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PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905 Concluded.

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Silk goods............ ...
Slaughtering and meat packing..
Smelting and refining........
Stone quarrying and cutting ....
Stoves and furnaces........
Street railway transportation
Streets and sewers......
Telegraph and telephone.......
Tin and sheet metal goods......
Tobacco: chewing and smoking.
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes.
Typewriters, cash registers, and sew-

ing machines..
Watches and clocks....
Water transportation..
Wooden goods......
Woolen goods.
Miscellaneous....

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1,546 100.00 | 18,547 100.00 | 716, 231 100.00

1

The largest number of lockouts occurred in the building trades, being 16.49 per cent of all lockouts. The second industry in importance in the number of lockouts was the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes, with 9.77 per cent, and the third in importance was printing and publishing, with 7.44 per cent. In the building trades were 54.68 per cent of all establishments involved, 30.87 per cent of all employees locked out, and 29.77 per cent of all employees thrown out of work. Second in importance, so far as establishments are concerned, was the manufacture of men's clothing, with 9.72 per cent. Second in importance to the building trades, so far as employees locked out and employees thrown out of work are concerned, was coal and coke, in which industry the employees locked out numbered 8.56 per cent of the whole, and the employees thrown out of work 8.53 per cent of the whole.

In the following table similar statistics are presented by States and geographical divisions:

PER CENT OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

[See Table XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general lockouts extending into two or more

States.

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Alabama...
Arizona....
Arkansas...
California...
Colorado....
Connecticut.
Delaware..
District of Columbia
Florida..
Georgia...
Idaho.....
Illinois.....
Indiana.
Indian Territory...
Iowa.
Kansas...
Kentucky...
Louisiana..
Maine...
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan.....
Minnesota...
Missouri....
Montana....
Nebraska..
New Hamps
New Jersey ...
New Mexico...
New York....
North Carolina..
North Dakota.
Ohio.........

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Oregon.......
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island....
South Carolina..
South Dakota...
Tennessee....
Texas.......
Utah.....
Vermont.
Virginia...
Washington..
West Virginia.
Wisconsin.
Wyoming..

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The largest number of lockouts occurred in New York, the second largest number in Pennsylvania, and the third largest in Illinois. In New York State were 21.09 per cent of all lockouts, 34.63 per cent of all establishments involved, 31.11 per cent of all employees locked out, and 32.63 per cent of all employees thrown out of work by lockouts. In Pennsylvania were 10.60 per cent of all lockouts, 12.27 per cent of all establishments involved, 9.85 per cent of all employees locked out, and 10.22 per cent of all employees thrown out of work. In Illinois the number of lockouts was less than in Pennsylvania, being but 9.12 per cent of the whole, but the number of establishments was 24.56 per cent, the number of employees locked out 26.37 per cent, and the number of employees thrown out of work 26.44 per cent of the total.

The portion of the table presenting lockouts by geographical divisions shows that 49.94 per cent of the lockouts were in the North Atlantic division; 5.95 per cent in the South Atlantic, 32.08 per cent in the North Central, 5.63 per cent in the South Central, and 6.40 per cent in the Western.

STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS. The tables which follow show the proportion of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, and also compare the results of the two classes of strikes. In these tables all strikes, lasting one day or more, which occurred during the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905 have been tabulated in two classes, so that this comparison can easily be made. The strikes that are tabulated as not having been ordered by labor organizations are not necessarily strikes begun and carried on by employees who were not members of an organization. They include not only this class of strikes, but also strikes carried on by members of organizations, when these strikes were without the authority of such organizations. It would have been desirable, but it was not practicable, to secure sufficiently definite information to separate these last two classes of strikes; therefore, they have been combined under the single head of “Strikes not Ordered by Labor Organizations.”

An examination of these tables shows that 68.99 per cent of all strikes during the twenty-five-year period, 1881 to 1905, were ordered by labor organizations and 90.34 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes were included in strikes ordered by labor organizations. Of the strikes ordered by labor organizations the employees were successful in 49.48 per cent, partly successful in 15.87 per cent, and failed in 34.65 per cent of the establishments involved, while in strikes not ordered by labor organizations the employees were successful in 33.86 per cent of all establishments involved, partly suc

79.69 per cent were in strikes ordered by labor organizations, and of all employees thrown out of work 77.45 per cent were in establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations.

The first series of three tables shows the number of strikes and of establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations and the number and per cent of strikes and of establishments involved in strikes not ordered by labor organizations. The first table presents these facts by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions.

The table by years follows:

STRIKES AND ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR

ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (See Table VII, pages 490 and 491, for notes relating to strikes not reported whether ordered or not

ordered.)

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The percentage of strikes ordered by labor organizations varied from 47.35 per cent in 1881 to 82.14 per cent in 1904. The percentage of establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations varied from 72.81 per cent in 1885 to 95.49 per cent in 1903.

The table presenting similar figures by industries follows:

STRIKES AND ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR

ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table VI, pages 486 to 489, for notes relating to strikes not reported whether ordered or not ordered.)

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Agricultural implements..........

36.78
65. 59

34. 41 Agriculture....

17. 14

40. 46 78 59.54 Automobiles and bicycles..

60.76

39. 24 62 66. 67 31 33. 33 Awnings, tents, and sails...

50.00
50.00
80.00

20.00 Bakery.............

92. 45
6,350 98. 86

1.14 Blacksinithing and horseshoeing.

83 94.32

2.936 98. 56 43 1.44 Boots and shoes......

71.39
1,215 78. 14

21. 86 Brass and brass goods...

66.95
33. 05 219 77. 39

22. 61 Brewing ...............

150 90. 36

16 9. 64 856 97.94 18 2.06 Brick and tile..... 193 58. 13 139 41.87 1,044 70.73

29. 27 Brooms and brushes...

76. 19 10 23. 81

83. 08

16. 92 Building trades..

28,836
a 92. 39 728

a68,523 a 98.03 1,376 1.97 Canning and preserving.

11 22. 92
77.08 49 43. 36

64 56. 64 Car building...

245 55. 56 196 44. 44 414 67. 43 200 32. 57 Carpets....

35. 43 113 64.57 161 37. 79 265 Carriages and wagons

56.80 54
1,365 96. 13

3. 87 Clothing, men's....

1,035 90.24 112 9.76 15,779 98. 64 217 1.36 Clothing, women's.....

84.22 101

4,780 97. 19 138 2.81 Coal and coke......

1,879 56. 38 1, 454 43. 62 13,757 81.27 3,171 18. 73 Coffins and undertakers' goods. 53. 33

25. 93 Confectionery..

47.06

76. 92

23. 08 Cooperage.....

230 71.21

28. 79 860 79. 19 226 20. 81 Cotion and woolen goods.

18 16. 22
83. 78 342 77.73

22. 27 Cotton goods......

162 24. 36
75. 64 305 36. 66

63. 34 Cutlery and edge tools..

44. 09
55. 91 44 45. 83

54. 17 Domestic service.....

216 63. 91

36. 09
2,780
95. 08

4.92 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies.......................

40.62

76.58 26 23. 42 Electric light and power...

31.71

80.67

29 19. 33 Flour mill products....

23. 81
88.76

11. 24 Foundry and machine shop....

1,167
500 29.99 4, 201 88.99

11.01 Freight handling and teaming.

412 44. 98 4,797 84.68 808 15. 32 Furnishing goods, men's......

27.72 506 63. 95 319 36.05 Furniture and upholstering.

82. SO 92 17. 20 1,447 93. 29

104

6.71 ......... 14 29. 17 34 70.83

14 26. 92

73. 08 G uss............

292 53. 28 256 46.72 697 68.33 323 31. 67 Gloves and mittens....

27 54. 00 23 46.00 218 90. 46 23 9. 54 Hardware.....

39. 78 168 60.22 134 43.93 171 56. 07 Harness and saddlery.

131
12. 67 321 94. 41

5. 59 Hats and caps.....

308

17. 65 523 87. 17 77 Hosiery and knits

18
91.26 56 22. 31

195

77.69 Iron and steel......

318
38. 08

61.92 025 51. 27 594 48.73 Ironwork, ornamental.

30 88. 24

11. 70
89.11

10. 89 Jewelry and silverware..

59 76. 62

23. 38
94. 29

5.71 Laundry work........

46 68. 66
31. 34 454 94. 19

5. 81 Leather.....

49, 51
50. 49
66. 47

33. 53 Leather goods....

11 52. 38

47.62
84. 51

15. 49 Lime and cement.

19 39. 58

60. 42
41. 46

58. 54 Lithographing.

55 90.63

9.37
96. 47

3. 53 Lumber and timber products

130 48. 51

51. 49

353
43. 85

56. 15 Metallic goods....

59. 11
40. S9
08.90

31. 10 Millinery goods.....

46.67
53. 33 16 66. 67

33. 33 Mining, ore.........

30.97

156

69. 03 282 50. 18 280 49. 82 Musical instruments.

104 83. 20 21 16.80

89.90

10. 10 Paper.........

53. 33
46.67 132 74. 58

25. 42 Paper goods..

43. 55
56. 45 77 68.75

31, 25 Planing mill products.

326 83. SO
16. 20 1, 438 93. 86

6.14 Pottery........ 45 53. 57 39 46. 43 129 66. 15

66 33. 85 Printing and publishing.

868

133 13. 29 2,827 94. 26 172 5. 74 Public work......

31 21. 23 115 78.77

24. 52 117 75. 48 Railroad, canal, and road buildir 40 10. 58 338 89. 42 187 35. 15

64.85 Railroad transportation.......

39. 29 306 60.71 323 47. 64 355 52. 36 Rope, twine, and bagging..

17. 39 38 82. 61 14 26. 42 39 73. 58 Rubber goods..................

21 27. 27 56

30L 34.88 56 65. 12 a Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected being building trades.

Gas..........

38

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