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MUSICAL COMPOSITION. See Taxation, 2.
NATIONAL DEFENSE. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
NATIONALITY. See Treason.
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT. See Labor, 1.
NEGLIGENCE. See Admiralty, 1; Government Employees.
NEGROES. See Constitutional Law, II, 4; Labor, 2.
NEWSPAPERS. See Constitutional Law, V, 10.
NEW YORK. See Constitutional Law, II, 1, 3.
NORRIS-LaGUARDIA ACT. See Jurisdiction, IV, 2.
OCCUPATION COURTS. See Jurisdiction, I, 2.
OIL AND GAS. See Jurisdiction, II, 5.
OKLAHOMA. See Jurisdiction, II, 5.
OPTICIANS. See Taxation, 4.
OREGON. See Antitrust Acts, 1; Constitutional Law, V, 8-9.
OVERT ACTS. See Treason.
PASSENGERS. See Constitutional Law, II, 2.
PATENTS. See Antitrust Acts, 2.
PERSONAL INJURIES. See Government Employees.
PHYSICIANS. See Antitrust Acts, 1; Taxation, 4.
POLITICAL PARTIES. See Constitutional Law, I, 2; Elections.
POWER COMMISSION. See Federal Power Act.
PRESIDENT. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
PRESS. See Constitutional Law, II, 3-4; V, 10.
PRICE DISCRIMINATION. See Antitrust Acts.
PRIMARY ELECTIONS. See Elections.
PRIOR RESTRAINT. See Constitutional Law, II, 3.
PRIVACY. See Constitutional Law, V, 2.
PRIZE. See Taxation, 2.
PROCEDURE. See also Admiralty; Amicus Curiae; Antitrust

Acts; Constitutional Law, I, 1; III; V, 1, 4, 6, 8–11; Contempt;
Evidence; Government Employees; Jurisdiction; Labor; Stat-
utes; Trading with the Enemy Act; Transportation; Treason;

Trespass; Trial.
1. Intervention Corporate assets Rights of stockholders.-
Right of innocent nonenemy stockholders to intervene in suit by
PROCEDURE—Continued.
enemy-tainted foreign corporation to recover assets seized under
Trading with the Enemy Act; Rule 24 (a) (2) of Federal Rules of
Civil Procedure. Kaufman v. Societe Internationale, 156.

2. FindingsCourt without jury-Review.-Findings, when not
"clearly erroneous,” may not be set aside; Rule 52 (a) of Rules of
Civil Procedure. United States v. Oregon State Medical Society,
326.

3. Criminal cases-ReviewConfession of error.–Solicitor Gen-
eral's confession of error, permitting new trial, accepted and judg-
ments of conviction reversed. Casey v. United States, 808.
PUBLIC OFFICERS. See Constitutional Law, III; V, 10; Crimi-

nal Law, 1; Elections; Evidence, 1; Jurisdiction, II, 7; IV, 1.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS. See Constitutional Law, II, 1.
PUBLIC UTILITIES. See also Federal Power Act; Transporta-

tion.
Streetcars and busses-District of Columbia-Transit radio.-
Order of D. C. Public Utilities Commission permitting radio pro-
grams on streetcars and busses was within statutory authority and
not unconstitutional. Public Utilities Comm'n v. Pollak, 451.
PUBLIC VESSELS ACT. See Government Employees.
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. See Labor, 2.
RADIO. See Constitutional Law, III; Public Utilities.
RAILROADS. See Bankruptcy; Jurisdiction, IV, 2; Labor, 2;

Transportation, 1-3.
RAILWAY LABOR ACT. See Jurisdiction, IV, 2; Labor, 2.
RATES See Federal Power Act; Transportation, 2-3.
REASONABLE DOUBT. See Constitutional Law, V, 9.
RELEASED TIME. See Constitutional Law, II, 1.
RELIGION. See Constitutional Law, II, 1, 3.
REORGANIZATIONS. See Bankruptcy.

REPEAL. See Statutes, 2.

RESTRAINT OF TRADE. See Antitrust Acts; Federal Power

Act.

"RIGHT AND WRONG" TEST. See Constitutional Law, V, 9.
ROUTES. See Transportation, 1, 3.
ROYALTIES. See Antitrust Acts, 2; Constitutional Law, V, 4.

RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. See Procedure, 1-2.
RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. See Contempt.
SACRILEGIOUS. See Constitutional Law, II, 3.
SCHOOLS. See Constitutional Law, II, 1.
SEAMEN. See Admiralty, 2; Government Employees.
SEARCH. See Constitutional Law, III; Evidence, 1.
SEIZURE. See Constitutional Law, I, 1; III; Evidence, 1; Trad-

ing with the Enemy Act.
SENTENCE. See Criminal Law, 3; Treason.
SEPARATION OF POWERS. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
SET-OFF. See Admiralty, 2.
SHERMAN ACT. See Antitrust Acts; Federal Power Act.
SHIPS. See Admiralty.
SHORT HAUL. See Transportation, 1.
SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT. See Constitutional Law, I, 3.
SPEECH. See Constitutional Law, II, 2-4.
STATUTES. See also Constitutional Law.

1. Interpretation Administrative interpretation - Effect.-Ad-
ministrative interpretation of Internal Revenue Code as entitled to
substantial weight. Lykes v. United States, 118.

2. Repeal-Effect Pending cases.-Act of Congress withdrawing
jurisdiction from federal courts applicable to pending cases in ab-
sence of reservation. Bruner v. United States, 112.

3. Criminal statutes-Strict construction--Definiteness-Applica-
tion of doctrines.- Meaning of doctrine of strict construction; ordi-
nary meaning not to be read out of statute; requirement of definite-
ness satisfied. United States v. Hood, 148.
STEEL. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
STOCKHOLDERS. See Trading with the Enemy Act.
STREETCARS. See Public Utilities.
STRIKES. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
SUMMARY PROCEEDINGS. See Contempt.
TAFT-HARTLEY ACT. See Constitutional Law, I, 1; Labor, 1.
TAXATION. See also Administrative Law; Constitutional Law,

IV.
1. Income tax-Unlawful gain-Extortion.—Money obtained by
extortion taxable. Rutkin v. United States, 130.

TAXATION—Continued.

2. Income tax-Prize-Computation.-Cash prize received by
taxpayer in musical composition contest was taxable income and
not excludable as gift; how tax computed. Robertson v. United
States, 711.

3. Income tax-DeductionsAttorney's fee.-Individual taxpayer
not entitled to deduct attorney's fee paid in contesting federal gift
tax assessment. Lykes v. United States, 118.

4. Income tax-DeductionsBusiness expenses.-Payments made
by opticians to doctors, of percentage of sale price of eyeglasses pre-
scribed, deductible as ordinary and necessary expense of business;
disallowance on ground of “public policy" unwarranted. Lilly v.
Commissioner, 90.
TAXICABS. See Constitutional Law, IV.
THROUGH ROUTES. See Transportation, 1, 3.
TORTS. See Admiralty.
TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT.

1. Seized corporate assetsNonenemy stockholders-Right of re-
covery.—Innocent nonenemy stockholders entitled to recover in-
terest in seized assets of enemy-tainted neutral corporation. Kauf-
man v. Societe Internationale, 156.

2. Seized corporate assets-Right of recovery-Enemy taint.-
Foreign corporation was affected with “enemy taint” and not en-
titled to recover seized property; separate interest of alleged non-
enemy stockholder. Uebersee Finanz-Korp. v. McGrath, 205.

TRAIN PORTERS. See Labor, 2.

TRANSPORTATION. See also Admiralty; Bankruptcy; Consti-

tutional Law, IV; Labor, 2; Public Utilities.
1. Through routesEstablishment-Restrictions.-I. C. C. find-
ing that “through route" existed, though carriers had never offered
through service over it, invalid; restrictions on establishment of
through route which would short-haul carrier. Thompson v. United
States, 549.

2. Rates-Reasonableness-Shipments of livestock.-I. C. C. order
finding rates for shipments of livestock to Chicago, and switching
charges in Chicago, not unreasonable and establishment of joint
through rates not in public interest, sustained; burden of showing
unreasonableness and prejudice; difference in rate between “dead
freight” and livestock not unreasonable. Swift & Co. v. United
States, 373.

TRANSPORTATION_Continued.

3. Joint ratesFinancial aid to carrier-Validity.-Financial-
needs prohibition of $ 15 (4) inapplicable to Commission's estab-
lishment of joint rates and division of revenues over carrier-estab-
lished through routes. United States v. Great Northern R. Co., 562.

4. State regulationTaxicabsFees.-Ordinance requiring permit
from sheriff and payment of $1 fee for driving taxicabs in county,
though passengers were being transported only in foreign com-
merce, not violative of Motor Carrier Act of 1935 nor of Interstate
Commerce Commission regulations. Buck v. California, 99.
TREASON.

Who may commit-Dual citizenshipTreasonable acts-Suffi-
ciency of evidence.-National of United States and Japan had not
renounced or lost United States citizenship and was guilty of treason
in mistreatment of American prisoners of war in Japan; sufficiency
of evidence; citizen of dual nationality resident in Japan owed
allegiance to United States; proof of overt acts; evidence of “ad-
hering to the enemy"; death sentence not arbitrary. Kawakita v.
United States, 717.
TRESPASS. See also Constitutional Law, III.

What constitutes trespassTrespass ab initioApplication of
doctrine.-Conduct of federal agents as no trespass; doctrine of
trespass ab initio applicable only as rule of civil liability, not where
question is of use of evidence in criminal prosecution. On Lee v.
United States, 747.
TRIAL. See also Admiralty, 2; Antitrust Acts; Constitutional

Law, II, 4; III; V, 1, 4, 8-11; Contempt; Criminal Law, 2–3.
Factual issuesVerdict of jury-Sufficiency of evidence.—Under
instructions to jury, verdict determined that money was received
by extortion; evidence supported verdict; verdict of jury on factual
issue, supported by substantial evidence, unreviewable. Rutkin v.
United States, 130.
TWELFTH AMENDMENT. See Constitutional Law, I, 2.
UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE. See Labor, 1.
UNFAIR TRIAL. See Constitutional Law, V, 4, 8–10.

UNIONS. See Labor.

USUFRUCT.

Usufruct agreementInterpretation.-Interpretation of usufruct
agreement; German law. Uebersee Finanz-Korp. v. McGrath, 205.

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