, article, 6.
152, 158, 159, 164, 165.

To love, conjugation of, 104-107.

Transitive verb, definition of, 76.
Qualifying adjective, 71.

finition of, 76; intransitive, defini-
Regular verb, detinition of, 103; con- tion of, 76; neuter, 76; interchange-
jugation of, 104-107.

ability of transitive and intransitive,
Relative pronoun, definition of, 68; 76; modification of the, 99–110; con-
declension of, 95.

jugation of, 103; principal parts of,
Root of a verb, 102.

103; auxiliary, 103; syntax of, 120;
Rules for plural, 87, 88.

irregular, conjugation of, 183; 'to be,

conjugation of, 185; list of irregular,
Sentence, definition of, 21, 144; kinds 187-192.

of, 22; its elements, 21-59; simple, Verbals, definition of, 101.
147; complex, 147; compound, 147.' | Voice, definition of, 102; active, 103;
Simple sentence, 147; analysis of the, passive, 103.

148–150; synthesis of, 151-154.
Subject, definition of, 144;• simple, 28, Words, classes of, 2-20.

144; complete, 28, 144; modifiers of,
29-41; syntax of, 118.

Yes, 78.

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