« PreviousContinue »
The fractional-day strikes were successful in an unusually large per cent of the establishments involved. Of the 790 establishments involved, the strike was successful in 551, or 69.75 per cent, and partly successful in 42, or 5.32 per cent.
For the five years, 1901 to 1905, data were reported for six lockouts lasting less than one day. The facts shown are as follows: Number of lockouts........
...... 6 Number of lockouts
Ordered by employers' organizations.....
Establishments in which lockouts
Failed........................ Employees before lockout, male.. Employees locked out, male.... Employees thrown out of work, male.. Employees after lockout, male..
411 .......... 427
Data relating to these lockouts are presented by causes in the following table:
SUMMARY OF LOCKOU'TS LASTING LESS THAN ONE DAY FOR THE UNITED STATES,
BY CAUSES, 1901 TO 1905.
This report does not show the wage loss of employees, the loss of employers, or the amount of assistance given to employees in strikes and lockouts. The figures that can be obtained for these items are not entirely satisfactory, as was stated in the last preceding report on strikes and lockouts. For this reason and because of the amount of time that would be required to obtain such figures they are omitted from this report.
Figures concerning days of work lost are nearly as difficult to obtain and when obtained are also unsatisfactory; hence they are
EXPLANATION OF TABLES.
LIST OF TABLES. The statistical portion of this report is presented in a series of tables the titles of which are shown below: TABLE I.-Strikes for each State, by years and industries, 1901 to 1905. TABLE II.-Summary of strikes for the United States, by industries and years, 1901 to
1905. TABLE III. Summary of strikes for the United States, by industries, 1881 to 1905. TABLE IV.-Summary of strikes for the United States, by years, 1881 to 1905. TABLE V.-Summary of strikes for the United States, by States and geographical
divisions, 1881 to 1905. TABLE VI.-Summary of strikes for the United States, ordered by labor organizations
and not so ordered, by industries, 1881 to 1905. TABLE VII.-Summary of strikes for the United States, ordered by labor organizations
and not so ordered, by years, 1881 to 1905. TABLE VIII.-Summary of strikes for the United States, ordered by labor organiza
tions and not so ordered, by States and geographical divisions, 1881 to 1905. TABLE IX.-Strikes for each State, by years and causes, 1901 to 1905. TABLE X.-Summary of strikes for the United States, by years and causes, 1881 to 1905. Table XI. Summary of strikes for the United States, by causes, 1881 to 1905. TABLE XII.-Results of strikes for each cause, by years, 1881 to 1905. TABLE XIII.-Lockouts for each State, by years and industries, 1901 to 1905. TABLE XIV.-Summary of lockouts for the United States, by industries and years,
1901 to 1905. TABLE XV.-Summary of lockouts for the United States, by industries, 1881 to 1905. TABLE XVI.-Summary of lockouts for the United States, by years, 1881 to 1905. TABLE XVII.-Summary of lockouts for the United States, by States and geograph
ical divisions, 1881 to 1905. TABLE XVIII.-Lockouts for each State, by years and causes, 1901 to 1905. TABLE XIX.-Summary of lockouts for the l'nited States, by years and causes, 1881
to 1905. TABLE XX.-Summary of lockouts for the United States, by causes, 1881 to 1905.
The salient features of the investigation have been stated and discussed in Chapter I of this report. The present chapter is devoted to an explanation of the several tables and the terms used therein, so that they may be readily understood.
The method followed by the Bureau in conducting an investigation of strikes and lockouts has been to make a thorough examination of the leading newspapers, trade journals, labor publications,
etc., published in various parts of the United States, and to take therefrom all data referring to strikes and lockouts during the period included in the particular investigation. Furnished with these preliminary data, which in most cases located the strikes and lockouts and in many cases supplied even the names of the firms involved, the agents of the Bureau were assigned districts for canvassing. In addition to the information contained in these preliminary data, the agents were instructed to make every possible effort, by personal inquiry and consultation with labor organizations, manufacturers' associations, etc., to learn of any other labor disturbances which had occurred in the districts assigned them during the period under consideration, so that all strikes and lockouts might be investigated.
The present investigation, like the three preceding investigations, covers only the continental United States. A few strikes and lockouts are known to have occurred in Alaska, Ilawaii, the Philippines, and Porto Rico, but it was not deemed advisable to take the time and incur the expense necessary to investigate them and include them in this report.
The facts relating to each strike and lockout were collected by an agent of the Bureau at the place where the disturbance occurred, both sides to the controversy being consulted wherever possible, and the discrepancies reconciled with the greatest possible fairness. It is believed that the statements presented in the following general tables are substantially correct.
The definitions of a strike and a lockout are given in the introduction, and as there stated these two disturbances are practically the same, the only real difference being that in a strike the employees take the initiative while in a lockout the initiative is taken by the employer. This distinction has been observed in separating the various labor disturbances into strikes and lockouts for tabulation in the reports of the Bureau. Some difficulty was experienced in classifying certain disturbances, owing to the inadequate information obtainable and because of the very slight difference between a strike and a lockout, as explained above. Particular care, however, has been taken in the classification.
A“ general strike” is a strike involving two or more establishments and entered into by the concerted action of employees of the several establishments. A “general lockout” is a lockout involving two or more establishments and entered into by the concerted action of employers or operators of the several establishments.
In general strikes or lockouts extending into two or more States the strike or lockout in each State has been considered a separate and distinct strike where it was possible to make a proper division of the