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In July, 1899, Capt. Pratt was succeeded by Maj. Goodale, and subsequently Gen. John C. Bates arrived and concluded a “Treaty” with the Sultan. Gen. Otis summarizes this treaty in the following communication to the War Department, under date of August 24th, last:
An agreement was made with the Sultan and Datos whereby the sovereignty of the United States over the entire Jolo Archipelago is acknowledged; its flag to fly on land and sea; the United States to occupy and control all points deemed necessary. Introducing firearms is prohibited. The Sultan is to assist in suppressing piracy. He agrees to deliver criminals accused of crime not committed by Moros against Noros. Two other points in the archipelago will be occupied by the United States troops when trade and commerce can be controlled.
As with trifling exceptions, the population is Moro, it is evident that the Sultan's power is not greatly interfered with.
The Mohammedan is the dominant creed in Borneo, Sulu Archipelago and the great island of Mindanao. What is known as the Sulu Archipelago consists of about 150 islands, capable, so far as known, of cultivation and possessing some natural resources. What has led to much confusion in the enumeration of the number of islands in the Philippines, is the fact that some have attempted to include in the enumeration all the isolated ground surrounded by water, while others confine the estimate to those of some considerable dimensions or inhabitable. The Spaniards estimate that some ninety-five of the islands in the archipelago are inhabited, but very few of these have any import or export trade, and, with few exceptions, the great mass of natives in the archipelago live with little trade. There are some localities in which agriculture is
pursued. The principal products of foreign BRIGADIER-GENERAL KALE AND BRIGADE-SI'RGEON
MAJ. POTTER AT SAMPALOC CHURCH. dustries in the islands are in a very primitive stage. The islands generally have a salubrious climate, and may be made very productive of all tropical products, but production, for a time to come, must depend upon the native industry, and this seldom looks beyond present needs.
It is probable that trouble niay arise should our government attempt to enlarge the control imparted to it by the Spaniards, and hence it is well to examine the nature of the Spanish authority in the archipelago.
Many years since, the weaker of two contending "Sultans” sought an alliance with the Spanish government at Manila, which was perfected upon the agreement that he would recognize Spanish dominion in his territory, under certain restrictions, in consideration of which Spain should subdue the opposition
"Sultan.” While waiting for Spain's co-operation, the Sultan, who was to be aided by the Spaniards, attacked and dispersed the insurgent forces, losing his life in the engagement. The Spanish feet finally arrived, and, finding the Sultan
dead, returned to Manila without, in any manner, complying with the agreement. Adasaolan succeeded to the Sultansbip and made a new alliance with the Mindanao Sultan as well as the Sultan of North Borneo.
Later, the Spaniards attempted to establish their rule in the archipelago, claiming the right by virtue of the old alliance.
This was resisted and TRENCHES NEAR PULILAN, WIERE THIRTY-EIGHT BODIES WERE FOUND. nearly the whole Spanish command perished. The Moros, for a long time thereafter, pursued a kind of predatory warfare in which piracy and brigandage were the chief features. Under these methods they took, and, for a long time held possession of Cebu, Negros, Leyte, Bohol and certain provinces in Panay. Spain, by a series of victories, finally drove the Moros out of their territory and built at Zamboango, a strongly fortified place which they used as a base of operations against the Mohammedans.
Disease attacked the Spaniards at this place and out of a total of 1000 men, 850 died in a twelfth month. In 1770, a kind of treaty was arranged between the governments, so that further warfare was averted, excepting occasional piracies, and this condition prevailed for nearly a century. There now followed a period of years in which the Moros again pillaged and destroyel Spanish coast towns so that in 1876, Spain despatched a force against the Moros which effectually quelled the disturbance. In 1887, the Moros were again found in revolt, and this
KANSAS BOSS BU'ILDING TRENCHES UNDER HEAVY FIRE. Photo by K. 1. F. being suppressed, was succeeded by another revolt. In 1888, an agreement was made which recognized the rule of the Sultan, subject to a kind of Spanish suzerainty, under which Spain paid a yearly stipend to the Sultan for its rights, which, under the treaty concluded by Gen. Bates, is to be continued by us. Even under this treaty, Spain had never exercised any control in these islands, except in some of the sea-coast towns, and the population in the island interior has known no rule but that of the Sultan. How ineffective was Spanish rule in these islands may be understood from the fact that so late as 1892, the Spanish Gorernor attempted to enforce, for the first time, the collection of a tax upon the Moros. The Sultan with a large following visited the Governor, and in token of his good will, presented him with a basket of pearls. While the Governor was in the act of receiving them, the Sultan drew a barong and split his skull to his teeth. The population of these islands cannot be even approximately given, but whatever it may be, the people have never been subdued, and thus far the Americans have made no serious attempt to do so.
THE GUNBOAT FLOTILLA.
HROUGHOUT the operations against the followers of Aguinaldo,
the improvised gunboats under the command of Brevet-Major F. A. Grant, of the Utah Light Artillery, took a very importtant part. The first boat to be put into service was the Laguna de Bay, and her work in assisting the land forces to clear the Pasig River was looked upon with such favor that later two other boats were armed and fitted out for the service.
Many engagements were had with the natives, especially along the upper Pasig River and on the lake, Laguna de Bay,
after which the boat was named. As the boat was the largest and the first to be fitted up, a short account of her will be given.
THE “ LAGUNA DE BAY". The boat was an old side-wheel steamer owned by a Spanish company, and built especially for trading on the lake and Pasig River. She is 120 feet long, 40 feet beam, and of very light draft. Under orders of Major-General Otis, Maj. Grant was instructed to fit her out, and on the 27th of January, she was ready for duty. Tłe report of the completion of the boat showed that the main deck of the boat had been completely surrounded with two thicknesses of steel plate as a protection from rifle bullets. Two three-inch marine guns comprised the forward battery, with portholes so placed that they could be fired straight ahead or on either bow. The after battery consisted of two 1.65-inch Hotchkiss rifles, arranged to fire broadside or to the rear.
A turret of steel plates was erected on the top deck, inclosing and protecting the men working at the wheel, and also the secondary battery of four 45-caliter Gatling guns set on tripods.
To support the armor and guns the deck had to be strengthened with heavy timbers, and when this was done the boat was complete and ready for service, with a full and complete equipment of working lines and ship stores on board.
Capt. B. H. Randolph, of Battery G, 3d U. S. Heavy Artillery, was placed in command of the boat, with a detachment of twenty-nine men from his battery to man the guns on the main deck. Lieut. R. C. Naylor, of the Utah Art., with ten men, was also detailed on board the boat. Lieut. Naylor was given command of the guns, and the Utah men under Corp. Wm. Nelson were assigned to the Gatling battery. Lieut. E. A. Harting, with a detachment of twenty-five sharpshooters from the South Dakota Regiment, completed the fighting force of the
boat. Lieut. S. G. Larson, also of the South Dakota Regiment, was detailed as navigating officer, his experience before joining the army fitting him for the position.
As a crew to handle the boat was necessary, the whole army was picked over for men who were suited for the work. Sergt. H. F. Juirs, of the Signal Corps, was made chief engineer. No less than six regiments were represented in the crew. The greatest difficulty was had with the old engines, which were of a dif ferent pattern to those used at the present time, but all difficulties were finally overcome, and the boat was ready late in January and anchored in the river each night below the outposts.
VARIOUS FIGHTS ON THE RIVERS. On the historic night of February 4th, the Laguna de Bay was at her anchorage, and bullets struck all around her and whistled over her decks. Nothing could be done during the night, but early on the morning of the 5th, an aide appeared on the bank and gave an order to Capt. Randolph: “Gen. Otis directs you to proceed to the firing line and engage the enemy.”
On arrival at the front a Filipino flag could be seen floating over Santa Ana, and a vigorous cannonade was opened on this place, which was soon in flames. The church of San Juan del Monte came in for a heavy fire. These places were later occupied by the infantry. In the thick jungle, near Santa Ana, a party of insurgents annoyed the boat and also the Nebraska camp with a Mauser fire, so the boat rounded the bend and drove the insurgents beyond the San Juan River with the Gatling guns.
The natives were then pushed up the river by Gen. King's Brigade, the gunboat operating with him. On February 9th, the guns of the boat commanded the town of Pasig, and Gen. King demanded its surrender, which was complied with. At this time the river was free of natives to the lake, which was visited by the gunboat. The line to the north of the river had been weakened, and the natives threatened to break through, so the boat received orders to drop back and anchor above Santa Mesa, where a wide stretch of level country could be commanded by her guns. The next active service of the boat was on February 14th, when it was decided to evacuate Pasig and fall back to San Pedro Macati, to shorten the line to the south of the river. The natives were in large force at this point, and sufficient troops could not be spared to hold such an advanced point as Pasig. The retreat of the California Regiment from Pasig was a perilous undertaking, and the boat was sent up to protect the rear. At Pasig ferry the infantry made a stand, with the gunboat lying in the middle of the stream. At this point the first casualty on board the boat occurred, when Lieut. Harting was drowned, while attempting to land a Hotchkiss gun in a rowboat which capsized. The gun was lost. All efforts to rescue the officer were futile, and his body was not recovered until the current of the river washed it ashore at Manila. The next day the natives continued the fight, and for more than two hours the boat kept up a terrific fire on a swamp and jungle in which they had taken up their position. The same evening the infantry retreated to Guadalupe church, without losing a man, although the natives followed them closely. The boat returned to her position above Santa Ana, where the next day Maj. Grant came aboard, relieving Capt. Randolph of his command.