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F. W. Hutchison; minister of finance, his excellency 0. C. Harris; attorney-general, Hon. S. H. Phillips.

Bureau of public instruction.-President, Hon. W. P. Kamakau; members, c. c. Harris, C. de Varigny, F. W. Hutchison, and Bishop Staley; inspector-general of schools, A. Fornander; secretary, W. J. Smith.

Bureau immigration.-President, minister of the interior; members, C. R. Bishop, C. C. Harris, D, Kalakana, W. Hillebrand.

Supreme court.-Chief justice, E. H. Allen; first associate justice, Hon. A. S. Hartwell; second associate justice, Hon. H. A. Widemann; clerk, L. McCully, esq.; assistant clerk, W. Humphreys, esq.

Circuit judges. First circuit, Oahu, Hon. W. P. Kamakau; second circuit, Maui, Hon. A. J. Lawrence; third circuit, Hawaii, Hons. D. K. Naiapaakai, C. F. Hart, and R. A. Lyman; fourth circuit, Kauai, Hon. D. McBryde.

Board of health.-President, minister of the interior; members, W. Hillebrand, M. D.; Godfrey Rhodes, W. P. Kamakau, T. C. Heuck; port physician, A. C. Buffum.

Government officers.-Jailer, i ahu prison, Capt. J. H. Brown; col. lector-general of customs, W. F. Allen, esq.; postmaster-general, A. P. Brickwood, esg.; registrar of conveyances, Thomas Brown, esq.; superintendent waterworks, Capt. Thomas Long; superintendent public works, Robert Sterling, esq.; harbor master of Honolulu, Capt. John Meek; pilots in Honolulu, Capts. A. McIntyre and C. S. Chad. wick” (p. 75). XXI. AND TIIE FOLLOWING STATEMENT OF ADMIRAL BELKNAP,

FROM THE BOSTON HERALD OF JANUARY 31, 1893. To the Editor of the Herald:

The revolution in the Hawaiian Islands, resulting in the deposition of the Queen and the establishment of a provisional government, is an event not unexpected to diplomatic, naval, and consular officers who have had any acquaintance or familiarity with the course of aflairs in that island Kingdom for the past twenty years.

To the people of the United States the present situation is of momentous interest and of vital importance. Indeed, it would seem that nature had established that group to be ultimately occupied as an outpost, as it were, of the great Republic on its western border, and that the time had now come for the fulfillment of such design,

A glance at a chart of the Pacific will indicate to the most casual observer the great importance and inestimable value of those islands as a strategic point and commercial center. Situated in mid-north Pacific, the group looks out on every hand toward grand opportunities of trade, political aggrandizement, and polyglot intercourse.

To the north and northwest it beckons to the teening populations of China, Japan, Korea, and Russian coast of Asia; to the north and northeast it calls to Alaska and British Columbia; to the east it bows to the imperial domain of the western United States, holding out its confiding hands for closer clasp and more binding tie; to the southeast it nods to Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile; to the south and southwest it salutes the growing influence and tropic opportu.ities of Australia, New Zealand, and the numerous island groups constituting Polynesia.

Its chief commercial point, Honolulu, is already a port of call for our liues of steamships to Japan and Polynesia, and for the British lines may be proposed in the legislative assembly, and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members thereof, such proposed amend. ment or amendments shall be entered on its journal, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the next Legislature; which proposed amendment or amendments shall be published for three months previous to the next election of representatives; and if in the next Legislature such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by two-thirds of all the members of the legislative assembly, and be approved by the King, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the constitution of this country.

766 KAMEHAMEHA R.' (Pp. 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33.)

Joint resolution of the Hawaiian Legislature of 1856.

Resolved, That whereas it is desirable to codify our existing laws, His Royal Highness Prince Kamehameha, the honorable W. L. Lee, chief justice, and the honorable George M. Robertson, associate judge of the supreme court, are appointed a committee to prepare a complete civil code, adding notes with reference to important decisions of court under the laws, wherever they may think necessary, and to report the same for the sanction of the Legislature of 1858, with an appropriate index for facility of reference?” (p. 39). Comment on legislative provision for publication of Hawaiian law reports.

“It may not be inappropriate in this connection to state that so highly esteemed are some of the dicta of our Hawaiian courts abroad that their decisions have in more than one instance been quoted in some of the higher courts of the United States. This is no small honor to be attained by a nation which, one generation only ago, had no law but the “word of the chief?”.(p. 40).

XX. LIST SHOWING THAT A VERY SMALL PROPORTION OF THE

OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF THE CONDUCT OF THE GOVERNMENT WERE NATIVE HAWAIIANS, THE LARGER PROPORTION BEING AMERICANS,

The court, Government officers, etc. " The court.-His Majesty Kamehameha V, born December 11, 1830. Ascended the throne November 30, 1863. Son of Kinau and grandson of Kamehameha I.

“Her Majesty Queen Dowager Kalama, relict of His Majesty Kaui. keaouli, Kamehameha III.

“ Her Majesty Queen Dowager Emma, relict of His Majesty Alex. ander Liholiho, Kamehameha IV.

Privy council of state.- His Majesty the King. Their excellencies the ministers; the governors of Oahu, Kauai, and Maui. Her excellency the governess of Hawaii. His honor the chancellor of the Kingdom.

"H. A. Kahanu, 8. N. Castle, R. G. Davis, A. Fornander, C. Kanaina, O. R. Bishop, P. Y. Kaeo, P. S. Kalama, W. Hillebrand, W.O. Lunalilo, T. S. Staley, J. W. Makalena, W. P. Kamakau, G. Rhodes, J. Mott Smith, T. O. Heuck; secretary, D, Kalakaua.

The cabinet.-His Majesty the King; minister of foreign relations, his excellency O. de Varigny; minister of the interior, his excellency F. W. Hutchison; minister of finance, his excellency 0. C. Harris; attorney-general, Hon. S. H. Phillips.

Bureau of public instruction.-President, Hon. W. P. Kamakau; members, c. c. Harris, C. de Varigny, F. W. Hutchison, and Bishop Staley; inspector-general of schools, A. Fornander; secretary, W. J. Smith.

Bureau immigration.-President, minister of the interior; members, C. R. Bishop, c. c. Harris, D. Kalakana, W. Hillebrand.

Supreme court.-Chief justice, E. H. Allen; first associate justice, Hon. A. S. Hartwell; second associate justice, Hon. H. A. Widemann; clerk, L. McCully, esq.; assistant clerk, W. Humphreys, esq.

Circuit judges.-First circuit, Oahu, Hon. W. P. Kamakan; second circuit, Maui, Hon. A. J. Lawrence; third circuit, Hawaii, Hons. D. K. Naiapaakai, C. F. Hart, and R. A. Lyman; fourth circuit, Kauai, Hon. D. McBryde.

Board of health.-President, minister of the interior; members, W. Hillebrand, M. D.; Godfrey Rhodes, W. P. Kamakau, T. C. Heuck; port physician, A. O. Buffum.

"Government officers.—Jailer, i ahu prison, Capt. J. H. Brown; col. lector-general of customs, W. F. Allen, esq.; postmaster-general, A. P. Brickwood, esq.; registrar of conveyances, Thomas Brown, esq.; superintendent waterworks, Capt. Thomas Long; superintendent public works, Robert Sterling, esq.; harbor master of Honolulu, Capt. John Meek; pilots in Honolulu, Capts. A. McIntyre and O. S. Chadwick” (p. 75). XXI. AND TIIE FOLLOWING STATEMENT OF ADMIRAL BELKNAP,

FROM THE BOSTON HERALD OF JANUARY 31, 1893. To the Editor of the Herald:

The revolution in the Hawaiian Islands, resulting in the deposition of the Queen and the establishment of a provisional government, is an event not unexpected to diplomatic, naval, and consular officers who have had any acquaintance or familiarity with the course of affairs in that island Kingdom for the past twenty years.

To the people of the United States the present situation is of momentous interest and of vital importance. Indeed, it would seem that nature had established that group to be ultimately occupied as an outpost, as it were, of the great Republic on its western border, and that the time had now come for the fulfillment of such design.

A glance at a chart of the Pacific will indicate to the most casual observer the great importance and inestimable value of those islands as a strategic point and commercial center. Situated in mid-north Pacific, the group looks out on every hand toward grand opportunities of trade, political aggrandizement, and polyglot intercourse.

To the north and northwest it beckons to the teeming populations of China, Japan, Korea, and Russian coast of Asia; to the north and northeast it calls to Alaska and British Columbia; to the east it bows to the imperial domain of the western United States, liolding out its confiding hands for closer clasp and more binding tie; to the southeast it nods to Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile; to the south and southwest it salutes the growing influence and tropic opportw.ities of Australia, New Zealand, and the numerous island groups constituting Polynesia.

Its chief commercial point, Honolulu, is already a port of call for our lines of steamships to Japan and Polynesia, and for the British lines to New Zealand and Australia from Vancouver. That port also stands directly in the track of the commerce that will flow through the Nicara gua Canal when that great commercial need is completed. Indeed, in that coming day the enchanting coral, reef-locked harbor of Honolulu will hardly suffice to take in the ships that will put in there.

The interests in the group are mainly American, or substantially connected commercially with the United States. In the palmy days of the whale fishery the ports of Honolulu and Lahaina used to be packed at certain seasons of the year with the ships of that great and adventurous industry.

The advent of our missionaries at the islands in 1820, and the excellent work they did there, won the hearts of the natives and increased American influence. The treaty of reciprocity made with King Kalakaua in 1875 welded in closest bonds the ties of friendship and trade, and gave to the group its present wealth and prosperity.

The group now seeks annexation to the United States; the consummation of such wish would inare to the benefit of both peoples, com. mercially and politically. Annex the islands, constitute them a terri. tory, and reciprocal trade will double within ten years. Let the island. er8 feel that they are once and forever under the folds of the American flag, as part and parcel of the great Republic, and a development will take place in the group that will at once surprise its people and the world.

Not to take the fruit within our grasp and annex the group now beg. ging us to take it in would be folly indeed -a mistake of the gravest character, both for the statesmen of the day and for the men among us of high coinmercial aims and great enterprises.

Our statesmen should act in this matter in the spirit and resolve that secured to us the vast Louisiana purchase, the annexation of Texas, and the acquisition of California. The administration that secures to the United States the “coign of vantago” in the possession of those beautiful islands will score a great measure of beneficent achievement to the credit side of its account.

But in the path of annexation England will throw down the gauntlet of protest and obstruction. To that end she will bend all the powers of her diplomacy; all the cunning of her foreign-office procedures; all the energy, unwearied effort, and unvarying constancy that has ever made her secretly hostile in her diplomatic methods and commercial policies to the welfare, growth, and advancement of the United States.

She wants to gather the group under her own control; she would like to Egyptianize that vital point in the Pacific; she burns to estab. lish a Pacific Bermuda off our Western coast, to hold the same relation toward the ports of Esquimalt and Victoria on Vancouver Island that Bermuda bears toward Halifax, all strongly fortified, connected by cable with Downing street, and stored with munitions of war.

Let the British lion once get its paw upon the group and Honolulu would soon become one of the most important strongholds of Great Britain's power. With her fortified port of Esquimalt dominating the entrance to Puget Sound, constituting an ever-standing menace to our domain in that region, she wants to supplement such commanding advantage by another stronghold at Hawaii, where, within six days' easy steaming from San Francisco, she could immediately threaten that port with one of her fleets in the event of the sudden outbreak of war.

Great Britain will undoubtedly propose a joint arrangement for the government of the islands, but we want none of that no entangling alliances. We have had enough of such business at Samoa

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