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in heart, and have their portion with them. John Baptist, being "filled with the Holy Ghost from his "mother's womb," was doubtless regenerated before he was circumcised.-And if those, whom Jeremiah called on, to "circumcise themselves unto the Lord, "and take away the foreskins of their hearts;"1 (a command, by the way, given to circumcised persons, to regenerate themselves,') through grace obeyed the call, it is evident, that they were regenefated subsequent to their sacrament of regeneration. The same was the case of all the Israelites, who profited by the exhortations of the servants and ministers of God, before the change of the initiatory ordi'the sacrament of regeneration,' from circumcision to baptism; and the same, is for substance the case, of all ungodly baptized persons, who at length become "new creatures," and "walk in "newness of life." We are required to do our several duties; but the Lord must not be limited. "The wind bloweth where it listeth; and thou hear
est the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it "cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit."2
* Jer, iv. 3, 4.
John iii. 8.
REMARKS ON CHAPTER III.
OF JUSTIFICATION, FAITH, AND GOOD WORKS.
P. xcvii. Note translated. "Osiander relates twenty discordant opinions concerning justification.' (Bellarmine.) Salmeron ascribes to the Lutherans "twenty-two different opinions concerning justification.'-Cardinal Bellarmine was one of the most embittered and able enemies to the reformation, which the church of Rome ever produced; and was not very scrupulous about the weapons, with which he fought the battles of that church. Osiander was at first one of Luther's apparent coadjutors; but he gradually turned away from the truth: and having at length adopted and avowed, new sentiments about justification, which, after Luther's death, he falsely ascribed to him; he was opposed by all the friends of Luther's doctrine; and no doubt said all he could to vilify them. I suppose Salmeron was a Papist; but my scanty library gives me no information concerning him. That many discordant opinions have been maintained about justification, is certain: but that the Lutherans, (properly so called,) held many discordant opinions, was, I believe, never maintained, except by apostates, Papists, and infidels, and such others, as speak evil of things, that they understand
P. xcviii. 1. 7. The application, &c."1 Abra
The application of this word, (justification,) in the New
ham's faith, in its nature and effects, is not only spoken of in the New Testainent;' but stated to be the very pattern and standard of Christian faith, and repeatedly referred to, as the most complete exemplar, by which the way, of justification by faith, must be explained and illustrated.' He was not indeed a Christian, as living long before the coming of Christ; but he rejoiced to see the day of Christ, " and he saw it and was glad." It was in respect of him, that it was first said, "He believed in the "LORD, and he accounted it to him for righteous
P. xcviii. 1. 10. The former &c.'4 Does St. Paul give the least intimation, that any Jews were actually justified by their own obedience? Or does he only mean, that to be justified by the law, the law must not only be heard, but obeyed; yea, perfectly obeyed, through life?" He is proving that "both Jews and Gentiles are all under sin."
P. xcviii. 1. 14. " Of the heathen, &c.' That is, God, who inspired the Scripture, foresaw, or predetermined, under the Gospel-dispensation, to call the Gentiles into his church; and to justify them by
Testament is not confined to Christians, St. Paul and St. James. both speak of the justification of Abraham.'
1 Rom. iv. 1-5. 9–25. Gal. iii. 6-29. Heb. vi. 13-18. xi. 8-17. Jam. ii. 22-25. 2 John viii. 56-58. 3 Gen. xv 6.
4 The former apostle says of the Jews, (" Not the hearers of "the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be ́ ́ ́ justified.”
Of the heathen he says, "The Scripture, foreseeing that **God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham.”
faith in the divine Saviour: and, as a pre-intimation of this, the same gospel, for substance, was preached to Abraham, when JEHOVAH said to him, "In thee "shall all nations be blessed."All these fathers, martyrs, and holy men, whom Paul spake of, had 'their faith surely fixed in God, when all the world 'was against them. They did not only know God 'to be the Lord, Maker, and Governor, of all men
in the world: but they had a special confidence ' and trust, that he was and would be their God, 'their Comforter, Aider, Helper, Maintainer, and 'Defender. This is the Christian faith, which these 'holy men had, and we also ought to have. And although they were not named Christian men; yet it was a Christian faith that they had: for they • looked for all benefits of God the Father, through the merits of his Son Jesus Christ, as we now do. < This difference is between them and us; that they 'looked when Christ should come, and we be in the
time when he is come. Therefore, saith St. Augus"tine, the time is altered, but not the faith. For " we have both one faith in one Christ: the same
Holy Ghost, that we have, had they, saith St. Paul. For as the Holy Ghost doth teach us to 'trust in God, and to call upon him as our Father;
so he did teach them to say, "Thou, Lord, art our "Father and Redeemer, and thy name is without -66 beginning and everlasting." God gave them 'then grace to be his children, as he doth us now. But now, by the coming of our Saviour Christ,
Gal. iii. 6-10.
"we have received more abundantly the Spirit of
God in our hearts, whereby we may conceive a f greater faith, and a surer trust, than many of them had. But, in effect, they and we be all one; we have the same faith, that they had in Christ, and they the same that we have."1
: P. xcix. l. 14. "Here, &c." It is certain, that the apostle speaks in the passage referred to,3 of nothing as future, but of all as past. "Ye are "washed, ye are sanctified, ye are justified, &c;" or rather, "Ye have been, &c:" for all the verbs are in the past tenses. But, is there any sufficient reason, for substituting the words baptized and baptism, for washed? "Wash me thoroughly from my "iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin." Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, " and I shall be whiter than snow."4 "Wash you, "make you clean, put away the evil of your doings "from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; learn to ❝ do well." "O Jerusalem, wash thine heart from "wickedness; that thou mayest be saved.” "Now
Homily on Faith, second part.
* Here St. Paul represents the Corinthian Christians as having been formerly guilty of great sins, but as being now washed, sanctified, and justified; that is, as having been baptized, as having abandoned their former wickedness, and as having been ⚫ justified from their former guilt, in the name of Christ, and through the operation of the Divine Spirit at the time of bap⚫tisin: it is evident that in this passage nothing is spoken of as future; the washing, the sanctification, the justification, were
$ Is. i. 16, 17.
all events which had already taken place."
3 1 Cor. vi. 9-11.
4 Ps. li. 2. 7.
• Jer, iv. 14.