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the commerce of the Pacific is rapidly increasing, and we can see that with the new era of commercial enterprise, it must soon be immeasurably expanded. The factors promotive of this may be stated in brief.

What pertains to ourselves may be considered known, but looking beyond this continent we see populations having the Pacific Ocean as a shore line, whose business interests will revolutionize the future. The carrying trade will have in view a desirable interchange of commodities, and in this, regard will be had to the vast populations bordering on the waters, and to economy in time and distance.

These populations may be set down as follows:
The Chinese Empire and Islands ......

.400,000,000 British Indies and Dependencies .....

.290,000,000 Japan and Formosa ...................

45,000,000 Corea and Eastern Siberia .............

... 21,000,000 The Malay Peninsula and Siam ...

9,000,000 The Philippines, Australasia, Dutch East Indies and the islands of Oceanica 52,000,000 The total Western Slope of America ...

. 10,000,000

...

.........

It is readily seen, estimating the total population of the earth at 1,500,000,000, that more than one-half of it is included in the above enumeration.

The enormous expenditures in the recent past, in railway and maritime construction; the vast outlays in developing natural resources, and other like sums given to commercial and manufacturing enterprises; all these tend towards making the Pacific the carrying center of the world's business and traffic. Russia is hastening the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and bending her commercial energies to share in this new field. England is directing her colonial enterprises to this end. Japan has arisen from her lethargy of ages. Thirty-five years ago she had not an iron rail, a steamer, or manufactures; now her manufactures are in active competition with the best the world produces, and her foreign commerce, in 1897, amounted to quite $200,000,000. Certainly much must be expected of China, in this behalf. Her richest part is the valley of the Yang-tseKiang, covering over 600,000 square miles, through which the great river flows to the

A YOUNG CHINESE MESTIZO. Pacific. Here we find Shangai, with already an annual foreign trade of $80,000,000. Corea is another instance of rapid growth. A few years ago she had comparitively no foreign trade, but in 1897, this amounted to $11,755,625. The Dutch Colonial Possessions are all in place, and ready to avail themselves of the new trade and traffic. It is easy to see, that soon much of our European traffic will be diverted into this new field, where the consumer is not likewise competitor. Our relation to this situation, together with that of a home government to its colonies, may be briefly indicated by noting the following: In 1892 our export trade to China amounted, in round numbers, to $9,600,000, and in 1896 this had

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increased to $17,675,000. The English say the Americans have an aptitude for manufacturing what the market demands, while they (the English) manufacture what they think the people ought to have. This seems to be supported by the facts.

Our exports have increased in the last six years from 15 to 20 per cent, which is not equaled in the English trade. Our total exports for 1898 were $1,277,000,000. Since 1888 and including 1897, Great Britain, Germany, France, Spain and the British colonies have lost in exports $1,518,127,850, and during this time the United States gained $270,000,901.

England, it is estimated, controls CELEBRATING AGUINALDO'S ELECTION AT MALOLOS. practically 22 per cent of the entire area of the globe and 27 per cent of the population of the world, and has about 55 per cent of the carrying tonnage; still she lost in exports $566,000,000, or 772 per cent of her export trade; but in her exports to her colonies she lost 10 per cent of this trade, or $200,000,000.

Our exports to the Philippines for the past eighteen years average less than $130,000 yearly, this being from 1880 to and including 1897. For the last year, as shown by the Treasury Department Report, it was $127,804. Comparing this with our world's business, it is about 1-100 of 1 per cent.

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MINING INDUSTRIES. Much has been said of the mining interests in the islands, but at present these are almost unknown. However, there is sufficient information to justify exploration, when conditions will permit, although no one now seems to be possessed of absolute knowledge of the mines. Perhaps a reason may be found for this in the early accounts of De Morga. He says:

“All the islands are rich in gold washings, and in ore of this metal, which the natives extract and work; although, since the Spaniards are in the country, they proceed more slowly with this, contenting themselves with what they already have got in jewels, and from a far distant time, and inherited from their predecessors, which is a large quantity; for he must be a very poor and wretched person who does not possess any chains of gold, bracelets and earrings. In the province of Camarines, Paracali, they work some washings and mines where there is good gold upon copper, also in Ylocos, this merchandise is dealt in, because at the edge and back of the province, which is on the edge and coast of the sea, there are some high and craggy mountain ranges, which run as far as Cagayan, on the slopes of which many islanders dwell. These are not yet subdued, nor has any entrance been made amongst them; they are named Ygorrotes. These possess rich mines, many of them gold upon silver. From these they only extract as much as they require for their wants, and they descend with this gold, without completing its refinement, or bringing it to perfection, to trade with the Ylocos in certain places, where they exchange the gold for rice, swine, buffalo, wraps and other things, in which they are deficient; and the Ylocos finish the refining of it and getting it ready, and by their means it is distributed over the whole country.

“And although steps have been taken with these Ygorrotes to discover their mines, and how they work them, and the method they possess for extracting the metal, there has been no means of knowing it, because they are apprehensive of the Spaniards who would go to look them up, for the sake of their gold, and they say they keep it better taken care of in the earth than in their houses.

“In the other islands there is the same plenty of mines and gold washings, especially in the Pintadoes River of Botuan in Mindanao, and in Sulu, where a mine is worked and good gold extracted, named Taribon, and if the industry and labor of the Spaniards were applied to working the gold mines, as much would be extracted from any of these isles as from the other provinces in the rest of the world, but attending to other gains more than to this, as will be said in its place, this was not attempted with design or purpose.”

Lieut. Wilkes, before quoted, having been in charge of government explorations for many years, is certainly an authority. He was in the islands nearly sixty years ago, in the same service, and says of the mines: "There are many valuable mines of gold, lead, copper and iron, besides coal; and the geological formation indicated a large area of these ores and deposits;” and concludes: “With such mineral resources, and a soil capable of producing the most varied vegetation of the tropics, a liberal policy is all the country lacks.”

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MAP SHOWING THE DIFFERENT STEAMSHIP ROUTES BETWEEN SAN FRANCISCO AND MANILA.

THE VOYAGE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO MANILA.

DESCRIPTION of the Philippine Islands would be unsatisfac

tory without reference to what must necessarily be considered in their connection—the trip to the islands. The great distance separating these islands from our Western Coast adds an especial interest to what is already an absorbing subject, in very much the same manner that distance lends enchantment to the view, and the voyage of nearly 17,000 miles from San Francisco to Manila and return is a feature of not the least

importance. It seems appropriate, therefore, that the writer should give a brief description of the trip made for the purpose of obtaining information contained in this book, which, by the way of calling up pleasant memories, becomes a very agreeable task.

After having decided to make the trip the next question to be considered was, which steamship line offered the best inducements to the prospective tourist. It was found, after a careful investigation of the various routes, that the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company's terms and accommodations were the most satisfactory, and passage was secured at their office, No. 421 Market street, San Francisco, on the steamer Gaelic, sailing from San Francisco, December 24, 1898.

The route of travel between San Francisco and Manila is via Honolulu, Yokohama and Hongkong, the latter city being the terminus of this Steamship Company's Line. Connections are made with steamers running between Hongkong and Manila, and through tickets are sold by this company from San Francisco to Manila as follows: First-class cabin passage, one way, $261.00; four months round trip, $397.50; twelve months round trip, $453.75. All passengers holding cabin tickets, who desire to lay over at Honolulu or at any port of call in Japan and China, are at liberty to do so and resume their journey by any steamer of either the Occidental and Oriental, Pacific Mail or the Toyo Kisen Kaisha Steamship Companies.

Families of United States army and naval officials, also missionaries and their families and servants accompanying same, are accorded special rates. . Cabin passengers are allowed to carry 350 pounds of baggage free. The distance between San Francisco and Hongkong via the above-described route is 7579 miles, and it takes twenty-eight days to make the trip. From Hongkong to Manila the distance is 850 miles, which is made in about three and a half days.

One would naturally suppose it would require a good deal of preparation for such a long voyage, but upon inquiring at the steamship company's office you are advised to take no unnecessary baggage, and divest yourself of all non-essentials in wardrobe or personal effects, except such as are necessary for ordinary use. Of course, customs change in the Orient, but your wants can be supplied much

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