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employees thrown out of work. In Illinois were 141 lockouts, 4,555 establishments involved, 188,849 employees locked out, and 218,285 employees thrown out of work.

A large proportion of the lockouts occurred in the North Atlantic and North Central divisions; in those divisions the average number of establishments per lockout, the average number of employees locked out, and the average number of employees thrown out of work were all greater than in the Southern and Western divisions.

PER CENT OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED,

STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY STATES.

The two text tables here given show the number of strikes, estabments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work, grouped by industries, and by States and geographical divisions for the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905, inclusive. In addition to showing the actual numbers for each industry and each State and geographical division, the tables show also the per cent of the total in each industry and the per cent in each State and geographical division.

The following table show these data by industries:

PER CENT OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES

THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

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Agricultural implements.......

0.24 93 0.05 16,997 0.25 22,942 0.26 Agriculture..... ............

.10
131

.07 13,065 . 19 13, 227 Automobiles and bicycles...

.05 5.579 .08 9,073 .10 Awnings, tents, and sails.....

.03

.02

374

.01 * 374 (6) Bakery ............ 424 1. 15 6, 423 3. 54

. 44
32,531

137 Blacksmithing and horseshoeing..

2,979 1.64

.11

.09 Boots and shoes....

1, 101 3.00 1,555 .86 88, 553 1.32 160, 059 1.84 Brass and brass goods..

119 .32 284

. 16
12, 536 . 19 13,729

..16 Brewing.... 166 .45 874 .48 16, 651

18,177 ..21 Brick and tile. 332 .90 1, 476 .81 81, 391 1.21 90, 410

1.04 Brooms and brushes.

42

65
.04

1,694 03 2,050 Building trades (6)...

9,564 26. 02 69,899 38.53 917,905 13. 64 €1,083, 699 € 12.45 Canning and preserving.

113

6,928 . 10 9,164 Car building............

441
1.20 614

.34
66,181

.98

89, 277 1.03 Carpets............

175

426
.24 37,830

. 56

66,109 Carriages and wagons....

125

, 420 .78 20, 542 .31 23.351 Clothing, men's.

1,147 3.12 15,996 8.82 372, 214 5. 53 459, 059 Clothing, women's..

640 1.74 .918 2.71 215, 595 3. 20 Coal and coke.....

3,336 9.08 ,025 9.39 2,006,353 29. 82 2,460,743 Collins and undertakers' goods.

15

.02 Confectionery ............

17
39 .02 1.383

2.820 Cooperage................

323
1,086
25, 052

27, 474 Cotton and woolen goods..

111
440 .24 38, 308

64.928 Cotton goods...

665 1.81 832 . 46 166, 357 2. 47 277, 470 Cutlery and edge tools...

93 .25 96 .05 5, 202

.08

8. 402 ..10 Domestic service......

338 .92 2,924 1.61 31,803 . 47 32,212 a Less than 0.01 per cent.

0 Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected being building trades.

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PER CENT OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES

THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

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227 125

6, 364
4,117

3,880
208, 352
249, 545
21,919
54, 135

5, 593 63, 641 11,363 20,704

8, 126 30. 249 11,054 250, 125

3,336 6, 680 10,893 22.384 1,325 4,824 2,773 51,934 12,725

1,184 66, 181 14.517 15, 738

5,329
56.939
16.013
44, 424
20, 613
79,134
123, 413

5,3271
11,020
46, 808
58. 404
106, 078

13, 267
122, 671

20.877 116, 896 60,748 21.642 25, 105

10, 415 231,988

4, 302

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Electric and gas apparatus and

supplies..........
Electric light and power....
Flour mill products.......
Foundry and machine shop...
Freight handling and teaming
Furnishing goods, men's.
Furniture and upholstering
Gas...
Glass......
Gloves and mittens....
llardware.........
Ilarness and saddlery ..
Hats and caps.......
liosiery and knit goods.
Iron and steel..
Ironwork, ornamental.
Jewelry and silverware.
Laundry work.....
Leather..........
Leather goods...
Lime and cement ....
Lithographing
Lumber and timber produ
Metallic goods.
Millinery goods.......
Mining, ore..........
Musical instruments...
Paper......
Paper goods.....
Planing mill products........
Pottery........:
Printing and publishing..
Public works....
Railroad, canal, and road building
Railroad transportation..
Rope, twine, and bagging...
Rubber goods......
Shipbuilding...
Silk goods.....
Slaughtering and meat packing..
Smelting and refining....
Stone quarrying and cutting ...
Stoves and furnaces....
Street railway transportation.
Streets and sewers.......
Telegraph and telephone......
Tin and sheet metal goods...
Tobacco; chewing and smoking
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes.
Trunks and valises...
Typewriters, cash registers, and

sewing machines....
Watches and clocks....
Water transportation.
Wooden goods.......
Woolen goods.
Miscellaneous...

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Total............

36,757 100.00 181, 407 100.00 6,728,048 100.00 28, 703, 824 a100.00

a Not including 33 establishments not reported.

By far a larger per cent of strikes occurred in the building trades than in any other industry. Expressed in percentages 26.02 per cent of the strikes, 38.53 per cent of the establishments involved, 13.64 per cent of the strikers and 12.45 per cent of the employees thrown out of work were in the building trades. In the coal and coke inof the establishments involved; but there were more than twice as many strikers and employees thrown out of work as in strikes in the building trades, the percentage of strikers being 29.82 per cent and of employees thrown out of work 28.27 per cent of the total number. So far as the number of strikes is concerned the next industry in importance is the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes, while so far as establishments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work are concerned, the manufacture of men's clothing occupies third place.

The table which follows presents similar data by States and geographical divisions:

PER CENT OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table V, pages 480 to 485, for notes relating to general strikes extending into two or more States.)

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Alabama....
Arizona .....
Arkansas....
California...
Colorado....
Connecticut...
Delaware.....
District of Columbia
Florida.....
Georgia...
Idaho....
Illinois....
Indiana.....
Indian Territory..
Iowa.
Kansas..
Kentucky..
Louisiana...
Maine........
Maryland.....
Massachusetts
Michigan.
Minnesota..
Mississippi.
Missouri....
Montana....
Nebraska....
Nevada......
New Ilampshire..
New Jersey....
New Mexico...
New York.....
North Carolina
North Dakota..
Ohio..
Oklahoma......
Oregon.......
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island.
South Carolina..
South Dakota..
Tennessee.....
Texas.......
Utah......
Vermont....

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PER CENT OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES

THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1805–Concluded.

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An examination of the above table shows that during the twentyfive years a large part of the strikes occurred in a few of the principal manufacturing States of the largest population. In New York were 27.75 per cent of the strikes, 28.44 per cent of the establishments involved, 21.15 per cent of the strikers, and 19.24 per cent of the employees thrown out of work. In Pennsylvania were 11.31 per cent of the strikes, 13.77 per cent of the establishments involved, 25.12 per cent of the strikers, and 25.77 per cent of the employees thrown out of work. In Illinois were 9.86 per cent of the strikes, 16.08 per cent of the establishments involved, 13.31 per cent of the strikers, and 13.87 per cent of the employees thrown out of work. Next in importance were Massachusetts and Ohio.

In the presentation by geographical divisions it is seen that in the North Atlantic division were 55.59 per cent of the strikes, 54.02 per cent of the establishments involved, 56.38 per cent of the strikers, and 56.79 per cent of the employees thrown out of work. In the South Atlantic division were but 4.98 per cent of the strikes, in the South Central 4.92 per cent, and in the Western 4.39 per cent.

PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED,

EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY STATES.

Tables relating to lockouts, similar to those immediately preceding relating to strikes, follow. The first table presents the data by industries.

PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT,

AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

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