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DURATION OF LOCKOUTS, NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS CLOSED, AND AVERAGE DAYS CLOSED, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

See Table XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general lockouts extending into two or more

States, establishments closed permanently, establishments in which lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which duration or time closed was not reported.]

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Alabama
Arizona....
Arkansas..
California..
Colorado...
Connecticut.
Delaware...
District of Columbia
Florida....
Georgia...
Idaho..
Illinois....
Indiana....
Indian Territory
Iowa.......
Kansas....
Kentucky..
Louisiana....
Maine......
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan...
Minnesota..
Missouri...
Montana...
Nebraska..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey..
New Mexico...
New York.....
North Carolina
North Dakota.
Ohio.....
Oklahoma...
Oregon.......
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island ...
South Carolina..
South Dakota.
Tennessee....
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont..
Virginia....
Washington
West Virginia..
Wisconsin..
Wyoming....

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The average duration of lockouts per establishment in the States in which lockouts were of most frequent occurrence was 73.0 days in New York, 50.8 days in Pennsylvania, and 150.2 days in Illinois. The percentage of establishments in which lockouts occurred which were closed was 51.31 per cent in New York, 75.53 per cent in Pennsylvania, and 89.24 per cent in Illinois. The average number of days closed per establishment was 28.1 in New York, 36.6 in Pennsylvania, and 64.8 in Illinois.

In the presentation by geographical divisions, it is seen that the average duration was 126.1 days in the North Central and 34.5 days in the South Atlantic division. The percentage of establishments closed was 82.12 per cent in the North Central and 39.06 per cent in the South Central division. The average number of days closed was 58.8 in the North Central and 19.7 in the Western division.

CAUSES OF STRIKES. In the four tables which follow, certain data relating to strikes have been tabulated according to the causes for which undertaken. The classification into 14 causes is explained on pages 112 to 114. These four tables show statistics for strikes due solely to each of the 14 causes and also for strikes in which each of the 14 causes was only a partial or contributing cause. Strikes resulting from two or more causes have been counted under each of those causes combined with various causes—thus, for example, strikes for increase of wages and reduction of hours have been included in the cause " for increase of wages combined with various causes" and also in the cause “for reduction of hours combined with various causes," as such strikes were due in part to both of these causes.

The first table shows the number and per cent of strikes due to each cause during each year from 1881 to 1905. The second table shows similar data for establishments involved in strikes, and the third table similar data for strikers. The fourth table of the series is a summary for the entire period from 1881 to 1905. This series of tables renders easy a comparison of the relative importance of each of the 14 causes considered both separately and combined with various causes during each year of the period from 1881 to 1905. The tables are presented in order, and the discussion follows the tables.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STRIKES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE

14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table see text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each strike was counted but once.]

Cause or object.

1881. 1882 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890
(Total Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total
strikes trikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes
471.) 454.) 478.) | 443.) 645.) 1,432.), 1,436.) 906.) 1,075.) 1,833.)

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Number.. 288 247 217 131 242 597 483 235 322 577 for increase of winkes..... Per cent. 161. 15 54. 41'45. 40/29. 5737. 5241. 69 33, 64125. 94/29.95 31. AS For increase of wages com- î Number. 25 11 16 16 30 124 7!. 411 46 115 bined with various causes. Per cent.. 5.31 2.42 3.35 3. 61 4. 65 8. 66 4.94 4.53 4.28 6.27

Number.. 49 67 118 157 170 117 159 1871 220 181 Against reduction of wages:

O wagos Per cent..1 Against reduction of wages

not reduction of wages Number.. combined with various D.

Per cent.. 1. causes....................

(Number.. For reduction of hours.....

*** Per cent.. For reduction of hours com-j Number.. bined with various causes. Per cent..

Number.. Against increase of hours..

Per cent... Against increase of hours

TS Number.. combined with various

1......

Per cent.. causes... Concerning recognition of Number..

125 224 124 union and union rules....Per cent.. 5. 73 5. 95 7.

8. 73 15. 60 13. 69 12. 65 Concerning recognition of union and union rules(Number..

40 41 19 combined with various Per cent.

2. 79 2. 86 2. 10 causes...... Concerning employment of Nurnber..

certain persons (a).......Per cent.al Concerning employment of Number.

certain persons (a) combined with various causes.]"

14. Per cent.. Concerning employees) Numb working out of regular

Per cent... occupation..............! Concerning employees

working out of regular Number... occupation combined Per cent..!.

with various causes...... Concerning overtime work Number..

and pay.................. Per cent... Concerning overtime work Number. I. and pay combined with

"Per cent... various causes........ Concerning method and/Number..

time of payment......... Per cent.. Concerning method and Number..

time of payment com

bined with various causes 1 Per cent.. Concerning Saturday part Number.. holiday.....

.... Per cent.. Concerning Saturday partNumber.. holiday combined wit

Per cent.. various causes...... Concerning docking, fines,/Number..

and charges .............. (Per cent.. Concerning docking, fines. Number.. and charges combined with various causes......"

Per cent.. Concerning working con- Number..

ditions and rules (@)...... Per cent.. Concerning working con- Number.

ditions and rules (a) combined with various causes.)

Per cent.. In sympathy with strikers and employees locked out, elsewhere................

" Per cent.. In sympathy with strikers and employees locked out, I Number..

15 ............ elsewhere, combined withs Per cent..

various causes...... Other causes (not above Number...

48465993 specified) ...... .... Per cent...

5. 08 5. 49 5. 07 Other causes combined with)

h Number.. va rious above-specified Per cent. .42 .44 .21 .68

.77 .63 1.32 74 causes.....

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NUMBER AND PER CENT OF STRIKES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE

14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table sel text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each strike was counted but once.)

1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. Total. |(Total (Total (Total (Total (Total Total (Totul (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes striker strikes strikes strikes strikes'strikes strikes strikes strikes strikes 1.717.) 1,298.) 1,305.) 1.349.) 1,215.) | 1,026.) 1.98.) 1.06.) 1,797.) 1.779.) 2,924.) 3,162.) 3,444.) 2,307.) 2,077.) 36.757.)

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NUMBER AND PERCENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED IN STRIKES DUEWHOLLY

OR PARTLY TO EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905. (For explanation of this table see text statement, page 55. The totals entered in the box headings

are taken from Table X, where each establishment was counted but once.]

Cause or object.

1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. (Total (Total (Total Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total (Total estabestan estabestub estab- tab-estabestab-enabestab

lish- lish | lish- lish-| lish- lish- lish lish- lish- lishmente ments muntsments ments ments ments ments mente ments

in in- in- in in- in- in- in- in- inrolred rolred rolled rolled rolved rolled rored rolred rolled rolled 2,928.) 2,105.) 2,759.) 2.357.) 2,244.) 10,063.) 6,589.) 3,506.) 3,786.) 9,424.)

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Number.. 1,630 1,618 1,678 821 1,101 2, 747 1. 899 1. 489 1,433 3, 418 For increase of wages......

Kes.. .Por cent.. 55.67 76. 86 60.82 31. 69 18.20 27.33 28. 82 12. 47 37.83 36. 27 For increase of wages com-/ Number. 287. 113 504 098 331 1. 848 1.259 242603 1, 434 bined with various causes Per cent.. 9.80 5.37 18. 27. 29. 19 14. 4918. 38 19. 11 6. 90 17.51 15. 22

Number. 112 187 370 410 433 321 401 292 001 590 Against reduction of wages. Per cent 3. 8.88 12. 69 17.32 18.96 3. 196. 09 8.33 15.84 6. 201 Against reduction of wages h

on

31 combined with various

I'er cent..) 2.80 .57 1.45 1.31 3. 592. so 2. 85 .54 .95 20 causes.................... e I Number...

45 5 236 For reduction of hours.....

154 3, 425 1,124 289 383 1,973 ... Per cont. 2.12 2. 14 . 18 10.82 6. 71 31,07 17.06 8.21 10.12 20.91 For reduction of hours com- Number..! $35 13 309 576 144 1,8171 773 6691399 1.195 bined with various causes Per cent.. 28. 52 .62 11.20 24.33 6.30 18.07 11.73 19.08 10.54 12. 68

Number..

1 11

2 123 8 Against increase of hours. 17

3915! * P'er cent..

.05 . 13 .09 1.22 .12 1.11 Against increase of hours

Number.. combined with various

Per cent.. causes........

.03 ...... 1.16 .31...... .51 2. 43 .......32.03 Concerning recognition of/ Number..

80 3067 308 616 233 254 610 union and union rules.... Per cent. 2 1

1.27 2.93 3.06 9.35 6.65 6.71 6. 47 Concerning recognition of) union and union rules Number. 104

124 130 361 481 398 478 353 combined with various Per cent.. 3.

5. 24. 5. 69 3. 59 7.30 11.35 12. 63 3.75 Causes.... Concerning employment of Number.

54 118 168 95 84 172 certain persons(a)........ Per cent.. 1.23 1. 43

2. 36 1.17 2.55 2.711 2.22 1.83 Concerning employment of Number.. 5 81

13 eertain persons(a) combined with various causes

uses Per cent.. Concerning employees working out of regular

Per cent.. occupation..... Concerning employees

working out of regular Number. occupation combined with Per cent..

various causes........... Concerning overtime work Number..

and pay.................. Per cent. Concerning, overtime work

I Number... and pay combined with

Per cent.. various (auses........... Concerning method d/Number..

29395 time of payment.........ller cent..

.29 5.99 Concerning method and Number.

117 107 time of pa yiuent combined with various causes Per cont..

81 1. 16: 1.62 Concerning Saturday part | Number.. holiday...

..... Per cent... Concerning Saturday partNumber.. holiday combined with various causes...........

Per cent.. Concerning docking, fines, /Number..

10 17 and charges.............. Per cent. Concerning docking, fines, Number

and charges combined with various causes.......

Per cent. Concerning working condi- Number..

464 76 34 115 tions.and rules(a)........ Per cent..

4.62 1. 15 .97 3.04 Concerning working condi-Number! tions and rules(a) com

3 484 13 83 bined with various causes) Per cent..2

31 3.80 .05.13. SO .34 .88 In sympathy with strikers

25 27 118 278 121 88 752 and employees locked out, elsewhere... " Per cent..

06 1.18 1.17 4.22 3.45 2. 32 7.98 In sympathy with strikers) and employees locked out. Number..

266 16 190 ............ elsewhere, combined with Per cent..

1. 89.... Various causes.......... Other causes (not above Number..

56

126 specified).................!

........ Per cent. Other causes combined with

Number.. various above - Specified Per cent..

9 50 83 27 8

.39 .30 1.26 77 causes.....

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