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shall enjoy, at length, in the evening of her days, those bless. ings, which have descended so plentifully upon us, in a much earlier period of the world. Then also will Europe, partici. pating in her improvements and prosperity, receive an ample recompense for the tardy kindness, if kindness it can be called, of no longer hindering that continent from extricating herself out of the darkness, which, in other more fortunate regions, has been so much more speedily dispelled.

CVIII.-THE DEVASTATION OF THE CARNATICK, BY HYDER

ALI.*

Extract from Mr. Burke's Speech, on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts, de

livered in the House of Commons, February 28, 1785. Mr. Speaker,-AMONG the victims of the magnificent plans of universal plunder in India, you have all heard of the Indian chief called Hyder Ali. This man possessed the western, as the company, under the name of the Nabob of Arcot, does the eastern division of the South of Hindostan, or, as it is called, of the Carnatick. It was among the leading measures in the design of this cabal, to extirpate this Hyder Ali. A continued plot was carried on for his destruction. He found it impossible to obtain from the Nabob of Arcot any treaty, or even the ordinary titles of respect and courtesy.

When, at length, Hyder Ali found that he had to do with men, who either would sign no convention, or whom no treaty, and no signature could bind, and who were the determined enemies of human intercourse itself, he decreed to make the country, possessed by these incorrigible and predestinated criminals, a memorable example to mankind. He resolved, in the gloomy recesses of a mind, capacious of such things, to leave the whole Carnatick, an everlasting monument of vengeance; and to put perpetual desolation as a barrier between him and those against whom the faith, which holds the moral elements of the world together, was no protection, He became, at length, so confident of his force, so collected in his might, that he made no secret whatever of his dreadful resolution. Having terminated his disputes with every enemy, and every rival, who buried their mutual animosities in their common detestation against the creditors of the Nabob of Arcot, he drew from every quarter, whatever a savage ferocity could add to his new rudiments in the arts of destruction ; and compounding all the materials of fury, havoc, and deso. lation, into one black cloud, he hung for a while on the de. clivities of the mountains. Whilst the authors of all these evils were idly and stupidly gazing on this menacing meteor, which blackened all their horizon, it suddenly burst, and poured down the whole of its contents upon the plains of the Carnatick. Then ensued a scene of wo, the like of which no eye had seen, no heart conceived, and which no tongue can adequately tell. All the horrors of war, before known or heard of, were mercy to that new havoc. A storm of uni. versal fire blasted every field, consumed every house, destroy. ed every temple. The miserable inhabitants, flying from their flaming villages, in part were slaughtered : others, without regard to sex, to age, to the respect of rank, or sacredness of function; fathers torn from children, husbands from wives, enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry, and amidst the goading spears of drivers, and the trampling of pursuing horses, were swept into captivity, in an unknown and hostile land. Those, who were able to evade this tempest, fled to the walled cities. But, escaping from fire, sword, and exile, they fell into the jaws of famine.

* The Carnatick is that part of the South of India, which lies along the coast of Coromandel. It is about five hundred miles long, and from forty to one hundred broad; and is now under the control of the English East India Company. Hyder Ali was an independent Indian sovereign : his neighbor, the Nabob of Arcot, was also a native Indian prince, but dependent upon the English nation, or rather the English East India Company. This prince entered into some ambitious plans, for enlarging his territories; and at length became so much indebted to some of the East India Company's servants, that Parliament ordered an inquiry to be made into the whole affair. This gave rise to the several East India bills, which were afterwards introduced into ParHamont.

1

CIX.-OTHELLO'S ADDRESS TO THE SENATE.*

Extract from Shakspeare. Othello.-Act 1-Scene 3.

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Most potent, grave, and reverend seigniors,
My very noble and approv'd good masters,—
That I have ta’en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true ; true, I have married her ;
The very head and front of my offendingt ·
Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech,
And little bless'd with the set phrase of peace ;

Yet, by your gracious patience,
I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver
Of my whole course of love ; what drugs, what charms,
What conjuration, and what mighty magic,
I won his daughter with.

Her father lov'd me ; oft invited me ;
Still questioned me the story of my life,
From year to year; the battles, sieges, fortunes,
That I have pass’d.
I ran it through, even from my boyish days,
To the very moment that he bade me tell it.
Wherein I spoke of most disastrous chances,
Of moving accidents, by flood and field ;
Of hair-breadth 'scapes i’ thef imminent deadly breach ;
Of being taken by the insolent foe,
And sold to slavery ; of my redemption thence,
And portance in my travel's history :S
Wherein of antres|| vast, and deserts idle, 1
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch heaven,
It was my hint to speak.—These things to hear,
Would Desdemona seriously incline :
But still the house affairs would draw her thence ;

* Othello, being accused before the Venetian Senate of using impro. per means to gain the affections of Desdemona, delivers this address. †"The very head and front,” the whole, without extenuation.

“ ['the,” for in the.

“And portance in my travel's history,” the manner in which I conducted myself in my travels, as described in their history,

11 “ Antres,” (pron. anturs,) caves, dens. of " Idle," that is, which produced nothing.

Which ever as she could with haste despatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse.: which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour; and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
But not intentively;* I did consent.;
And often did beguile her of her tears,
When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:
She swore,-in faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange ;
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:
She wish'd she had not heard it ; yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man : she thank'd me;
And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this bint, I spake';
She lov'd me for the dangers I had pass'd;
And I lov’d her, that she did pity them.
This only is the witchcraft I have us’d.

CX.THE RIGHT OF SELF-DEFENCE.

Extract from the Speech of Samuel Dexter, in the trial of Thomas 0.

Selfredge, for killing Charles Austin : before the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, 1806.

Gentlemen of the Jury,—The opposing counsel, in order to establish the guilt of my client, have read to you, from books of acknowledged authority, that the right of self-de. sence was not given by the law of civil society, and, that that law cannot take it away. It is founded then, on the law of na. ture, which is of higher authority than any human institution. This law enjoins us to be useful, in proportion to our capa. cities; to protect the powers of being useful, by all the means that nature has given us, and to secure our own hap

Intentively,"

," for attentively; some copies read, distinctively.

piness, as well as that of others. These sacred precepts can. not be obeyed, without securing to ourselves the respect of others. Surely I need not say to you, that the man, who is daily beaten on the public Exchange, cannot retain his standing in society, by recurring to the laws. Recovering daily damages will rather aggravate the contempt, that the community will heap upon him ; nor need I say, that when a man has patiently suffered one beating, he has almost insured a repetition of the insult.

It is a most serious calamity, for a man of high qualifica. tions for usefulness, and delicate sense of honor, to be driven to such a crisis ; yet should it become inevitable, he is bound to meet it like a man, to summon all the energies of the soul, rise above ordinary maxims, poise himself on his own mag. nanimity, and hold himself responsible only to his God. Whatever may be the consequences, he is bound to bear them; to stand like mount Atlas,

“When storms and tempests thunder on his brow,
And oceans break their billows at his feet."

Do not believe that I am inculcating opinions tending to disturb the peace of society. On the contrary, they are the only principles that can preserve it. It is more dangerous for the laws to give security to a man, disposed to commit out. rages on the persons of his fellow citizens, than to authorize those, who must otherwise meet irreparable injury, to defend themselves at every hazard. Men of eminent talents and virtues, on whose exertions, in perilous times, the honor and happiness of their country must depend, will always be liable to be degraded by every daring miscreant, if they cannot de. fend themselves from personal insult and outrage. Men of this description must always feel, that to submit to degradation and dishonor, is impossible. Nor is this feeling confined to men of that eminent grade. We have thousands in our country, who possess this spirit; and, without them, we should soon deservedly cease to exist, as an independent nation. I respect the laws of my country, and revere the precepts of our holy religion ; I should shudder at shedding human blood; I would practise moderation and forbearance, to avoid so terrible a calamity; yet should I ever be driven to that im.

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