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STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN

VOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905–Concluded.

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Ra'lroad, canal, and road build

ing............................
Railroad transportation.....
Rope, twine, and bagging..
Rubber goods....
Shipbuilding........
Silk goods........
Slaughtering and meat packing
Smelting and refining....
Stone quarrying and cutting ...
Stoves and furnaces.....
Street railway transportation..
Streets and sewers..........
Telegraph and telephone.......
Tin and sheet metal goods.....
Tobacco: chewing and smoking.
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes..
Trunks and valises......
Typewriters, cash registers,

and sewing machines.
Watches and clocks......
Water transportation...
Wooden goods .......
Woolen goods.....
Miscellaneous.....

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3.87 60.70 32.32 15.11 71.07 29. 78 7. 45

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Total..........

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a Not including 33 establishments not reported.

In the building trades 96.12 per cent of the strikers and 96.06 per cent of the employees thrown out of work were in ordered strikes. In the manufacture of men's clothing 96.94 per cent of the strikers and 97.18 per cent of the employees thrown out of work were in ordered strikes. In coal and coke the percentages were 81.16 and 77.88 per cent, respectively; in cotton goods, 64.57 and 58.30 per cent; in foundries and machine shops, 84.01 and 84.53 per cent; in railroad transportation, 80.07 and 85.56 per cent.

The table by States and geographical divisions follows:

STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN ESTABLISHMENTS IN

VOLVED IN STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905. (See Table VIII, pages 492 to 495, for notes relating to strikes not reported whether ordered or not ordered

and general strikes extending into two or inore States.

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Alabama... Arizona..... Arkansas.... California... Colorado..... Connecticut.. Delaware.. District of Columbia. Florida..... Georgia.. Idaho.... Illinois..... Indiana. Indian Territory. Iowa....... Kansas.... Kentucky. Louisiana... Maine.. Maryland. Massachusetts Michigan..... Minnesota.... Mississippi. Missouri.. Montana... Nebraska... Nevada.. New Hampshire.. New Jersey... New Mexico.. New York.... North Carolina... North Dakota Ohio.......... Oklahoma.... Oregon....... Pennsylvania... Rhode Island... South Carolina. South Dakota.. Tennessee.. Texas.... Utah..... Vermont.... Virginia...... Washington.. West Virginia Wisconsin.... Wyoming....

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In New York 87.15 per cent of the strikers and 86.88 per cent of the employees thrown out of work were in strikes ordered by labor organizations; in Pennsylvania the percentages were 76.94 and 72.97 per cent, respectively; in Illinois, 87.47 and 87.32 per cent; in Ohio, 82.19 and 80.74 per cent; in Massachusetts, 79.90 and 75.69 per cent.

In the North Atlantic division 79.87 per cent of the strikers and 76.61 per cent of the employees thrown out of work were in strikes ordered by labor organizations; in the South Atlantic division the percentages were 67.96 and 66.27 per cent, respectively; in the North Central, 80.89 and 80.04 per cent; in the South Central, 82.33 and 81.64 per cent; and in the Western 79.74 and 78.48 per cent. DURATION OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED, AND

TIME CLOSED.

The following three tables show the average duration of strikes per establishment, the per cent of establishments in which strikes occurred which were closed by strikes, and the average days closed per establishment. The first table of the series presents these data by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions. The table by years follows:

DURATION OF STRIKES, NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED,

AND AVERAGE DAYS CLOSED, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905.

See Table IV. pages 478 and 479, for notes relating to esta blishments closed permanently, establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which duration or time closed was not reported.]

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1881. 1882. 1883.. 1884.. 1885.. 1886 1887... 1888.. 1899 1890.. 1891 1892.. 1893.. 1894.. 1895... 1896... 1897 1898 1899. 1900.. 1901... 1902. 1903 1904... 1905.

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12.7 21.9 20.6 30.4 30.0 23.3 20.9 20.3 26.2 24.2 34.9 23.4 20.6 32.4 20.5 22.0 27.4 22.5 15.2 23.1 29.2 25.4 29.1 35.5 23.1

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24.2 32.0 29.9 21.4 17.8 21.2 29.8 16.4 19.1 14.9 16.9 36.9 16.9 20.7 24.7 18.4 15.2 15.1 16.6 22.9 21.0 22.7 14.2

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5, 462 8, 492 3. 809 11, 317

9.248 10.908 14, 248 20, 248 10, 202 8,292

5,181 5, 455 7.991 11, 435 5, 437 3,776

The presentation of strikes by years shows that the average duration per establishment for the 25 years from 1881 to 1905 was 25.4 days. During these years the average duration of strikes varied from 12.7 days in 1881 to 35.5 days in 1904. Of all establishments involved in strikes during these years 61.38 per cent were closed, and the average number of days closed per establishment was 20.1. The per cent of establishments in which strikes occurred which were closed by strikes varied from 45.54 per cent in 1905 to 85.82 per cent in 1895. The average days closed per establishment varied from 12.1 in 1881 to 36.9 in 1894.

The table presenting these data by industries follows:

DURATION OF STRIKES, NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED,

AND AVERAGE DAYS CLOSED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table III, pages 472 to 477, for notes relating to establishments closed permanently, establishments

in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which duration or time closed was not reported.]

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Agricultural implements....

28.4

24.73

25.7 Agriculture....

131
4.6

47.33

4.6 Automobiles and bicycles...

16.6

26.88

10.6 Awnings, tents, and sails.

17.5

23. 33

13.6 Bakery ..

6,423

11.8
2,169

33.77 Blacksmithing and horseshoeir

2,979

8.0
1,095
36.76

3.1 Boots and shoes.

1, 555
24.7
590
37.94

25.0 Brass and brass goods..

284
24.1

45
15.85

19.8 Brewing .......

874
26.8
290
33.18

12.4 Brick and tile..

31.5 1,125

76.22

24.6 Brooms and brushes..

15.4

43.08

11.6 Building trades (a)..

69,899
22.9 43, 851

62.73

14.5 Canning and preserving.

113
13.7

26
23.01

18.8 Car building....

614
38.4

84
13. 68

11.2 Carpets..............

426
32.6
187
43.90

23.1 Carriages and wagons...

1, 420
25.8.
813
57.25

12.8 Clothing, men's.....

15, 996
15.0 13, 255

82. 86

11.4 Clothing, women's....

4,918

12.7
4, 190
85. 20

10.3 Coal and coke...

17,025
50.9 16, 465

96.71

45.0 Coffins and undertakers' goods

27
32.5

25.93

71.6 Confectionery........

39
28.9

16
41.03

20.6 Cooperage......

1,086
22.3
811
74.68

19.0 Cotton and woolen goods...

440
48.3

240
54.55

56.8 Cotton goods...

832
27.9
327
39.30

40.0 Cutlery and edge tools......

30.8

29
30.21

16.4 Domestic service.........

2, 924

23.5
1, 864
63.75

7.3 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies

111
23.1

29
26.13

10.4 Electric light and power....

150
26.2

18.00

7.5 Flour mill products.............

89
22.3

31. 46

27.5 Foundry and machine shop...

4,722

40.8
1,362
28. 84

21.7 Freight handling and teaming.

5,665

15.2
3,691
65. 15

6.5 Furnishing goods, men's....

885
18.3
707
79. 89

14,3 Furniture and upholstering.

1,551
25.8
580
37.40

23.6 8.0

10
19.23

4.3 Glass....

1,020
48.4
519
50.88

47.6 Gloves and mittens....

241
54.6
143
59.34

65.9 Hardware..

305
41.8

102
33. 44

74.4 Harness and saddlery ..

340
35.7

169
49.71

27.0 Hats and caps..

600
18.2
235
39.17

9.0 Hosiery and knit goods...

251
14.2

86
31. 26

16.9 Iron and steel...

1,219

60.46

39.5 Ironwork, ornamental.

37.5

26
25. 74

32.7 Jewelry and silverware..

315
29.4
147
46.67

22.2 Laundry work.....

482
30.7
404
83. 82

31.2
346
37.5
152
43. 93

34.3 Leather goods....

71
6.7

42.25

7.8 Lime and cement...

82
12.9

47.56

13. 2 a Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected

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DURATION OF STRIKES. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED.

AND AVERAGE DAYS CLOSED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905–Concluded.

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Lithographing.....
Lumber and timber products
Metallic goods...
Millinery goods...
Mining, ore........
Musical instruments
Paper................
Paper goods.....
Planing mill products
Pottery.....
Printing and publishing.
Public works....
Railroad, canal, and road buildin
Railroad transportation......
Rope, twine, and bagging.
Rubber goods.....
Shipbuilding.....
Silk goods................
Slaughtering and meat packing
Smelting and refining...
Stone quarrying and cutting.
Stoves and furnaces........
Street railway transportation.
Streets and sewers............
Telegraph and telephone..
Tin and sheet metal goods...
Tobacco: chewing and smoking.
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes..
Trunks and valises..........
Typewriters, cash registers, and sewing

machines.....
Watches and clocks....
Water transportation.
Wooden goods.
Woolen goods..
Miscellaneous..

30.7 12.3 47.7 15.9 21.7 10.7 15.6 103.4

6.8 6.2 14.5

9.4 20.5 17.5 28.2 29.5

7.3 31.4 28.5 37.0

3.7 18.5

8.5 13.8 16.6

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The above table shows that the average duration of strikes per establishment varied from 4.6 days in agriculture to 83.2 days in ore mining. Industries showing high averages are pottery, 66.5 days; gloves and mittens, 54.6 days; coal and coke, 50.9 days.

An interesting column in this table is the one showing the per cent of establishments involved which were closed by strike. The percentages varied from 9.72 per cent in slaughtering and meat packing to 96.71 per cent in coal and coke. Industries showing a low percentage of establishments closed are lithographing 10 per cent and car building 13.68 per cent. Industries showing a high percentage of establishments closed are water transportation 92.46 per cent, women's clothing 85.20 per cent, ore mining 84.55 per cent, laundry work 83.82 per cent, and men's clothing 82.86 per cent. The average days closed varied from 3.1 in blacksmithing and horse

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