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moths, bees, and like insects, which ap
A MOTOR-DRIVEN PLANER pear as if they had been crushed fast to the panes of glass and the iron work. This THIS planer was built by the G. A. is hardly to be wondered at as the air
Gray Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. pressure was fully 210 kg. per square
It is of the widened pattern, givmeter."
ing a total distance between upDr. Reichel indulges in some rather in rights of 84 inches; otherwise it teresting cost comparisons between steam is similar to the standard 60 x 60-inch and electricity from the German stand planer, as built by this company. These point. A steam train consisting of a lo planers are intended for use where the comotive and five cars weighs 330,000
work is of unusual width in proportion to kg., contains 168 seats, and uses 1,400 hp. its height, but is not so excessively heavy at full speed; the electric train consisting as to warrant a larger size. It will be of one motor car and four trailers weighs noticed that the widening is effected at 260,000 kg., has 180 seats, and uses 1,000 one side, the advantage being that the hp. The initial cost of both trains is prac ordinarily handy relation of the parts on tically the same, being about 400,000 the front side of the planer is not dismarks ($100,000). The operating cost turbed. The bed is 12 feet long, and is for simply moving the train is 51 pfen moved by a spiral-geared driving system, nigs (127/2 cents) for 100 seat-km., familiarly known as “Sellers Motion.” operating with steam, and 49/2 pfennigs This consists of a spiral pinion which (1172 cents) using electricity. Applying engages directly with the rack under the à calculation to the 150-km. (or 94-mile) table. This pinion is mounted on a shaft line between Berlin and Leipzig, we get which crosses the bed diagonally and is the following conclusions: On this line driven by a pair of bevel-gears from the an 18-hour service is furnished, and 36 pulley shaft. The other characteristics trains a day run every hour in both direc of the machine are the duplex-shifter tions, so that if 40 per cent of the seats motion and the universal feed. The are occupied (the trailers are put on duplex shifter embodies the provision of when necessary), about 2,500 passengers shifting levers and dogs on both sides are accommodated. Figuring the fare of the machine. This gives the operator per kilometer as 6 pfennigs( 172 cents), perfect control from either side, so that which is the present second-class fare, he need not lean over the table or walk this would give a daily income of 22,500 around the planer in order to stop or marks ($5,650). The operating ex
The universal-feed mechanpenses, considering transportation only, ism makes it possible to feed at are about 5,000 marks daily ($1,250). either end of the stroke, to stop and start Adding to this the other operating ex all feeds simultaneously, and to change penses, particularly for employees, main from coarse to fine feed or vice versa, tenance of way, stations, management, without stopping the planer. The crossetc., 7,600 marks daily, would make rail is raised and lowered by power, and the daily operating expense 12,600 marks. is of extra length so that either of the This leaves 9,900 marks for interest on two heads will plane the full width of the the original capital, which in one year machine. would be 3,600,000 marks, and this would The V's of the bed and table are oiled give 4 per cent interest on 90,000,000 automatically by double-cone brass rolmarks. The cost per kilometer would, lers supported in pockets in the V's of in this case, be about 600,000 marks. the bed. The motor is a Crocker-Wheeler Electrical World and Engineer.
20-horse-power semi-enclosed machine,
running at about 775 revolutions per The installation of the Marconi station minute at 230 volts. on the steamer “Empress Queen” owned It is mounted on a special bracket over by the Isle of Man Company, which was one of the uprights, and drives a counterestablished to test the usefulness of the shaft mounted in a corresponding locasystem on coast-going steamers, has tion over the other upright. From the proved such a success that it has been countershaft the open and crossed belts decided thus to equip all their steamers. for the two directions of the table travel
and for the raising and lowering of the franchise which requires the system of cross-rail are taken, the first vertically electric towing to be in operation between down to the side of the bed, and the Cincinnati and Toledo on the Ohio State second horizontally back to the left-hand canal within six and one-half years of upright. The pulleys which run continu the date of the grant. The speed is ously in the same direction, especially restricted to 4 miles an hour, and the the one on the motor, are made with company is required to tow boats for heavy rims to give a fly-wheel effect, and other owners at a reasonable charge. by their momentum assist in reversing The distance from Cincinnati to Toledo the table at the end of its stroke.
is about 244 miles; and of this route the portion between Cincinnati, Hamilton,
and Middletown, about 42 miles, is now ELECTRIC TRACTION ON CANALS in operation. The company owns seven
Westinghouse-Baldwin locomotives and HE field which electric traction on a fleet of twenty boats, which it is incanals opens to a well-managed creasing as fast as possible, for its facilicompany is well illustrated by ties are altogether too small for the busi
the brief experience of the ness offered. One reason for this is only commercially operated system of doubtless to be found in the organization electrical traction
canals in this of a complete freight-handling service country, that of the Miami & Erie Canal with freight houses and other convenTransportation Company. The compar iences for shippers. carries on a business under a thirty-year This traction system is particularly
interesting because it is carried on along The nature of the service is excepa canal which was generally believed to tional, and enables the engineers to adopt have outgrown its usefulness.
an unusual system of power distribution. A standard-gage track with 70-pound The transmission is for long distances in rails has been laid along the towpath for a single line, and the load consists of a the locomotives. There are 134 bridges small number of heavy train units which over the canal and track on the Cincin may become bunched by the traffic condinati-Dayton division, many of which tions. The power demand of each unit could not be raised. At such places a is steady and continuous; and all condiconcrete wall was built between the
tions are favorable to the use of altercanal and the track, and the latter de nating-current motors with high trolley pressed to allow the locomotive to pass voltage, and static transformers, on the below the structure. A special switching locomotives to keep the motor pressure locomotive has been built for use in Cin low.
Stops are infrequent, and it is cinnati, where the headroom is so small necessary to start a tow of boats slowly, that the standard locomotives used on which makes it possible to use induction
the canal cannot be employed satisfac motors to advantage. The locomotives torily, even with depressed tracks. The have accordingly been equipped with center line of the track averages about three-phase induction motors, supplied 6 feet from the water's edge and is with current through two overhead about 2 feet above the water level, this trolley wires and the track system. elevation being necessary because a tow As the canal passes through eighteen of boats making from 3 to 4 miles an cities, with a total population of over hour will raise the water more than 12 650,000 persons, and a number of central inches for several hundred feet ahead. stations, the Transportation Company This happens in a channel nominally 4 does not need to build a power station feet deep, 26 feet wide at the bottom, and for its own use.
For the current for the 40 feet wide at the water surface. The first section now in operation, a contract maximum curvature of the track outside has been made with the Cincinnati Gas of the cities is 25 degrees, and the maxi & Electric Company. Three-phase 60mum grade is 2 per cent. Ten boats is cycle current at 4,200 volts is transmitted the largest number that can be handled, over the Transportation Company's line owing to the curves and locks, and five to a station 5 miles distant. This has is about the maximum number now em three 150-kilowatt 60-cycle oil-cooled ployed.
transformers, one of which is a reserve.
the Cincinnati-Dayton division. Aluminum cables are employed for this transmission. Each station contains three 150-kilowatt 25-cycle oil-cooled transformers, which reduce the voltage to 1,170 volts. The trolley circuit consists of two No. 0000 copper wires. No auxiliary feeders are used on the 1,170-volt sections, but in the 390-volt section in Cincinnati an aluminum cable equivalent to No. 0000 copper is in multiple with each trolley wire for a distance of 6 miles.
vided on each side for the towropes.
The boats are 80"/2 feet long, 1372 feet wide, and 9 feet high, over all, and can carry about 65 tons on a 3-foot draft. In the present condition of the canal it is not considered advisable to load them to a deeper draft than 30 inches, at which they will carry about 50 tons. As the first application of alternating-current motors to traction purposes in this country, the work is of unusual interest. -American Electrician.
A new wireless station is to be established on Sable Island by the Canadian government, for which an appropriation of $25,000 has been provided.
by Prof. Word in Mexico down to the very minute particles which are found on the roof of St. Paul's, on the Arctic snows, and at the bottom of the sea. It is calculated that the total amount of matter thus absorbed by us is certainly not less than 500,000 tons a year, and that, therefore, the weight of the world is increasing by that amount every
Our earth is constantly picking up unconsidered trifles of star dust, which range all the way from the thirteen-feet