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THE

National Standard Dictionary.

A

PRONOUNCING LEXICON OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

CONTAINING 40,000 WORDS

AND

ILLUSTRATED WITH 700 WOOD-OUTS.

TO WHICH IS ADDED

AN APPENDIX

OF USEFUL AND VALUABLE INFORMATION, CONTAINING A
COMPILATION OF FACTS FOR REFERENCE ON VARIOUS
SUBJECTS, BEING AN EPITOME OF MATTERS HIS-
TORICAL, STATISTICAL, BIOGRAPHICAL,
POLITICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL AND

OF GENERAL INTEREST.

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GENERAL INDEX.

1

Abbreviations in Common Use
Air-Line Distances..
Alcohol in Various Liquors..
American Geographical Names, etc.
Animal Life, Duration of
Area and Depth of Inland Seas.
Area of Oceans.
Area of the World, etc.
Area, Population, etc., Principal Countries of the World.
Biographical Register..
Brokers' Technicalities.
Business Vocabulary..
Capitals, Use of.
Deaf and Dumb Alphabet.
Dictionary:
Foreign Coins, Value of.
Foreign Words and Phrases
Freezing Point of Substances.
Heat Powers of Substances.
Height of Various Structures..
History, American Chronological.
Legal Fiolidays Throughout the United States.
Metric System, Weights and Measures.
Mountains, Highest in the World.
Musical Vocabulary
Mythology, Handy Dictionary of.
Nautical Vocabulary..
Nutrition in Food.
Parliamentary Rules and Usages.
Presidents of the United States..
Principal Cities of the United States, Population.
Perpetual Snow, Limit oi..
Proof Correcting..
Punctuation, Accent Marks and Rules
Rivers, Length of..
Scriptural Measures of Length and Velocity
Spelling, Simple Rules for
States and Cities, Popular Names of..
Synonyms, Table of..
Time, Divisions of.
Titles in Use in the United States.
United States, Population of, in 1880.
United States Coins, Standard Weights of.
Valuable Information for Business Men.
Velocity of Various Bodies.
Weights and Measures.

PAGE.

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682
559

COPYRIGHT, 1882, BY A. L. BURT.

Revised and Enlarged Edition. COPYRIGHT, 1883, BY A. L. BURT.

HARVARD
COLLEGE
LIBRARY

PREFACE.

The uses of a Dictionary are so apparent and so universally recognized that no word of commendation need be said of the family of Lexicons to which this little volume belongs. It is a family which has branches in every civilized country, and by a species of “divine right” is universally awarded the place of honor over all other familice librorum. Of course the possession of a large unabridged Dictionary is a desideratum to every one who aspires to a completo information of his native tongue, but the high cost thereof, and the inconvenience of handling a volume of such size as are Lexicons of this description, are drawbacks in the way of a very exten sive possession of them. To meet the wants of the vast majority, to whom cheapness, compactness and terseness are first considerations, this volume is especially designed. The spelling, pronunciation, nature and definition of each word is given in as concise a form as possible, while the book is issued in a small and convenient form, and at a price within the reach of all.

The Appendix has been compiled with great care, and presents infon mation of a miscellaneous and useful character, much of whicb is not to be found in any other Dictionary of the language, not even excepting Webster's or Worcester's Unabridged. A variety of general subjects are given space in the Appendix, together with a number of useful tables and statistics. To persons residing in districts remote from public libraries, and whose stock of books of general information is limited, this volume will be of the greatest use. It at once unites the character and advantages of an ordinary dictionary to that of an encyclopædic manual for reference on the countless subjects on which information is so frequently sought, and which is so rarely found combined under the compact shelter of the covers of a single volume. An inspection of the General Index will, we think, substantiate its claim to be what it pretends to be, " A Universal Hand-Book for Ready Reference."

THE AUTHOR.

3

ABBREVIATIONS OF THE “PARTS OF SPEECH,” AND THEIR GRAM

MATICAL SIGNIFICATIONS.

The words that constitute our language are classified under nine different heads, called “ Parts of Speech," and consist of the Noun (sometimes called the SUBSTANTIVE or Noun SUBSTANTIVE), the ADJECTIVE, the PRONOUN, the ARTICLE, the VERB. the ADVERB, the PREPOSITION, the CONJUNCTION and INTERJECTION, and are found appended to each word in the Dictionary, thus abbreviated : Nouns..

.8 (substantives). ADJECTIVES.

..a. PRONOUNS.

pron. VERBS. ADVERBS.

.ado. PREPOSITIONS...

....prep. CONJUNCTIONS.

..conj. INTERJECTIONS....

...int. The ARTICLES being but three in number, a, an and the need no system of abbreviation.

The four first parts of speech being declinable, or variable in grammati. cal formation, have different collateral words emanating from them, which are thus abbreviated:

8. pl..... .substantive plural. pp. .past participle.
V. a......
...verb active.

ppr. present participle,
V. n.
..verb neuter.

pret..

...preterite. v. imp... .verb impersonal. Of these parts of Speech, each of the numerous words, of which our language is composed, belongs to one or the other. Thus the NOUN SUBSTANTIVE (derived from the Latin nomen substantivum) is the name of any thing that possesses substantiality” or abstract being. The NOUN ADJECTIVE (from the Latin adjectum) is a word "added to the substantive, to signify the addition of some quality, circumstance, or manner of being; The PRONOUN (from the Latin pronomine) is used “in place of the NOUN, to avoid tautological repetition. The VERB (from the Latin verbum) is the word" of a sentence, which asserts, commands or inquires, and completes its grammatical construction. The 'ADVERB (from the Latin ad verbum) is & word appended "to a verb,” to express some circumstance relating to it ; that is, to qualify it, or define the manner how. The PREPOSITION (from the Latin præpositum) a word “placed before" a noun or pronoun to show its relation to something previously mentioned. The CONJUNCTION (from the Latin conjunctio) is used for the "joining together" of words or sentences. The INTERJECTION (from the Latin interjectum) is an abrupt exclamation “thrown between the words of a sentence. On referring to the Dictionary, the student will find words innumerable which are both substantives and adjectives, or verbs active and neuter, according to the respective senses in which they are used.

PRONUNCIATION. For an explanation of the principal characters used in the Orthoëpic Notetion of this Dictionary, viz., å, ä, jandū, see the opposite page. The emphatic syllable of each word is denoted by the accent, thus ('); and the peculiar characteristics of each vowel or consonant are briefly explained at the commencement of each alphabetic letter in the body of the Dictionary. In polysyllabic or derivative words the initial syllables are usually omitted, for the sake of compression, etc.

A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

700 ILLUSTRATIONS.

ă, denotes the short vowel sound, as å-bate' ; å, the open Italian sound, as

father and pärt, i, the broad diphthongal sound, as mind; and ú, the soft sound in pūll, good (gūd), &c.

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A,

ā is a vowel, and the first letter of ABACUS, ab'-:-kus, the alphabet. It has four dis

counting tinct sounds; the long or slender, table. as in place; the short, as in cat ; | ABADDON, &-bad'

ABACUS. the open, or Italian, as in father; don, 6., the destroying angel. and the broad sound, as in wall. ABAFT, ă-baft', ad., towards the The long or slender 'is the true stern English sound of this letter. A ABALIENATE, ab-ale'-yen-ate, v.a., is an indefinite article, implying to estrange. one, as a man, a tree. Before a ABANDON, å-ban'-dun, v.a., to reword beginning with a vowel, or a silent h, it is, for the sake of ABANDONMENT, -ment, 8., total de euphony, changed into an, as an sertion. owl. A, as a prefix, is equivalent ABASE, ă-base', v.a., to depress; to to the prepositions in or on, as degrade. asleep, afoot. It is also some-ABASEMENT, -ment, 8., act of humtimes placed before a participle, bling. as, gone a-hunting. In abbrevia- | ABASH, à-bash', v.a., to make tions, A stands for artium, anno, ashamed. ante, &c., as A.M., artium magis- ABASHMENT, -ment, s., confusion ter, master of arts ; A.D., anno from shame.

Domini, in the year of our Lord. ABATABLE, ă-bate'-åbl, a., that AB, ab, s., fifth month of the Jewish may be abated. year.

ABATE, ă-bate', v.a., to beat down; ABACK, ó-back', ad., backwards ; to lessen. -v.n., to become less. behind.

ABATEMENT, -ment, 8., act of abatABACOT, ab'-:-xot, s., an ancient

ing: cap of state,

ABATIS, ab'-a-tis, s., a fortification ABACTINv, ab-ak-shun, 5., stealing of felled trees with branches outof cattle.

ward.

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