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I. Chlorid group.
II. Sulphate group.
III. Chlor-sulphate group.
IV. Carbonate group.
V. Chlor-sulpho-carbonate group.
VI. Sulfid group.
VII. Chalybeate or iron group (may contain manganese also).

VIII. Special group (containing special substances like lithimer, borax, etc).

IX: Soft water group (containing small quantities of mineral substances).

Of these groups the first three fall into the author's saline class (Class III.), the fourth into the alkaline (Class I.), the fifth into the alkaline-saline (Class II.), and the last four would be distributed among the four classes in accordance with the predominate constituents. This scheme is preferable to that of Prof. Schweitzer in that the alkaline-saline waters are differentiated, but, as in the latter, the chalybeates are grouped together, as are the sulphur waters, the objections to which have already been stated. Both schemes, however, are an improvement upon that of Walton,* which includes our alkaline waters under the head of saline, while our salines are found under the heads of chalybeate, sulphur, calcic, purgative and thermal. Walton's classification is, therefore, the most mixed of all; he himself says that his scheme “partakes both of the chemical system and the therapeutic system," and that “the class Thermal Waters may embrace waters which, as for their chemical constituents, belong to one of the other classes."

From any standpoint the subject of water classification is a difficult one, and all classifications must be to a certain degree arbitrary. It is impossible to express all the shades of difference, as waters grade from those almost pure to the most highly mineralized. All schemes have some merit. In no one, however, can account be taken of all the minor constituents; the principal ones must be emphasized, while the minor ones are relegated to subordinate groupings, and this will be largely a matter of individual judgment. The classification scheme outlined in this paper seems to the writer to be at once simpler, more logical, and more scientific than the others referred to. Primarily, the object has been to differentiate the three

*“The Mineral Springs of the United States and Canada," by George S. Walton, M. D., 1883.

MINERAL WATER CLASSIFICATION--PEALE.

57

principal characteristics—temperature, solid constituents, and gas-
eous contents. The scheme is applicable to all waters, whether used
medicinally or otherwise, and any water, once analyzed, can be readily
fitted into its proper place.

(1) Geological Survey of Missouri, Vol. III., A Report on the Mineral Waters of Missouri, 1802.

SCHWEITZER'S CLASSIFICATION.

a. With Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium Chlor.
Class I. Muriatic Waters.

ides and Calcium Sulphate.
(Containing Sodium Chloride).

b. With Magnesium Chloride and Calcium Sulphate.
c. With Magnesium and Calcium Sulphates.

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THE NECESSITY OF A "WATER SECTION," IN THE

MILITARY MEDICAL SERVICE.
A writer in a recent number of The London Lancet, concludes
that the typhoid infection invading armies almost invariably comes
from the water supply, and that, while there may be infection from
other sources, these need not be feared, if the water is protected.
Appreciating the great mortality from water borne diseases-know-
ing that such a mortality is often greater than from powder and
ball—it is urged that a "water section," be established in the army
whose duty it shall be to guard the army against these water borne
diseases. The recent experiences of Great Britain in South Africa
and of the United States in Cuba and the Philippines, has impressed
military medical men that the water supply is now the greatest
problem there is for them to solve. When military physicians have
solved this problem, war will be robbed of its chief horrors.

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The Month. .

CONDUCTED BY GEO. THOS. PALMER, M. D., CHICAGO.

A large number of American physicians will sail on the steamer "Princess Irene," on April 11th, to attend the International Medical Congress at Madrid.

The Medical Society of the Missouri Valley will meet at Council Bluffs, Iowa, Thursday and Friday, March 19th and 20th. Typhoid fever and Syphilis will be the chief subjects under discussion.

What impressed Dr. Lorenz most in America was the almost prodigal liberality of the American people in fostering and supporting the hospitals of the country. The Chicagoans are certainly endeavoring to live up to Dr. Lorenz' opinion. It was recently announced that Dr. Franklin H. Martin and some of his associates would build the finest private hospital-hotel in America. Now, we have it that Rush Medical College (medical department of the Chicago University), will spend hundreds of thousands of dollars for a hospital for clinical purposes while the Chicago Polyclinic is fighting with the municipal authorities for the privilege of building a hospital at the cost of a quarter of a million.

Some snarling and back-biting ingrate in the legislature of New Hampshire, has so far forgotten state pride as to offer a bill in the legislature providing that any one who follows in the footsteps of Mrs. Mary Baker Glover Eddy (names of other husbands omitted for the sake of brevity) and practices her cult, shall go to jail. This is the more to be lamented when we know that Mary is a native of New Hampshire, and has given to that state gratuitously large bunches of fame. Of course, the bill was defeated and the reputation of the state was saved. Think of such rudeness and sauciness on the part of that legislator, though!

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Illinois is going to have a law preventing the sale of cigarettes or cigarette papers in the state. In this way it is proposed that the youth of the state will be compelled not to use the weed in this form. Personally, the law strikes us as absurd, for while we do not in any way advocate cigarette using and much prefer a pipe, we appreciate the impossibility of preventing an ingenious boy making and smoking cigarettes, if he wants to. It is by no means so certain that cigarette smoking is as injurious as generally regarded to make laws interfering with personal liberty possible. The London Lancet maintains that the cigarette is the most healthful form in which tobacco can be used.

An article in one of the weekly medical journals by a former medical editor, tells of the woes of the medical editor's life. The chief comment on the article is that it does not "arrive," and the writer shows evidence of having gone through life making mountains out of mole hills. The journal outlined by him as the proper kind of a journal would certainly be uniquely dead and wearying, but proper, very.

And now the ingenious and wide-awake newspaper man has discovered that the X ray is being used for the treatment of cancer. It is generally understood by the lay press that we vaccinate to prevent smallpox, or is this a new one to them and worthy of a halfcolumn telegraphic report?

Dr. George D. Kahlo, of Indianapolis, was a recent Chicago visitor and spent some time in the offices of the Resort Bureau of this Journal. Dr. Kahlo is one of the most prominent members of the Indiana profession and is greatly interested in climato-therapy, hydro-therapy and resort therapy, as studied by THE CLINIC AND PURE WATER JOURNAL.

The Western Ophthalmologic and Oto-Laryngolic Association, meets in Indianapolis on April 9, 10 and 11, 1903. Dr. Derrick T. Vail, the secretary, announces some excellent papers for the sessions.

Dr. Edward Thayer Dickerman, of Chicago, is dead. A very few days' illness from pneumonia took away this prominent young physician who was achieving renown in his chosen branch of otology and laryngology. Dr. Dickerman was one of the type of the young physician of which the profession has cause to be proud. He was exceptionally well schooled in his specialty, and was one of the clean, upright, healthful men who bring great credit upon the calling

The death of Dr. Margaret Taylor Shutt, at Springfield, Illinois, cut short the promising career of a bright and clever physician. Previous to entering the medical profession, Dr. Shutt was admitted to the practice of the law in Illinois, and after her medical graduation and hospital service in Philadelphia, she returned to Springfield and assumed charge of the technical laboratory work at Saint John's Hospital. Her last contribution to medical literature appeared in this Journal in November.

University Day at the Northwestern University this year was celebrated by the formal opening of the new University Building, at Dearborn and Lake Streets, Chicago. This building is given over to the schools of law, dentistry and pharmacy. Dr. W. W. Keen held a surgical clinic at Mercy Hospital during the week, and the principal address of the occasion was delivered by President Hadley, of Yale.

It is announced that the Illinois State Medical Society will hold its annual meeting in Chicago, April 29th and 30th, and May Ist and 2nd, instead of May 19th, 2oth and 21st, as previously announced. The change has been made on account of the earlier meeting of the American Medical Association at New Orleans.

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