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APPEAL to the Christian Women of the South, By A. E. Grimké. Published by the American Anti-Slavery Society, 36 pages.
This eloquent pamphlet is from the pen of a sister of the late Thomas S.Grimke of Charleston, S. C. We need hardly say more of it than that it is written with that peculiar felicity and unction which characterized the works of her lamented brother. Among Anti-Slavery writings there are two classes-one specially adapted to make new converts, the other to strengthen the old. We can hardly exclude Miss Grimke's Appeal from either class. It belongs pre-eminently to the former. The converts that will be made by it will be, we have no doubt, not only numerous but thorough-going.
THE GLASGOW DISCUSSION. The whole of the most interesting discussion between George Thompson and the Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge, as reported in the Glasgow Chronicle, together with an appendix by C. C. Burleigh, Esq. has been published by Isaac Knapp, of Boston, in an octavo pamphlet of 188 pages. Some of the colonization and pro-slavery presses have lamented that Mr. Breckinridge engaged in the controversy so poorly supplied with documents.-The fault was in his cause. Its arguments are cursed with a famine of facts.Thompson threshed him to powder with a fraction of the facts which he might have employed.
YARADEE; a PLEA for AFRICA, in familiar conversations on the subject of Slavery and Colonization. By F. FREEMAN, Rector of St. David's, &c. Philadelpaia: 1836. pp. 360.
This is a pious concoction of facts in regard to slavery, falsehoods in regard to abolitionism and prophecies in regard to the glories of colonization, made according to the latest and most approved colonization juggle, and having in its composition, of course, marvellously little logic. The book we apprehend, with all its pious yearning after the expatriation of our colored brethren, will be rather a drug in the market. But lest we should be thought to deal unfairly by the pith and moment of the Rev. Mr. Freeman, we will let him have a chance to say a word for himself. On page 282 we read,
"It appears to me,' said Caroline,' that the favor of heaven toward the colonies and the cause of colonization, is very apparent; and I wonder that any should dare oppose, lest, haply, they "be found fighting against God." And the the fact that so many good and wise men, who can be influenced on this subjec by no sinister motives, some of whom were once unfavorable to colonization, but on examination have changed their minds, are among the warm friends and selfdenying promoters of colonization, is to my mind evidence that is almost
A Madison, a Monroe, a Carroll, Judge Washington, our greatly venerated and now lamented good Bishop White, Robert Ralston, John Marshall, William Wirt, Fitzhugh, Finley, Evarts, Cornelius, Wisner, sainted spirits now in heaven with Ashmun, and Mills, and Carey, and Randall, and Cox, and Anderson, and others who died in the service of Africa; what a noble list might we write of its friends from the catalogue of the lamented dead whose remembrance is blessed! And then the living-what an array of the names of the great and the good come up before the mind!" "
To this precious specimen of the Reductio ad nose-count-endum, the father of Miss Caroline is made to reply, meekly and piously, as follows:
"Many prayers ascend to heaven,' said Mr. L., 'in behalf of the colonization enterprise. It is a cause dear to many a pious heart.'" Piety! alas! We are sorry to see her in such company!
or three trivial errors of grammar-one of them so purely idiomatic that I have often observed it in men who profess to be well educated. The hand-writing was singularly clear, and even beautiful.
Two days after this visit, I called again at the Seminary, and was introduced to James Bradley. It struck me, when I first saw him, that the color of his skin was of a deeper jet, than that which prevails among the Africo-Americans of equally pure descent.* As he was but two or three years of age when he was stolen from Africa, he could not remember anything that had occurred to him in that country, except that he was at play in the fields when he was carried off. The cruelties he had witnessed in South Carolina, whither he was taken, could not, he said, be described. The period he had purchased, in order to work on his own account, he had passed in the Arkansas, where there are, to the eternal disgrace of the federal government, which has exclusive jurisdiction over it, a large number of slaves, exposed to the greatest hardships. When that territory is to be admittted into the Union, the same discussion which agitated it throughout every limb will be renewed; and the world will again witness the disgusting spectacle of a free people contending against liberty,
Dr. Beecher exhibited great liberality towards James Bradley, who was absent from a tea party he gave to the students. He not only expressed great regret that he had not joined the company, but declared, if he had foreseen what had occurred, he would have gone himself to invite him.
Among the students was a young man, whose sole patrimony consisted, in addition to two hundred dollars, of two slaves. When convinced of the sin of slavery, by the discussions to which I have before alluded, he emancipated both; and, when I saw him, was paying, out of his own pocket, the expenses of education for one of them. I need not say that I felt it a much higher honor to take this noble minded youth by the hand, than to see Andrew Jackson smiling on the toad-eaters and office-hunters about him.
The students from the South related to me anecdotes, illustrative of the hornd system under which they had been brought up. One of them said, he was sometimes asked by a slave what right his father bad to his services. There is not, indeed, among those who are thus defrauded of their natural rights, one solitary being, that is not fully sensible of the injustice, and prepared to assert his claims at the first opportunity that the chance of escape may offer. Though naturally shrewd, and possessing what few faculties remain to them in a state of extreme acuteness, by frequent exercise and the concentration of the mental energies on a few objects, they are in the constant habit of feigning stupidity, to disarm suspicion, and escape exaction. The attachment they evince to their children is very strong; and they are seen, after the toils of the day, caressing them on their knees, and listening, with parental fondness, to their prattle.Their affections are warm, and easily gained. The strongest attachment, and unbounded gratitude, in return for kind treatment, are characteristics of the whole race; and there are many who would not hesitate to risk their lives for those who have endeavored to make them happy.
A student from Alabama, while detailing the horrors he had witnessed, mentioned the cirumstances of a woman, in an advanced state of pregnancy, being flogged by her master till she miscarried. To be worked to death is no uncom mon thing; and the torture is increased by the slowness of the process. Severity of toil depends on the kind of cultivation; increasing in intensity, as the produce is cotton, rice, or sugar. The last, on account of the night work, is so destructive, in its manipulations, of health and life, that it is a custom with the slaves to pray for cheap sugar.
Many facts might be adduced to render it probable that the color of the human skin is affected by climate. "India," says Bishop Heber, in his 'Narrative of a Journey,' &c. has been always, and long before the Europeans came hither, a favorite theatre for adventurers from Persia, Greece, Tartary, Turkey and Arabia, all white men, and all, in their turn, possessing themselves of weath and power. It is remarkable, however, to observe, how surely all these classes of men, in a few generations, even without any intermarriage with the Hindoos, assume the deep olive tint, little less dark than that of a negro, which seems natural to the climate. The Portuguese natives form unions among themselves alone; or, if they can. with Europeans. Yet the Portuguese have, during a 300 years' residence in India, become as black as Caffres."
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SLAVERY AND THE BIBLICAL REPERTORY, By Rev. Samuel Crothers,..
ON THE USE OF SLAVE PRODUCE, By Charles Stuart,.
CASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: A REVIEW, By the Editor,.
THE DIVERSITIES OF MEN, Anonymous,..
ILLUSTRATIONS OF AMERICAN COMMERCE,..
OPINIONS AND TESTIMONY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON,
In connection with what we have said on this subject in reference to our own country, the following extraordinary facts from the New Haven Religious Intelligencer, in reference to caste in India, may be interesting.
DISTINCTION OF CASTE ABOLISHED IN THE ENGLISH CHURCH IN INDIA.
It may not perhaps be generally known that the strange anomaly, so long and so universally prevalent in Hindostan, termed caste, has been allowed till lately to remain in force among the natives, even after their admission to the Episcopal church. The singular spectacle was thus presented, of a church of Christ, consisting of different classes, each of which deemed it absolute pollution to mingle with the others. How extensively and inveterately their heathen notions were retained, will be best seen from some of the modes in which they were manifested.
At divine service, the different castes sat on separate mats, on different sides of the church, which they entered by different doors. At the Lord's supper, they advanced to the altar at different times, and had different cups, or the chatechists contrived to change them, before the lower castes partook; even the Missionaries were pursuaded to wait till all had partaken. They had separate places of burial in the grave-yard, and in funerals the heathen observances were in many respects observed.
In the domestic circle, the wife was not permitted to sit and eat with her husband, but was treated as his slave, or rather as a part of his goods or chattels; in church also she never sat with him. Marriage between different castes was not allowed, though immoral connections and indecent festivals, were connived at; and a native Christian would marry his daughter to a heathen of his own caste in preference to a Christian of a lower caste. The Christian would put away a Christian wife when she no longer pleased him, and take another-a heathen.The bad effects of going to church in mourning were prevented by resorting to magic, and by the employment of tomtoms and heathenish ceremonies, immediately after leaving the church. Their children had heathen as well as Christian names; and these names were often those of the idols.
As respects their social relations; they regard themselves as beings of a higher race; and the inferior class they looked upon as their born and predestined slaves. They would neither drink from the same well, nor live in the same street, nor eat food from the same vessel: but broke every earthen vessel which a Pari had touched, as defiled. They would not receive the holy water of the Ganges from the hands of a Pari, even to save their lives, since the slighest contact with him rendered them unclean. The native Christians who retained caste, attended the most abominable heathen festivals, paid honors to idols, and had their sick exercised by the Brahmins.
The foundation of these laws of caste was laid in the Shasters, or sacred bocks of the Hindoos. These books decided all points; the courts for the trial of matters connected with caste, were directed by the Shasters; these courts were sometimes held in Christian churches; and, by their decisions, the condemned Christian was excluded from the Lord's Supper.