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and on the history of the North, in the matter of the public lands? Has he disproved a fact, refuted a proposition, weakened an argument, maintained by me? Has he come within beat of drum of any position of mine ? Oh, no, but he has “carried the war into the enemy's country!”. Car. ried the war into the enemy's country! Yes, sir, and what sort of a war has he made of it? Why, sir, he has stretched a drag.net over the whole surface of perished pamphlets, in. discreet sermons, frothy paragraphs, and fuming popular addresses; over whatever the pulpit, in its moments of alarm, the press in its heats, and parties in their extravagance, have severally thrown off, in times of general excitement and vio·lence. He has thus swept together a mass of such things, as but that they are now old and cold, the public health would have required him rather to leave in their state of dispersion. For a good long hour or two, we had the unbroken pleasure of lis. tening to the honorable member, while he recited, with his usual grace and spirit, and with evident high gusto, speeches, pamphlets, addresses, and all the et ceteras of the political press, such as warm heads produce in warm times, and such as it would be “discomfiture” indeed, for any one, whose taste did not delight in that sort of reading, to be obliged to peruse.
This is his war. This is to carry the war into the enemy's country. It is in an invasion of this sort, that he flatters himself with the expectation of gaining laurels, fit to adorn a senator's brow.
LXXIII.-THE CHARACTERS OF SOUTR CAROLINA AND MASSA.
Extract from the same Speech.
Mr. President,- In carrying his warfare, such as it was, into New-England, the honorable gentleman all along professes to be acting on the defensive. He elects to consider me as having assailed South Carolina, and insists that he comes forth only as her champion, and in her defence. Sir, I do not admit that I made any attack whatever on South Carolina. No. thing like it. The honorable member, in his first speech, expressed opinions, in regard to revenue, and some other topics, which I heard both with pain and with surprise. I told the gentleman I was aware that such sentiments were entertained out of the Government, but had not expected to find them advanced in it ; that I knew there were persons in the South who speak of our Union with indifference, or doubt, taking pains to magnify its evils, and to say nothing of its benefits; that the honorable member himself, I was sure, could never be one of these ; and I regretted the expression of such opinions as he had avowed, because I thought their obvious tendency was to encourage feelings of disrespect to the Union, and to weaken its connexion. This, sir, is the sum and substance of all I said on the subject.
And let me here observe, sir, that the eulogium pronounced on the character of the State of South Carolina, by the ho. norable gentleman, for her revolutionary and other merits, meets my hearty concurrence. I shall not acknowledge, that the honorable member goes before me in regard for what. ever of distinguished talent, or distinguished character, South Carolina has produced. I claim part of the honor, I partake in the pride of her great names.
I claim them for country. men, one and all. The Laurenses, the Rutledges, the Pinck. neys, the Sumpters, the Marions-Americans all-whose fame is no more to be hemmed in by State lines, than their talents and patriotism were capable of being circumscribed within the same narrow limits. In their day and generation, they served and honored the country, and the whole country ; and their renown is of the treasures of the whole country. Him, whose honored name the gentleman himself bearsdoes he esteem me less capable of gratitude for his patriotism, or sympathy for his sufferings, than if his eyes had first opened upon the light of Massachusetts, instead of South Ca. rolina? Sir, does he suppose it in his power to exhibit a Carolina name so bright, as to to produce envy in
bosom? No, Sir-increased gratification and delight, rather. Sir, I thank God, that if I am gifted with little of the spirit which is able to raise mortals to the skies; I have yet none, as I trust, of that other spirit, which would drag angels down. When I shall be found, sir, in my place here in the Senate, or else. where, to sneer at public merit, because it happens to spring ap beyond the little limits of my own state, or neighborhood;
when I refuse, for any such cause, or for any cause, the homage due to American talent, to elevated patriotism, to sincere devotion to liberty and the country; or if I see an uncommon endowment of heaven-if I see extraordinary capacity and virtue in any son of the South—and if, moved by local prejudice, or gangrened by State jealousy, I get up here to abate the tithe of a hair from his just character
and just fame, may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth!
Sir, let me recur to pleasing recollections—let me indulge in refreshing remembrance of the past, let me remind you, that in early times no States cherished greater harmony, both of principle and feeling, than Massachusetts and South Ca. rolina. Would to God that harmony might again return! Shoulder to shoulder they went through the revolutionhand in hand they stood round the administration of Washington, and felt his own great arm lean on them for support. Unkind feeling, if it exist, alienation and distrust, are the growth, unnatural to such 'soils, of false principles since
They are weeds, the seeds of which that same great arm never scattered. Mr. President, I shall enter on no encomium upon
Massa. chusetts—she needs none. There she is-behold her and judge for yourselves. There is her history—the world knows it by heart. The past, at least, is secure. There is Boston, and Concord, and Lexington, and Bunker Hill--and there they will remain for ever. The bones of her sons, falling in the great struggle for independence, now lie mingled with the soil of every State from New England to Georgia ; and there they will lie for ever. And, sir, where American liberty raised its first voice, and where its youth was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives, in the strength of its manhood, and full of its original spirit. If discord and disunion shall wound it—if party strife and blind ambition shall hawk and tear it—if folly and madness—if uneasiness, under salutary and necessary restraint, shall succeed to separate it from that Union, by which alone its existence is made sure, it will stand, in the end, by the side of that cradle in which its in. fancy was rocked; it will strech forth its arm with whatever of vigor it may still retain, over the friends who gather round it; and it will fall at last, if fall it must, amidst the proudest monu. ments of its own glory, and on the very spot of its origin.
LXXV.-TAE EFFECTS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENTS RESISTING
THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT.
Extract from the same Speech.
Mr President,—Let me now run the honorable gentleman's doctrine (the right on the part of the States to resist the General Government) a little into its practical applica. tion. Let us look at his probable modus operandi. "If a thing can be done, an ingenious man can tell how it is to be done. Now, I wish to be informed,' how this State interfe. rence is to be put in practice, without violence, bloodshed and rebellion. We will take the existing case of the tariff law. South Carolina is said to have made up her opinion upon it. If we do not repeal it, (as we probably shall not,) she will then apply to the case the remedy of her doctrine. She will, we must suppose, pass a law of her legislature, declaring the several acts of Congress, usually called the tariff laws, null and void, so far, as they respect South Carolina, or the citi. zens thereof. So far, all is a paper transaction, and easy enough. But the collector at Charleston is collecting the du. ties imposed by these tariff laws—he, therefore, must be stopped. The collector will seize the goods, if the tariff duties are not paid. The State authorities will undertake their res. cue; the marshal, with his posse, will come to the collector's aid, and here the contest begins. The militia of the State will be called out to sustain the nullifying act. They will march, sir, under a very gallant leader: for I believe the honorable member himself commands the militia of that part of the State. He will raise the NULLIFYING ACT on his stand. ard, and spread it out as his banner. It will have a preamble, bearing that the tariff laws are palpable, deliberate, and dan. gerous violations of the Constitution ! He will proceed, with this banner flying, to the custom house in Charleston ;
- All the while,
Arrived at the custom-house, he will tell the collector that he must collect no more duties under any of the tariff laws. This he will be somewhat puzzled to say, by the way, with a grave countenance, considering what hand South Carolina herself had in that of 1816. But, sir, the collector would, probably, not desist at his bidding-here would ensue a pause ; for they say, that a certain stillness precedes the tempest. Before this military array should fall on the custom-house, collector, clerks, and all, it is very probable some of those composing it, would request of their gallant commander in chief, to be informed a little upon the point of law; for they have, doubtless, a just respect for his opinions as a lawyer, as well as for his bravery as a soldier. They know he has read Blackstone and the constitution, as well as Turrene and Vau. ban. They would ask him, therefore, something concerning their rights in this matter. They would inquire, whether it was not somewhat dangerous to resist a law of the United States. What would be the nature of their offence, they would wish to learn, if they, by military force and array, resisted the execution in Carolina of a law of the United States, and it should turn out, after all, that the law was constitution. al ? He would answer, of course, treason.
No lawyer could give any other answer. John Fries, he would tell them, had learned that some years ago.
How then, they would ask, do you propose to defend us? We are not afraid of bullets, but treason has a way of taking people off, that we do not much relish. How do you propose to defend us ? “Look at my floating banner,” he would reply; "see there the nullifying law!" Is it your opinion, gallant commander, they would then say, that if we should be indicted for trea. son, that same floating banner of yours would make a good plea in bar? “ South Carolina is a sovereign State," he would reply.
That is true, but would the Judge admit our plea? 6. These tariff laws,” he would repeat
are unconsti. tutional--palpably, deliberately, dangerously.” That all may be so; but if the tribunals should not happen to be of that opinion, shall we swing for it? We are ready to die for our country, but it is rather an awkward business, this dying without touching the ground. After all, that is a sort of hemp. tax, worse than any part of the tariff.
Mr. President, the honorable gentleman would be in a di. lemma, like that of another great General. He would have a knot before him, which he could not untie. He must cut it with his sword. He must say to his followers, defend yourselves with your bayonets; and this is war-civil war.