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SUMMARY OF STRIKES FOR THE UNITED STATES DUE WHOLLY OR PARTLY TO

EACH OF THE 14 CAUSES, 1881 TO 1905–Concluded.

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For increase of wages....

049.95 $18.69 131.36 2,212,195 For increase of wages combined with various causes.....

c46, 87 25. 18 627.95 1,331,158 Against reduction of wages......

... d34.95 0.2.74 0.52.31 856,947 Against reduction of wages combined with various causes...

67. 40 6.21 26. 39 99,698 For reduction of hours......

€50.69 e10.08 €39. 23 389,876 For reduction of hours combined with various causes..

93 125.72 850,694 Against increase of hours.....

irs..............50.06 | 12.85 37.09 65,883 Against increase of hours combined with various causes...

61.53 6.15

22,164 Concerning recognition of union and union rules......

955. 48 01.64 942. 88 610,088 Concerning recognition of union and

union rules combined with various causes....

138. 66 124.58 136, 76 795,727 Concerning employment of certain persons (i)...

24.81 1.64 73.55 287,883 Concerning employment of certain per

sons(i) combined with various causes 29.03 18. 42 52.55 139,767 Concerning employees working out of regular occupation....

50.09 2.15 47.76

29,112 Concerning employees working out of

regular occupation combined with

various causes...................... 32.98 59.69 7.33 4,220 Concerning overtime work and pay.... 50.70 17. 49 41.81 22,857 Concerning overtime work and pay

combined with various causes...... 60.31 21.83 17.86 74,957 Concerning method and time of pay

39.56 3.25 57. 19 69,025 Concerning method and time of pay

ment combined with various causes. 55. 39 | 27.60 17.01 235,668 Concerning Saturday part holiday .... 43.61

54. 89 6,154 Concerning Saturday part holiday

combined with various causes.......152.16 123. 45 124. 39 62,916 Concerning docking, fines, and charges.

8. 46 | 42.99 42, 228 Concerning docking, fines, and charges combined with various causes.....

18. 48 171, 404 Concerning working conditions and rules (1)...

54.39 112,705 Concerning working conditions and

rules (1) combined with various causes/ 51.05 21.00 | 27.95 101,664 In sympathy with strikers and em

ployees locked out elsewhere........ 120.68 m2.79 m 76.53 i 259,316 In sympathy with strikers and em

ployees locked out, elsewhere, com

bined with various causes...... . 11. 13 5. 57 83.30 18, 420 Other causes (not specified above).

(not specified above).... 100.76 i 6.50 132.74 194,057 Other causes combined with various

above-specified causes............ 43.91 26.17 29.92 106,161

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6,079 30, 639 101,918 80,918 251,995

7,622 69, 244 61,952 177.740 150,769 131,990 373,968

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a Not including 33 establishments not reported.

o Not including 11 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report and 7 establishments not reported.

Not including 11 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

d Not including 38 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

« Not including 437 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not including 1 establishment in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

9 Not including 36 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report,

a Not including 21 establishments not reported.

i Not including 4 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

Not involving union rules. k Not including 12 establishments not reported.

Not including 6 establishments in which strike was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report.

In the first table of the series the total number of strikes in each year is shown in the box heading. Opposite each cause is shown the number of strikes arising from that cause, and the percentage which that number is of the total for the year as shown in the box heading.

In the year 1881 the predominant cause of strikes as measured by the number of strikes was for increase of wages. This cause alone produced 61.15 per cent of the 471 strikes that occurred in that year; in combination with other causes it produced 5.31 per cent of all strikes in that year. The second cause in importance was against a reduction of wages. This as a sole cause produced 10.40 per cent of all strikes in that year. Strikes concerning the recognition of union and union rules as a sole cause constituted 5.73 per cent of all strikes in that year, and alone and in combination with other causes, 6.79 per cent of all strikes in that year.

In the year 1905, the last year of the period covered by the table, a material change is seen in the relative importance of certain causes. In that year the leading cause was concerning the recognition of union and union rules. The 641 strikes for that cause alone constituted 30.86 per cent of the 2,077 strikes in that year; while alone and in combination with other causes it led to 35.53 per cent of all strikes in that year. The second cause in importance in the year 1905 was for increase of wages; 28.07 per cent of all strikes in that year were due to that cause alone, and 36.59 per cent of all strikes in that year were due to that cause alone and combined with other causes.

A comparison of the relative importance each year of some of the causes is especially interesting. The percentage of strikes for increase of wages alone was 61.15 per cent in 1881, 54.41 per cent in 1882, 45.40 per cent in 1883, 29.57 per cent in 1884, etc. The percentage fluctuated from year to year, but the general tendency was downward. The percentage of strikes against a reduction of wages solely shows a tendency to decrease. The percentage of strikes due to recognition of union and union rules alone was 5.73 per cent in 1881 and fluctuated from year to year, but generally increased until the highest point, 32.42 per cent, was reached in 1904. That cause in combination with other causes also showed a decided increase during the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905.

3091–07 5

Strikes for a reduction of hours varied in importance throughout the period; the years when they were relatively the most frequent were 1886, 1887, and 1890, while as a sole and contributing cause they were quite important in the years 1899 to 1903.

The percentage of strikes concerning the employment of certain persons, not involving union rules, did not vary materially throughout the period. Strikes because of employees working out of regular occupation were of rare occurrence in the earlier years of the period, but became something of a factor in the later years.

The difference in the percentage of sympathetic strikes is very noticeable. In 1891, 11.53 per cent of all strikes were sympathetic, and for a few years before and after 1891 they frequently occurred. Between 1895 and 1898 there were few for this cause. In 1904, however, they constituted 3.68 per cent of all strikes in the year.

The second table of the series shows the number and per cent of establishments involved in strikes due wholly or in part to each of the fourteen causes during each year from 1881 to 1905. When measured by the number of establishments involved, the most important cause of strikes was for increase of wages. In every year except four a greater number was due to that cause than to any other. The percentage of strikes due to that cause varied from 21.06 per cent in 1892 to 76.86 per cent in 1882, varying decidedly from year to year but showing a general downward tendency during the period. A comparison of strikes undertaken for increase of wages combined with various causes showed a decided tendency to increase during the twenty-five years covered by the investigation. The strikes against a reduction of wages when measured by establishments involved showed a tendency to decrease. The per cent of establishments involved, due to disputes concerning the recognition of union and union rules, increased materially during the period covered.

The third table of the series shows the number and per cent of strikers in strikes due wholly or partly to each of the 14 causes and their combinations in each of the years from 1881 to 1905.

So far as the number of strikers was concerned the most important cause of strike was for increase of wages. The percentage of strikers in strikes due wholly to that cause was 63.58 per cent in 1881, 64.26 per cent in 1882, 43.26 per cent in 1883, etc. The per cent varied materially from year to year, but generally tended to decrease during the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905.

The percentage of strikers in strikes due to a demand for increase of wages, combined with other causes, increased materially during the period covered by the investigation. The percentage of strikers in strikes due wholly to disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules was 2.60 per cent in 1881, the first year of the period covered in the investigation, and 17.15 per cent in 1905. The per cent varied materially from year to year yet showed a decided increase during the twenty-five years from 1881 to 1905. The percentage of strikers in strikes due to disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules combined with other causes also showed a decided increase during the period covered by the investigation.

The fourth table of the series is a summary of the period from 1881 to 1905.

A study of that table shows that during the twenty-five years more strikes were undertaken for increase of wages than for any other cause. This alone led to 11,851 strikes, or 32.24 per cent of all strikes, while combined with other causes it led to 3,117 strikes, making 14,968 strikes, or 40.72 per cent of all strikes, attributable in whole or in part to demands for increase of wages.

Disputes concerning the recognition of union and union rules produced 6,926 strikes, or 18.84 per cent of all strikes, while that cause combined with other causes produced 1,658 strikes, making a total of 8,584 strikes, or 23.35 per cent of all strikes, due in whole or in part to disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules.

Nearly three times as many strikes were caused by demands for increase of wages as were caused by reduction of wages on the part of the employer. Strikes against increase of hours were few in number as compared with strikes for reduction of hours. Sympathetic strikes numbered less than 4 per cent of all strikes. The question of working conditions and rules, not involving unionism, entered into a little more than 3 per cent of all strikes.

One-third of all establishments involved in strikes were involved in strikes solely for increase of wages, and if strikes for increase of wages in combination with other causes be included, nearly 58 per cent of all establishments were involved in strikes due wholly or in part to demands for increase of wages. Measured by establishments involved, demands for reduction of hours alone and combined with other causes were second in importance among the causes, and disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules were third.

In practically one-half of all establishments involved, strikes for increase of wages succeeded, and in nearly 19 per cent of all establishments involved strikes for the same cause succeeded partly, while they failed in a little more than 31 per cent of the establishments. Strikes concerning recognition of union and union rules succeeded in 55 per cent of all establishments involved.

When the question of reduction of wages was alone at issue strikes failed more often than they succeeded. The same was true when the disputes were concerning the employment of certain persons, both alone and combined with other causes; concerning method and time of payment; concerning Saturday part holiday; concerning working conditions and rules; and in sympathetic strikes, both alone and combined with other causes.

When measured by the number of strikers and by the number of employees thrown out of work, disputes concerning wages, hours, and recognition of union and union rules were, in the order named, the most important causes of strikes.

CAUSES OF LOCKOUTS.

In the series of four tables which follows, certain data relating to lockouts have been tabulated according to the causes for which undertaken. The 14 causes and their combinations correspond to those shown for strikes in the preceding tables. The wording of the causes has been changed only so far as was necessary to make them applicable to lockouts.

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