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of Parliament ! but the crown, from itself, and by itself, de. clares an unalterable derermination to pursue measuresand what measures, my lords ? The measures that have produced the imminent perils that threaten us; the measures that have brought ruin to our doors.

CXXXI.-LORD CHATHAM ON THE AMERICAN WAR.

Extract from the same Speech.

My Lords—The present ruinous and ignominious situa. tion of our country, where we cannot act with success, nor suffer with honor, calls upon us to remonstrate, in the strongest and loudest language of truth, to rescue the ear of majesty from the delusions which surround it. The desperate state of our arms abroad is in part known: no man thinks more highly of them than I do. I love and honor the English troops. I know their virtues and their valor. I know they can achieve any thing except impossibilities; and I know that the conquest of English America is an impossibility. You cannot, I venture to say it, you cannot conquer America. Your armies, last war, effected every thing that could be effected ; and what was it? It cost a numerous army, under the command of a most able general,* now a noble lord in this house, a long and laborious campaign, to expel five thousand Frenchmen from French America. My lords, you cannot conquer America. What is your present situation there? We do not know the worst; but we know, that in three campaigns we have done nothing, and suffered much. Besides the sufferings, perhaps total loss, of the northern force ;t the best appointed army, that ever took the field, commanded by sir William Howe, has retired from the American lines. He was obliged to relinquish his attempt, and with great delay and danger, to adopt a new and distant plan of operations. We shall soon know, and in any event have reason to lament, what may have happened since. As to conquest, therefore, my lords, I repeat, it is impossible. You may swell every expense, and every effort, still more ex. travagantly ; pile and accumulate every assistance you can buy or borrow; traffic and barter with every little pitiful German prince, that sells and sends his subjects to the sham. bles of a foreign prince; your efforts are ever vain and im. potent: doubly so, from this mercenary aid on which you rely. For it irritates, to an incurable resentment, the minds of your enemies—to overrun them, with the mercenary sons of rapine and plunder; devoting them and their possessions to the rapacity of hireling cruelty! If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay down my arms-never-never

* Sir Jeffrey (now lord) Amherst. + General Burgoyne's army.

never.

CXXXII.-SPEECH OF CASSIUS TO BRUTUS, IN CONTEMPT OF

CAESAR

Extract from Shakspeare. Julius Cæsar.-Act 1–Scene 2.

HONOR is the subject of my story.-
I cannot tell, what you and other men
Think of this life ; but, for my single self,
I had as lief not be, as live to be
In awe of such a thing as I myself.
I was born free as Cæsar; so were you :
We both have fed as well; and we can both
Endure the winter's cold, as well as he.
For once, upon a raw and gusty day,
The troubled Tyber chafing with her shores,
Cæsar said to me, Dar’st thou, Cassius, now
Leap in with me into this angry flood,
And swim to yonder point ? - Upon the word,
Accouter'd as I was, I plunged in,
And bade him follow : so, indeed, he did.
The torrent roar'd ; and we did buffet it
With lusty sinews , throwing it aside,
And stemming it with hearts of controversy.

But ere we could arrive* the point propos’d,
Cæsar cry'd, Help me, Cassius, or I sink.
I, as Æneas, our great ancestor,
Did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder
The old Anchises bear, so, from the waves of Tyber
Did I the tired Cæsar : And this man
Is now become a god; and Cassius is
A wretched creature, and must bend his body,
If Cæsar carelessly but nod on him.
He had a fever when he was in Spain,
And, when the fit was on him, I did mark
How he did shake : 'tis true, this god did shake :
His coward lips did from their color fly;
And that same eye, whose bend doth awe the world,
Did lose his lustre; I did hear him groan;
Ay, and that tongne of his, that bade the Romans
Mark him, and write his speeches in their books,
Alas! it cried, Give me some drink, Titinius,
As a sick girl. Ye gods, it doth amaze me,
A man of such a feeble temper should
So get the start of the majestic world,
And bear the palm alone.

CXXXIII.

-SPEECH OF BRUTUS TO THE ROMANS, JUSTIFYING

HIS ASSASSINATION OF CÆSAR.

Extract from Shakspeare. Julius Cæsar.–Act 3–Scene 2.

Romans, countrymen, and lovers !t hear me for my cause ; and be silent that you may hear: believe me for mine honor ; and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe : cen. sure me in your wisdom ; and awake your senses that you may the better judge. If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Cæsar's, to him I say, that Brutus’ love to Cæsar was no less than his. If then that friend demand, why Bru. tus rose against Cæsar, this is my answer, -Not that I loved Cæsar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves ; than that Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen? As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him: but, as he was ambitious, I slew him: There are tears, for his love ; joy, for his fortune ; honor, for his valour ; and death, for his ambition. Who is here so base, that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile, that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.

*“Arrive the point,” for arrive at the point: the verb arrive is used without the preposition at by other writers.

+ Friends.

None ?- Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Cæsar, than you should do to Brutus. The question of his death, is enrolled in the capitol : his glory not extenuated wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced, for which he suffered death.

Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the commonwealth ; As which of you shall not ? With this I depart; That, as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death.

CXXXIV.--CHARACTER OF CHARLES JAMES Fox.

Extract from Mr. Burke's Speech on Mr. Fox's East India Bill, in the

House of Commons, December, 1783.

Mr. Speaker,- HAVING now done my duty to the bill, let me say a word to the author. I should leave him to his own noble sentiments, if the unworthy and illiberal language, with which he has been treated, beyond all example of par. liamentary liberty, did not make a few words necessary; not so much in justice to him, as to my own feelings. I must say, then, that it will be a distinction honorable to the age, that the rescue of the greatest number of the human race that ever were so grievously oppressed, from the greatest ty. ranny that was ever exercised, has fallen to the lot of abili. ties and dispositions equal to the task ; that it has fallen to one who has the enlargement to comprehend, the spirit to un. dertake, and the eloquence to support, so great a measure of hazardous benevolence. His spirit is not owing to his igno. rance of the state of men and things; he well knows what snares are spread about his path, from personal animosity, from court intrigues, and possibly from popular delusion. But he has put to hazard his ease, his security, his interest, his power, even his darling popularity, for the benefit of a people whom he has never seen. This is the road that all heroes have trod before him. He is traduced and abused for his supposed motives. He will remember, that obloquy is a necessary ingredient in the composition of all true glory : he will remember, that it was not only the Roman customs, but it is in the nature and constitution of things, that calumny and abuse are essential parts of triumph. These thoughts will support a mind, which only exists for honor, under the burden of temporary reproach. He is doing indeed a great good, such as rarely falls to the lot, and almost as rarely coincides with the desires of any man. Let him use his time. Let him give the whole length of the reins to his be. nevolence. He is now on a great eminence, where the eyes of mankind are turned to him. He

may

he

may do much. But here is the summit. He never can exceed what he does this day.

live long;

CXXXV. -THE ALLEGED OPPRESSION OF SOUTH CAROLINA.

Extract from the Speech of Mr. Mc Duffie, of South Carolina, upon

the Tariff, delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States, April 26, 1830.

Mr. Chairman,-I feel that I am called upon to say a word or two on the subject of the deep excitement which now exists in South Carolina, and to vindicate the motives and the char. acter of the people of that State from imputations which have been unjustly cast upon them. There is no State in this Union distinguished by a more lofty and, disinterested pa. triotism, than that which I have the honor, in part, to represent. I can proudly and confidently appeal to bistory for

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