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same term, spirits.' Thus, in the case of the righteous, we read of the spirits of the just men made perfect' (Heb. xii. 23); * Into Thy hand I commit My spirit' (Psa. xxxi. 5); ‘Lord Jesus, receive my spirit' (Acts vii. 59). So the souls of the wicked are called “the spirits in prison;' and similarly, when the Word of God speaks of the soul of man generally, without deciding on its state as godly or ungodly, it uses the same word 'spirit.'

. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was ; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it' (Eccles. xii, 7). The word spirit' being used thus indiscriminately of the soul of man, evidently shows that it is a spiritual subsistence, and that, whatever be its ultimate state of bliss or woe, neither sin has made it mortal nor grace immortal.

Being a spirit, it returns at death to God who gave it, and maintains a separate existence in death and after death. Now, this of itself goes a long way to prove its original immortality; for, assume the contrary, that the soul is not necessarily immortal, because spiritual and immaterial, there at once arises the question, "How, then, does it subsist, and that for thousands of years after death ?' If it be answered, “Because it is upheld in being by the special power of God,' we demand proof from the Word of God that He Himself, by a perpetual miracle, keeps the soul alive after death ; for, if not naturally immortal, it must be naturally mortal—that is, every moment subject to death, even if it do not die with the body, and can only be kept from dying by the special intervention of the Almighty. Name chapter and verse where such a doctrine is even hinted at, or is deducible by fair inference, if not plainly and positively revealed.

“ Another argument for the natural and the original immortality of the soul may be drawn from the declaration of the Word of truth that God created man in His own image, after His own likeness. This image of God was not merely the possession of a soul endued with those moral and intellectual qualities in which man resembled his Maker, but in its being a copy also of His eternal duration. If the soul of man were created mortal, it could not subsist distinct from the body, but would pass away, and cease to be, as is in the case of mere animal life. Whatever qualities, then, it might possess of reason or conscience, it would not be a representation either of the moral and intellectual qualities, or of the life of God. It would be like an image impressed on the sand, not a stamp upon a lasting and durable material, and would be only a higher order of instinct, such as guides the bee to make its cell, or the bird its nest. Passing away like a fleeting breath, how could the soul of man resemble Him who liveth for ever and ever! But, as created separately from the body by the very breath of God, it became endued by the power of this divine


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afflatus, not only with those intellectual and moral qualities which are faint representations of the wisdom, holiness, and goodness of God, but with that immortality which gave it a capacity for the eternal enjoyment of Him. This immortality of the soul, therefore, made man capable of restoration. A mortal soul would have died like mere animal instinct; but, being naturally immortal, it survived the wreck of the fall, and was capable of such a restoration as would make it meet for the inheritance of saints in light."

Having treated upon the subject of the soul being created immortal, Mr. Philpot then proceeds to show that the eternal life given to the believer by Christ is something other than what is stated in the second objection to be the gift of immortality. On this point he thus forcibly argues :

2. That Christ has brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel (2 Tim. i. 10); that He gives unto His sheep eternal life (John x. 28); that He came that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly; and that

the gift of God is eternal life' (Rom. v. 23)—all this is as plain and undeniable as revelation could make it. But the question is not whether Christ came to give His people eternal life, for on this point we are fully agreed, but what is the nature of this life eternal ? According to your views, it is the making of the souls of His saints immortal which were naturally mortal. Now, this we deny. Our blessed Lord has fully settled the question of what this eternal life consists in, in that memorable prayer which He offered up to His heavenly Father (John xvii.): "As Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him. And this is life eternal, that they might know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent' (John xvii. 2, 3). There our gracious Lord most clearly declares that this eternal life which He gives to as many as the Father has given Him is not the making of their souls immortal, which previously were mortal, but that it consists in a knowledge of the only true God, and of Jesus Christ, whom He hath sent. The souls of the elect were already immortal by natural constitution, but all true knowledge of God was lost in the fall, through the moral death which then seized them. When, then, the gracious Lord regenerates the soul by His Spirit and grace, He does not thereby turn a mortal soul into an immortal one, which would be as great a miracle as the raising of the mortal body, and changing it into a glorious body at the last day, but quickens it into a new and spiritual life. This is called by our blessed Lord a second or heavenly birth (John jii. 3-5); and by the Apostle, a being delivered from the power of


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darkness, and being translated into the kingdom of God's dear Son (Col. i. 13, 14); and elsewhere, an opening of the eyes, and a turning from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God (Acts xxvi. 18). This divine work upon the soul is also called a new creature,' or 'a new creation' (2 Cor. v. 17); 'a new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness' (Eph. iv. 24); and 'a being renewed in knowledge after the image of Him that created him' (Col. iii. 10). But all this is totally distinct from working so thorough and radical a change in the very constitution of the soul as to make that naturally immortal which was before naturally mortal. It is the communication of spiritual life; a giving of faith and repentance, of hope and love ; a renewing of the image of God in which Adam was created, but which was marred and defaced by the fall; a gracious knowledge of the mind, a conformity to the image, and an obedience to the will, of Christ; an implantation of

grace here, to expand into glory hereafter. But all this is very different from altering the very constitution of the soul, and changing it from a mortal to an immortal fabric. . There is not an expression in the Scriptures, whether they describe the fall and its consequences, or thọ recovery and its effects, which hints at any such change as would transmute a mortal into an immortal soul. When they describe, for instance, the effects of the fall, and what we are by nature, they tell us that we are

· dead in trespasses and sin;' that we have the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in us ;' that we are without God, and have no hope in the world;' are alienated and enemies in our mind by wicked works ;' that Satan blinds our eyes and takes us captives, &c.; all which expressions, though they describe fully and forcibly a state of ruin and misery, of death and alienation of will and affections from God, yet clearly intimate that there was room for a recovery, for they are generally coupled with the work of Christ in redeeming and reconciling, and the work of the Holy Ghost in regenerating and renewing the elect of God (see Eph. ii

. 1, 12–18; iv. 18—21; Col. i. 21, 22; 2 Tim. ii. 26). Similarly, when they describe the work of Christ in the flesh, they represent it as a redemption from captivity, a putting away of sin by the sacrifice of Himself, a making atonement for transgression, a reconciliation of aliens and strangers, a justification of the ungodly by His obedience, &c.; all which expressions imply, not making of that which is mortal to be immortal, but a removing of those barriers which sin had made between God and the soul. So, when they speak of the work of the Holy Ghost, they describe it as a quickening from a death in sins—that is, evidently, a moral death—a renewing of the soul

in knowledge after the image of Him who created it; a sanctifying of it, and a dwelling in it, by His presence; a helping of its infirmities, and a witnessing in it as a Spirit of adoption, &c.; all which expressions show that the work of the Holy Ghost is not to change and transmute a soul naturally and originally mortal into one that becomes immortal by His operations and influences, but to restore and repair the image of God in it, which had become marred and defaced by sin original and actual.

“ View the atoning blood, finished work, and meritorious sacrifice of the Son of God, as healing the breach, reconciling aliens and enemies, fulfilling the law, glorifying it, and making it honourable, and thus opening a way and providing the means whereby God can be just and yet the Justifier of him who believeth in Jesus. How harmonious is all this with the Scriptures, and the experience of the saints! Here there is no jarring sound. Here we see, in the most striking colours, both the justice and the mercy, the goodness and the severity, of God. We see the souls of all men alike immortal, but some saved and others lost; some pardoned and regenerated, others left to fill up the measure of their iniquities, and dying as they lived, in enmity and alienation; some liberated and sanctified by the knowledge of the truth, and others allowed to drink down and harden themselves in error.

(To be continued.)



(PSALM cii. 20.)
BLESSED Saviour ! Friend of man !
Who canst all creation scan ;
Who the hearts of all doth know,
And dost feel for mortals' woe;
Blessed Jesus, look on me!
From my burden set me free!
I am bowed to earth with grief ;
Send, oh, send me sweet relief !
Ease my sorrow-smitten mind !
Thou who art most good and kind,
Raise my soul up from the dust!
In Thee, Lord, I put my trust.
I am weak, but strong Thou art;
Unto me Thy strength impart ;
I am sick, Physician Thou;
Endless honours crown Thy brow;
Lift Thy hand, rebuke the wave,

And from all my troubles save.

G. H. M. READ.

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6. THE TWO BABYLONS."* [It has often been remarked how much the services of the Roman Catholic Church resemble the idolatrous worship of the Pagans. The following extracts will show how the Papists have introduced into their system practices that were found among Pagans, evidently for the purpose of easily winning over the latter to their Church. The writer of the book named in the foot-note has searched out and exposed the abominable connection of Pagan legends and rites with a professedly Christian religion. The following extracts will show the points of resemblance to be 50 strong that the writer may well ask-]

" What would even the old Pagan priests say, who left the stage of time while the martyrs were still battering against their

gods, and, rather than symbolize with them, 'loved not their und lives unto the death,' if they were to see the present aspect of

the so-called Church of European Christendom? What would

Belshazzar himself say, if it were possible for him to enter in St. Peter's, at Rome, and see the Pope in his pontificals, in all his

pomp and glory ? Surely he would conclude that he had only dal entered one of his own well-known temples, and that all things the continued as they were at Babylon, on that memorable night,

when he saw, with astonished eyes, the handwriting on the wall, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin.

We shall give some of the leading points of resemblance between the idolatry of the one Babylon and the Christianity of the other, as they are exhibited to us in this volume.

Whence the worship of the Madonna and Child ? The reply is, from Babylon. Semiramis, the founder of that city, was there worshipped as a goddess; and Nimrod, whom she had aided in his conquests, by a mythological fiction, was worshipped as her infant son. According to Jeremiah, she was styled "The Queen of Heaven.” The Venus, and her son Cupid, of the Greeks, and the great goddess of Diana at Ephesus, were parts of the same idolatry. With these figures, emblematic traditions of the woman's seed that was to bruise the serpent's head were mingled. “In the uppermost storey of the tower of Babel, or temple of Belus," says the book under consideration, “ Diodorus Siculus tells us, there stood three images of the great divinities of Babylon, and one of these was of a woman grasping a serpent's head. Among the Greeks the same thing was symbolized; for Diana, whose real character was originally the same as that of the great Babylonian goddess, was represented as bearing in her hands a serpent deprived of its head. As time wore away, and the facts of

* " The Two Babylons." By the late Alexander Haslop. Partridge and Co., 9, Paternoster Row, London, E.C.



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