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By the capture of Manila, there was surrendered to our command about 5600* prisoners, 22,000 small arms, 10,000,000 rounds of ammunition, 70 pieces of modern artillery of various calibers and several hundred ancient bronze pieces, and $900,000 of public money, besides the city and fortifications.
The day previous to the capture, the protocol of peace between Spain and the United States had been signed at Washington.
* There seems to be some uncertainty about the number of Spanish troops surrendered with the city. We have been able to find no official report. If, as stated on page 82, Gen. Greene gave 13,000 as the number, he must have included prisoners in the hands of insurgents. The figures in the list are those of Mr. Foreman, who appears to have had access to official records.
FROM THE CAPTURE OF MANILA TO THE REVOLT
OF THE FILIPINOS.
HE situation in Manila at the time of the capitulation was
chaotic. Civil government was disrupted and the only law in force was military law. It is remarkable with what celerity the military authorities brought order out of confusion, so that within a few days a system of government was established, as effective as that which obtains in most of our large cities. From the hour of surrender, there was not a hostile demonstration against the American army. The Spaniards, whatever their regret for the defeat of their arms, were ready to co-operate
heartily in establishing and maintaining order. For twenty-four hours, and until it suited the pleasure of the Americans to disarm them, they held their positions with their guns. The great batteries on the Luneta were still in their possession, and Admiral Dewey next day sent Lieut. Calkins ashore to learn the situation, fearing that there might be some danger unforseen, his attention having been directed to these batteries, and Lieut. Calkins still finding the Spaniards in possession, he took from the guns the breech-plugs and brought them to the ship. In the eastern part of the city, the next day still found the Spaniards on duty, and, upon their notifying the American commander that they could not hold their positions against the insurgents, were relieved by the Americans and ordered to surrender their arms. So universal within the city was the feeling that order would be maintained, that within two days business was generally resumed.
The disturbing force was far less in the city proper than in its surroundings, and the danger was not from the Spaniards within, but the insurgents without. On the 14th of August, the day the capitulation was signed, Gen. Merritt issued the following proclamation:
PROCLAMATION OF GEN. MERRITT.
MANILA, August 14, 1898. To THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES:
1. War has existed between the United States and Spain since April 21st of this year. Since that date you have witnessed the destruction by an American fleet of the Spanish naval power in these islands, the fall of the principal city, Manila, and its defenses, and the surrender of the Spanish army of occupation to the forces of the United States.
2. The Commander of the United States forces now in possession has instructions from his government to assure the people that he has not come to wage war upon them, nor upon any
party or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, by active aid or honest submission, co-operate with the United States in its effort to give effect to this beneficent purpose, will receive the reward of its support and protection.
3. The government established among you by the United States army is a government of military occupation, and for the present it is ordered that the municipal laws, such as affect private rights of persons and property, regulate local institutions, and provide for the punishment of crime, shall be considered as continuing in force, so far as compatible with the purposes of military goverument, and that they may be administered through the ordinary tribunals substantially as before occupation, but by officials appointed by the government of occupation.
4. A Provost Marshal-General will be appointed for the city of Manila and its outlying districts. This territory will be divided into sub-districts, and there will be assigned to each a Deputy Provost Marshal. The duties of the Provost Marshal-General and his deputies will be set forth in detail in future orders. In a general way, they are charged with the duty of making arrests of military, as well as civil offenders, sending such of the former class as are triable by court martial to their proper commands, with statements of their offenses and names of witnesses, and detaining in custody all other offenders for trial by military commission, provost courts or native criminal courts, in accordance with law and the instructions hereafter to be issued.
5. The port of Manila, and all other ports and places in the Philippines which may be in actual possession of our land and naval forces, will be open, while our military occupation may
CHINESE CATHOLIC CHURCH NEAR MANILA. continue, to the commerce of all neutral nations, as well as our own, in articles not contraband of war, and upon payment of the prescribed rates of duty which may be in force at the lime of the importation.
6. All churches and places devoted to religious worship and to the arts and sciences, all educational institutions, libraries, scientific collections and museums, are, so far as possible, to be protected, and all destruction or intentional defacement of such places or property, of historical monuments, archives or works of science, is prohibited, save when required by urgent military necessity. Severe punishment will be meted out for all violations of this regulation.
The custodians of all properties of the character mentioned in this section will make prompt returns thereof to these headquarters, stating character and location, and embodying such recommendations as they may think proper for the full protection of the properties under their care and custody, that proper orders may issue enjoining the co-operation of both military and civil authorities in securing such protection.
7. The commanding general, in announcing the establishment of military government and in entering upon his duties as military governor, in pursuance of his appointment as such by the government of the United States, desires to assure the people that so long as they preserve the peace and perform their duties toward the representatives of the United States, they will not be disturbed in their persons and property, except in so far as may be found necessary for the good of the service of the United States and the benefit of the people of the Philippines.
This proclamation was rapidly followed by a series of orders, having in view the establishment and maintenance of law and order in the city. Under the terms of the capitulation, the Spanish authority surrendered to the American command "the Spanish troops, European and native, with the city and defenses," and there were now within this area approximately 4000 insurgent troops and occupying fortified positions held by the Spaniards at the time of surrender. There was no question as to the limits of the territory held by the Spanish forces at the time of surrender, and no question that the insurgents were not in
CAPTURED GUNS. cluded by the terms of the surrender as one of the victors, and under its terms the Americans succeeded alone to the Spanish possession. The insurgents, however, insisted that they also had a claim of rights, and based their claim upon the assumption that they were allies of the American force. It was not claimed by them that they were such allies by express stipulation or even recognition, but they did insist that the circumstances of their investment of the city made them so. It was their claim that their participation forced the surrender of the city and that they had the right to participate in its control, independent of the terms of the surrender or the parties to it. The insurgents surrounded the city, except where the Americans were entrenched, holding most of the block-houses and all the out. lying Spanish trenches and the approaches to the city.
SHE FILIPINOS IN CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY. The business of Manila depended largely upon its commercial intercourse with the interior, and this could not go on without the consent of the insurgents. They also held possession of the city water-works. Their possession and retention was considered dangerous to our command. Aguinaldo afterward complained that he was not notified of the time or plan of the American attack. In this he was in part correct. He was not informed of the plan, but he knew of the time, and intended to force his command into recognition at the time of surrender, as is plainly evident by events preceding the attack.
COMPLICATIONS WITH THE FILIPINOS. The evening of the 12th, under instructions from Gen, Merritt, Gen. Anderson had telegraphed to Aguinaldo, in substance that the Americans would proceed to the attack without his forces, and that his command should be kept out of the city. This Aguinaldo answered with the memorable despatch, “Too late." This was but a pretense, for there was ample time for him to countermand any
previous instructions he might have given. One of the first acts of Gen. Merritt, then, after the surrender, was to take measures to rid the city of the armed insurgents. On the day of the surrender many of them had been intercepted and
turned back, and others, having gotten within the city, were disarmed. Gen. Anderson was ordered by Gen. Merritt to rid the city of the insurgents, and Anderson telegraphed Aguinaldo to withdraw his men at once. Aguinaldo answered him, that he had already sent a commission to present the matter to the Americans, and asked that Gen. Anderson consider the matter with them. There has been some censure of Gen. Anderson from military sources because he recognized this condition,
but he had precedent for so INTERIOR OF SAN SEBASTIAN CHURCH.
doing all through the campaign. Even Gen. Merritt's proclamation had been read to Aguinaldo's commission in parts, and was made in part to conform to their protest. As it was originally drawn, it provided that the Spanish laws governing civil affairs, property rights and the punishment of crime, should remain in force and be administered by local Spanish officers. The commissioners said they could not submit to Spanish officials, and Gen. Merritt provided that American officers should be appointed to hold important offices. Also, when the staff officer brought the order to Gen. Anderson, he asked if he was authorized to use force. The officer did not know, and if it were simply to be a matter of persuasion, it is difficult to see what other course was open to him. When the commissioners met Gen. Anderson, they submitted to him ten propositions, as follows:
1. That the insurgents would retire to a line running from Malate to Paco, thence down the Paco Creek to the Pasig, up the Pasig to the bridge of Aviles, along the Calle Aviles to Santa Mesa; thence through Sampaloc, San Lazaro and Tondo, to the beach at the north. (This would have given them Malate and Paco and important positions on the east and north of the city.)
2. That the Filipinos should retain certain convents in Malate, Paco and the northern suburbs, and should have the palace of the Captain-General in Malacañan.
3. That the Filipinos should have the free navigation of the Pasig for their vessels and the " protection of the Patria." (Nobody knows what the Patria is, or has been able to find out, but subsequent negotiations showed that it had something to do with our protection of their ships in all waters under our control.)
4. That the Filipinos share in the booty of war.
5. That the civil offices be filled entirely by North Americans. (If Gen. Merritt desired to appoint Filipinos to any such places, Aguinaldo suggested through the commissioners that he