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establishments. Where this cause was combined with other causes, however, lockouts were failures in about two-thirds of the establishments involved.

Lockouts against demand for increase of wages, both alone and combined with various causes, succeeded in whole or in part more often than they failed. Sympathetic lockouts were successful in nearly three-fourths of the establishments involved. Lockouts because of disputes concerning the employment of certain persons were even more generally successful.

About one-third of all employees locked out and of all employees thrown out of work were included in lockouts due to disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers'organization.

Lockouts due to disputes concerning wages were next in importance when measured by the number of employees locked out or thrown out . of work.

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

The following tables present the results of both strikes and lockouts, the first of the three tables presenting these data by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions.

A strike in an establishment was reported as successful, when the employees succeeded in enforcing full compliance with all of their demands; partly successful, when they succeeded in enforcing compliance with a part of their demands or partial compliance with some or all of their demands; and failed, when they did not succeed in enforcing even partial compliance with any of their demands.

A lockout in an establishment was reported as successful, when the employer succeeded in enforcing full compliance with all of his demands; partly successful, when he succeeded in enforcing compliance with a part of his demands or partial compliance with some or all of his demands; and failed, when he did not succeed in enforcing even partial compliance with any of his demands.

The table presenting the results of strikes and lockouts by years follows:

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Tables IV, pages 478 and 479, and XVI, pages 736 and 737, for notes relating to establishments in

which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

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During the twenty-five-year period from 1881 to 1905 the employees won their demands in 47.94 per cent of the 181,407 establishments involved in strikes; they won their demands in part in 15.28 per cent of the establishments, and they failed entirely in 36.78 per cent. In 57.20 per cent of the 18,547 establishments involved in lockouts the employers succeeded in forcing compliance with their demands; in 10.71 per cent there was partial compliance, and in 32.09 per cent of the establishments the employers failed.

The percentage of establishments involved in strikes in which the employees were either wholly or partly successful varied greatly from year to year, reaching as high as 73.24 per cent successful and 14.25 per cent partly successful in 1899 and falling as low as 34.51 per cent successful and 18.85 per cent partly successful in 1886, and 37.88 per cent successful and 8.29 per cent partly successful in 1891. In 1905, the last year of the investigation, the employees succeeded in enforcing their demands in 40.17 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes, succeeded partly in 11.45 per cent, and failed in 48.38 per cent. In 1905 the employers succeeded in enforcing their demands in 31.60 per cent of the establishments involved in lockouts,

The second table of this series presents results of strikes and lockouts by industries:

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Tables III, pages 472 to 477, and XV, pages 732 to 735, for notes relating to establishments in

which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

Strikes.

Lockouts.

Industry.

Per cent of estab

Per cent of estabTotal lishments in which

Total

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Agricultural implements........
20.43 16. 13 63. 44 13 92. 31

7.69 Agriculture...

131 22. 90 | 22.90 Automobiles and bicycles.

93 40.86 2.15 56.99

***4 75.00

25.00 Awnings, tents, and sails....

26.67 10.00 63.33 Bakery ........... 6, 423 61.44 4.06 34.50

40.00

13.94 Blacksmithing and horseshoeing 2,979 86.74 4.06 9.20

99.46

.54 Boots and shocs..... 1,555 38.01 10.03 51.96 337

39.17

2.76 48.07 Brass and brass goods.

284 14.44

19.36
66.20
87.50

12.50 Brewing....

874 32.49 32.15 35.36

204
69.12

30.88 Brick and tile.... 1,476 32.45 17.35 | 50.20 52 55.77

44.23 Brooms and brushes...

65 46.15 10.77 43.08

1 100.00 Building trades.... 9,899 052.47 a 17.42 a30.11

66.23 Canning and preserving

43.36 3.54 53.10 Car building............

614 24.43 21.99 53.58 12 91.67 8.33 Carpets.....

426' 30.05 17.13 52.82 4 75.00 Carriages and wagons

1,420 28.17 1 27.5.3 ! 44.30! 214 6.54, 93.46 Clothing, men's.

15,996 75.51 | 6.49 18.00 1,803 9.00' 10.49 Clothing, women's.

4,918 66.37 6.83 26.80 140 40.71 1.... 59.29 Coal and coke...

17,025

22.52 28.00 49.48 458 10.26! 85.37 4.37 Collins and undertakers' goods.

27! 7.41 29.63 62.96 Confectionery...

39 / 43.59

56.41
2 50.00

50.00 Cooperage........... ,086 62.71 7.46 29.83 24' 79.17

20.83 Cotton and woolen goods.. 440, 13.64 9.54 76.82

100.00 Cotton goods...

832
18.43 11.69 69.88 64 65.62

29.69 Cutlery and edge tools.. 37.50 9.37 53.13 14 71.43

28.57 Domestic service.. 2,924 18.09 15.90 06.01 61, 45.90

54.10 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies...................... 111 34.24 1.80 63.96 24' 50.00

50.00 Electric light and power....

150 26.00 8.00 66.00

3 100.00

..... Flour mill products.......

21.35 8.99

69.66

3 100.00 Foundry and machine shop... .! 4,722! 37.70 16.52 45.72 100 78.00 Freight handling and teaming.....

5.605 25.49 11.53 62.98 404 73.02 14.85 12.13 Furnishing goods, men's......

885 75 34 5.32 19.34 40 77.50 2.50 20.00 Furniture and upholstering ..

1,551 40.36 9.61 50.03 193 69.43 5.70 24.87 Gas.......................

15 39 13.46 71.15 Glass..... 1.0201 35.81 6.52 57.67 145 55.00

44.00 Gloves and mittens..... 241 | 33.19 51.87 14.94 72: 54.17

45.83 llardware..............

23.61 10.49 65.90

23: 65.22

13.04 Harness and saddlery..

340 46.02 7.96 46.02

85.71

14.29 Ilats and caps...... 44.00 13.67 42.33 138 55.80

43.48 Hosiery and knit goods..

251 27. 09 11. 16 61. 75

94. 60 1. 351 4.05 Iron and steel ............

...219 25. 12 15. 60 59. 28 46 84. 45 2. 22 13. 33 Ironwork, ornamental ..

101 23. 76 14. 85 61. 39 37 100.00 Jewelry and silverware..

315
18. 73 34. 92 46. 35

74 100.00 Laundry work....

482 21. 99 62. 45 15, 56 31. 77. 42' 19.35 3. 23 Leather...... 346 28 33 16. 76 54. 91 138' 85.51

13.77 Leather goods...

67.60 2. 82 29. 58 Lime and cement..

14.64 45. 12 36 11.11

88 89 Lithographing...

170
34. 12 42. 35 91

20
3. 30

96.70 Lumber and timbe

806
19. 73 49. 38 26 1 73. 08

26. 92 Metallic goods...

283 22. 97 18. 73 58. 30 12 100.00 Mill nery goods.....

45. 83 8.34 45, 83 19 100.00 Mining, ore ......

19. 01 6. 39 74.60 1 11 63. 64 Musical instrumen

208 31. 25 12.02 56.73 18 100.00 Paper..

177 29. 94 14. 69 55, 37

2 100.00 Paper goods.

112 14. 29 41. 07 44. 64

2' 50.00

50.00 Planing mill products..

1,532 31. 85 | 11. 88 56. 27 54 57. 41 ! 1. 85 40.74 Pottery ..............

195 13. 33

44. 10 31, 35. 4861. 29 3. 23 Printing and publishing..

2,999 45.01
47. 24 394 37. 79

. 20

61.95 Public works..........

155 32. 90 10. 32 56. 78

1 100.00 . Railroad, canal, and road building.. 532 23. 311 8.27 | 68. 42 .....................

................... Inc'uding 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans,the principal industry afected being building trades.

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RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

Strikes.

Lockouts.

Industry.

Per cent of estal

Per cent of estabTotal lishments in which

1 Total

lishments in which estabstrike-

estal

lockout--
lish-

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Railroad transportation..
Rope, twine, and bugg.ng.
Rubber goods......
Shipbuilding.....
Silk goods....
Slaughtering and meat packing
Smelting and refining..
Stone quarrying and cutting
Stoves and furnaces......
Street railway transportation.
Streets and sewers...
Telegraph and telephone..
Tin and sheet metal goods.....
Tobacco: chewing and smoking..
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes...
Trunks and val ses.......
Typewriters, cash registers, and sew-

ing machines...
Watches and clocks.
Water transportation
Wooden goods.......
Woolen goods.....
Miscellaneous....

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In some of the important industries most affected by labor disturbances the results were as follows: In the strikes in the building trades the employees succeeded in enforcing their demands in 52.47 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 17.42 per cent, and failed in 30.11 per cent. In coal and coke the employees succeeded in 22.52 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 28 per cent, and failed in 49.48 per cent. In the manufacture of men's clothing the employees succeeded in 75.51 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 6.49 per cent, and failed in 18 per cent.

In lockouts in the building trades the result was favorable to the employers in 66.23 per cent of the establishments involved, partially so in 4.47 per cent, and against them in 29.30 per cent. In coal and coke the employers succeeded in 10.26 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 85.37 per cent, and failed in 4.37 per cent. In men's clothing the employers succeeded in 9.60 per cent of the establishments involved, succeeded partly in 10.49 per cent, and failed in 79.91 per cent. The third table of this series shows the results of strikes and lockouts by States and geographical divisions.

RESULTS OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS,

1881 TO 1905.

See Tables V. pages 480 to 483, and XVII, pages 738 to 741, for notes relating to general strikes or lockouts extending into two or more States, establishments in which strike or lockout was pending at the close of some one of the four investigations included in this report, and establishments in which result of strike or lockout was not reported.]

Strikes.

Lockouts,

State and geographical division.

Per cent of estal

Percent of estabTotal

Total lishments in which

lishments in which estab

estabstrike

lockoutlish

lishments i

ments
in-

Suc-
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Alabama. Arizona.... Arkansas.... Caliiornia... Colorado..... Connecticut. Delaware.. District of C Florida..... Georgia... Idaho.... Illinois...... Indiiana..... Indian Territory. lowa....... Kansas... Kentucky.. Louisia na... Maine....... Maryland... Massachusett Michigan..... Minnesota... Mississippi.. Missouri..... Montana... Nebraska..... Nevada...... New Hampshire... New Jersey.. New Mexico.... New York..... North Carolina North Dakota.. Ohio. Oklahoma... Oregon....... Pennsylvania... Rhode Islandi... South Carolina. South Dakota.. Tennessee.. Texas..... U'tah...... Vermont... Virginia..... Washington... West Virginia.... Wisconsin.. Wyoming.....

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49.80 10.95 39.25 100.00 100.00 58.81 5.96 35.23 96. 30

, 3.70 100.00 83.29 .31 16.40 30.00

33. 33 100.00 50.00

50.00 72. 22 19. 43 8. 33 90. 15

9.85 100,00 90.36 9.64 54.90' 3. 92 41.18 77.68 13. 398.93 84.21'.

15.79 61. 62: 11.11 27.27 50.00

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